A supercomputer is a computer at the frontline of current processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation. Supercomputers were introduced in the 1960s and were designed primarily by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC), and later at Cray Research. While the supercomputers of the 1970s used only a few processors, in the 1990s, machines with thousands of processors began to appear and by the end of the 20th century, massively parallel supercomputers with tens of thousands of “off-the-shelf” processors were the norm.
Systems with a massive number of processors generally take one of two paths: in one approach, e.g. in grid computing the processing power of a large number of computers in distributed, diverse administrative domains, is opportunistically used whenever a computer is available.[4] In another approach, a large number of processors are used in close proximity to each other, e.g. in a computer cluster. The use of multi-core processors combined with centralization is an emerging direction.[5][6] Currently, Japan’s K computer (a cluster) is the fastest in the world.[7]
Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems including quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, molecular modeling (computing the structures and properties of chemical compounds, biological macromolecules, polymers, and crystals), and physical simulations (such as simulation of airplanes in wind tunnels, simulation of the detonation of nuclear weapons, and research into nuclear fusion).

History of supercomputing

A Cray-1 preserved at the Deutsches Museum

The history of supercomputing goes back to the 1960s when a series of computers at Control Data Corporation (CDC) were designed by Seymour Cray to use innovative designs and parallelism to achieve superior computational peak performance. The CDC 6600, released in 1964, is generally considered the first supercomputer.
Cray left CDC in 1972 to form his own company. Four years after leaving CDC, Cray delivered the 80 MHz Cray 1 in 1976, and it became one of the most successful supercomputers in history. The Cray-2 released in 1985 was an 8 processor liquid cooled computer and Fluorinert was pumped through it as it operated. It performed at 1.9 gigaflops and was the world’s fastest until 1990.
While the supercomputers of the 1980s used only a few processors, in the 1990s, machines with thousands of processors began to appear both in the United States and in Japan, setting new computational performance records. Fujitsu’s Numerical Wind Tunnel supercomputer used 166 vector processors to gain the top spot in 1994 with a peak speed of 1.7 gigaflops per processor.[15][16] The Hitachi SR2201 obtained a peak performance of 600 gigaflops in 1996 by using 2048 processors connected via a fast three dimensional crossbar network. The Intel Paragon could have 1000 to 4000 Intel i860 processors in various configurations, and was ranked the fastest in the world in 1993. The Paragon was a MIMD machine which connected processors via a high speed two dimensional mesh, allowing processes to execute on separate nodes; communicating via the Message Passing Interface
Hardware and architecture
Supercomputer architecture and Parallel computer hardware

A Blue Gene/L cabinet showing the stacked blades, each holding many processors

Approaches to supercomputer architecture have taken dramatic turns since the earliest systems were introduced in the 1960s. Early supercomputer architectures pioneered by Seymour Cray relied on compact innovative designs and local parallelism to achieve superior computational peak performance.[8] However, in time the demand for increased computational power ushered in the age of massively parallel systems.
While the supercomputers of the 1970s used only a few processors, in the 1990s, machines with thousands of processors began to appear and by the end of the 20th century, massively parallel supercomputers with tens of thousands of “off-the-shelf” processors were the norm. Supercomputers of the 21st century can use over 100,000 processors (some being graphic units) connected by fast connections.
Throughout the decades, the management of heat density has remained a key issue for most centralized supercomputers. The large amount of heat generated by a system may also have other effects, e.g. reducing the lifetime of other system components. There have been diverse approaches to heat management, from pumping Fluorinert through the system, to a hybrid liquid-air cooling system or air cooling with normal air conditioning temperatures.

The CPU share of TOP500
Systems with a massive number of processors generally take one of two paths: in one approach, e.g. in grid computing the processing power of a large number of computers in distributed, diverse administrative domains, is opportunistically used whenever a computer is available.[4] In another approach, a large number of processors are used in close proximity to each other, e.g. in a computer cluster. In such a centralized massively parallel system the speed and flexibility of the interconnect becomes very important and modern supercomputers have used various approaches ranging from enhanced Infiniband systems to three-dimensional torus interconnects. The use of multi-core processors combined with centralization is an emerging direction, e.g. as in the Cyclops64 system.

As the price/performance of general purpose graphic processors (GPGPUs) has improved, a number of petaflop supercomputers such as Tianhe-I and Nebulae have started to rely on them. However, other systems such as the K computer continue to use conventional processors such as SPARC-based designs and the overall applicability of GPGPUs in general purpose high performance computing applications has been the subject of debate, in that while a GPGPU maybe tuned to score well on specific benchmarks its overall applicability to everyday algorithms may be limited unless significant effort is spent to tune the application towards it.] However, GPUs are gaining ground and in 2012 the Jaguar supercomputer was transformed into Titan by replacing CPUs with GPUs.
A number of “special-purpose” systems have been designed, dedicated to a single problem. This allows the use of specially programmed FPGA chips or even custom VLSI chips, allowing higher price/performance ratios by sacrificing generality. Examples of special-purpose supercomputers include Belle, Deep Blue, and Hydra, for playing chess, Gravity Pipe for astrophysics,] MDGRAPE-3 for protein structure computation molecular dynamics and Deep Crack,] for breaking the DES cipher.
Energy usage and heat management
A typical supercomputer consumes large amounts of electrical power, almost all of which is converted into heat, requiring cooling. For example, Tianhe-1A consumes 4.04 Megawatts of electricity.[39] The cost to power and cool the system can be significant, e.g. 4MW at $0.10/KWh is $400 an hour or about $3.5 million per year.

An IBM HS20 blade
Heat management is a major issue in complex electronic devices, and affects powerful computer systems in various ways. The thermal design power and CPU power dissipation issues in supercomputing surpass those of traditional computer cooling technologies. The supercomputing awards for green computing reflect this issue.
The packing of thousands of processors together inevitably generates significant amounts of heat density that need to be dealt with. The Cray 2 was liquid cooled, and used a Fluorinert “cooling waterfall” which was forced through the modules under pressure.[14] However, the submerged liquid cooling approach was not practical for the multi-cabinet systems based on off-the-shelf processors, and in System X a special cooling system that combined air conditioning with liquid cooling was developed in conjunction with the Liebert company.
In the Blue Gene system IBM deliberately used low power processors to deal with heat density. On the other hand, the IBM Power 775, released in 2011, has closely packed elements that require water cooling. The IBM Aquasar system, on the other hand uses hot water cooling to achieve energy efficiency, the water being used to heat buildings as well.
The energy efficiency of computer systems is generally measured in terms of “FLOPS per Watt”. In 2008 IBM’s Roadrunner operated at 376 MFLOPS/Watt. In November 2010, the Blue Gene/Q reached 1684 MFLOPS/Watt. In June 2011 the top 2 spots on the Green 500 list were occupied by Blue Gene machines in New York (one achieving 2097 MFLOPS/W) with the DEGIMA cluster in Nagasaki placing third with 1375 MFLOPS/W.
Software and system management

The Jaguar XT5 supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Labs
Since the end of the 20th century, supercomputer operating systems have undergone major transformations, as sea changes have taken place in supercomputer architecture. While early operating systems were custom tailored to each supercomputer to gain speed, the trend has been to move away from in-house operating systems to the adaptation of generic software such as Linux.
Given that modern massively parallel supercomputers typically separate computations from other services by using multiple types of nodes, they usually run different operating systems on different nodes, e.g. using a small and efficient lightweight kernel such as CNK or CNL on compute nodes, but a larger system such as a Linux-derivative on server and I/O nodes.

While in a traditional multi-user computer system job scheduling is in effect a tasking problem for processing and peripheral resources, in a massively parallel system, the job management system needs to manage the allocation of both computational and communication resources, as well as gracefully dealing with inevitable hardware failures when tens of thousands of processors are present.
Although most modern supercomputers use the Linux operating system, each manufacturer has made its own specific changes to the Linux-derivative they use, and no industry standard exists, partly due to the fact that the differences in hardware architectures require changes to optimize the operating system to each hardware design.
Software tools
The parallel architectures of supercomputers often dictate the use of special programming techniques to exploit their speed.
In the most common scenario, environments such as PVM and MPI for loosely connected clusters and OpenMP for tightly coordinated shared memory machines are used. Significant effort is required to optimize an algorithm for the interconnect characteristics of the machine it will be run on; the aim is to prevent any of the CPUs from wasting time waiting on data from other nodes. GPGPUs have hundreds of processor cores and are programmed using programming models such as CUDA.
Software tools for distributed processing include standard APIs such as MPI and PVM, VTL, and open source-based software solutions such as Beowulf.
Distributed supercomputing

Example architecture of a grid computing system connecting many personal computers over the internet

Opportunistic Supercomputing is a form of networked grid computing whereby a “super virtual computer” of many loosely coupled volunteer computing machines performs very large computing tasks. Grid computing has been applied to a number of large-scale embarrassingly parallel problems that require supercomputing performance scales. However, basic grid and cloud computing approaches that rely on volunteer computing can not handle traditional supercomputing tasks such as fluid dynamic simulations.
The fastest grid computing system is the distributed computing project Folding@home. F@h reported 8.1 petaflops of x86 processing power as of March 2012. Of this, 5.8 petaflops are contributed by clients running on various GPUs, 1.7 petaflops come from PlayStation 3 systems, and the rest from various CPU systems.
The BOINC platform hosts a number of distributed computing projects. As of May 2011, BOINC recorded a processing power of over 5.5 petaflops through over 480,000 active computers on the network.The most active project (measured by computational power), MilkyWay@home, reports processing power of over 700 teraflops through over 33,000 active computers.[
As of May 2011, GIMPS’s distributed Mersenne Prime search currently achieves about 60 teraflops through over 25,000 registered computers. The Internet PrimeNet Server supports GIMPS’s grid computing approach, one of the earliest and most successful grid computing projects, since 1997.
Quasi-opportunistic approaches
Quasi-opportunistic Supercomputing is a form of distributed computing whereby the “super virtual computer” of a large number of networked geographically disperse computers performs huge processing power demanding computing tasks.Quasi-opportunistic supercomputing aims to provide a higher quality of service than opportunistic grid computing by achieving more control over the assignment of tasks to distributed resources and the use of intelligence about the availability and reliability of individual systems within the supercomputing network. However, quasi-opportunistic distributed execution of demanding parallel computing software in grids should be achieved through implementation of grid-wise allocation agreements, co-allocation subsystems, communication topology-aware allocation mechanisms, fault tolerant message passing libraries and data pre-conditioning.

Performance measurement
Capability vs capacity
Supercomputers generally aim for the maximum in capability computing rather than capacity computing. Capability computing is typically thought of as using the maximum computing power to solve a single large problem in the shortest amount of time. Often a capability system is able to solve a problem of a size or complexity that no other computer can, e.g. a very complex weather simulation application.
Capacity computing in contrast is typically thought of as using efficient cost-effective computing power to solve a small number of somewhat large problems or a large number of small problems, e.g. many user access requests to a database or a web site.
Architectures that lend themselves to supporting many users for routine everyday tasks may have a lot of capacity but are not typically considered supercomputers, given that they do not solve a single very complex problem.
Performance metrics

Top supercomputer speeds: logscale speed over 60 years
In general, the speed of supercomputers is measured and benchmarked in “FLOPS” (FLoating Point Operations Per Second), and not in terms of MIPS, i.e. as “instructions per second”, as is the case with general purpose computers. These measuremens are commonly used with an SI prefix such as tera-, combined into the shorthand “TFLOPS” (1012 FLOPS, pronounced teraflops), or peta-, combined into the shorthand “PFLOPS” (1015 FLOPS, pronounced petaflops.) “Petascale” supercomputers can process one quadrillion (1015) (1000 trillion) FLOPS. Exascale is computing performance in the exaflops range. An exaflop is one quintillion (1018) FLOPS (one million teraflops).

No single number can reflect the overall performance of a computer system, yet the goal of the Linpack benchmark is to approximate how fast the computer solves numerical problems and it is widely used in the industry. The FLOPS measurement is either quoted based on the theoretical floating point performance of a processor (derived from manufacturer’s processor specifications and shown as “Rpeak” in the TOP500 lists) which is generally unachievable when running real workloads, or the achievable throughput, derived from the LINPACK benchmarks and shown as “Rmax” in the TOP500 list. The LINPACK benchmark typically performs LU decomposition of a large matrix. The LINPACK performance gives some indication of performance for some real-world problems, but does not necessarily match the processing requirements of many other supercomputer workloads, which for example may require more memory bandwidth, or may require better integer computing performance, or may need a high performance I/O system to achieve high levels of performance.
The TOP500 list

14 countries account for the vast majority of the world’s 500 fastest supercomputers, with over half being located in the United States.
Since 1993, the fastest supercomputers have been ranked on the TOP500 list according to their LINPACK benchmark results. The list does not claim to be unbiased or definitive, but it is a widely cited current definition of the “fastest” supercomputer available at any given time.
This is a recent list of the computers which appeared at the top of the Top500 list, and the “Peak speed” is given as the “Rmax” rating.

Year Supercomputer Peak speed
2008 IBM Roadrunner
1.026 PFLOPS New Mexico, USA

1.105 PFLOPS
2009 Cray Jaguar
1.759 PFLOPS Oak Ridge, USA

2010 Tianhe-IA
2.566 PFLOPS Tianjin, China

2011 Fujitsu K computer
10.51 PFLOPS Kobe, Japan

The K computer is the worlds fastest supercomputer at 10.51 petaflops. It consists of 88,000 SPARC64 VIIIfx CPUs, and spans 864 server racks. In November 2011, the power consumption was reported to be 12659.89 kW. The operating costs for the system are about $10M per year.
Applications of supercomputers
The stages of supercomputer application may be summarized in the following table:
Decade Uses and computer involved
1970s Weather forecasting, aerodynamic research (Cray-1).

1980s Probabilistic analysis,[72] radiation shielding modeling. (CDC Cyber).

1990s Brute force code breaking (EFF DES cracker),
3D nuclear test simulations as a substitute for legal conduct Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (ASCI Q).

2010s Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Tianhe-1A)

HPCC (High-Performance Computing Cluster)

HPCC (High-Performance Computing Cluster), also known as DAS (Data Analytics Supercomputer), is a Data Intensive Computing system platform developed by LexisNexis Risk Solutions. The HPCC platform incorporates a software architecture implemented on commodity computing clusters to provide high-performance, data-parallel processing for applications utilizing Big Data. The HPCC platform includes system configurations to support both parallel batch data processing (Thor) and high-performance online query applications using indexed data files (Roxie). The HPCC platform also includes a data-centric declarative programming language for parallel data processing called ECL.
Many organizations have large amounts of data which has been collected and stored in massive datasets which needs be processed and analyzed to provide business intelligence, improve products and services for customers, or to meet other internal data processing requirements.[1] For example, Internet companies need to process data collected by Web crawlers as well as logs, click data, and other information generated by Web services. Parallel relational database technology has not proven to be cost-effective or provide the high-performance needed to analyze massive amounts of data in a timely manner.[2][3][4] As a result several organizations developed technology to utilize large clusters of commodity servers to provide high-performance computing capabilities for processing and analysis of massive datasets. Clusters can consist of hundreds or even thousands of commodity machines connected using high-bandwidth networks. Examples of this type of cluster technology include Google’s MapReduce,[5] Apache Hadoop,[6][7] Aster Data Systems, Sector/Sphere,[8] and LexisNexis HPCC platform.
High Performance Computing
High-Performance Computing (HPC) is used to describe computing environments which utilize supercomputers and computer clusters to address complex computational requirements, support applications with significant processing time requirements, or require processing of significant amounts of data. Supercomputers have generally been associated with scientific research and compute-intensive types of problems, but more and more supercomputer technology is appropriate for both compute-intensive and data-intensive applications. A new trend in supercomputer design for high-performance computing is using clusters of independent processors connected in parallel.[9] Many computing problems are suitable for parallelization, often problems can be divided in a manner so that each independent processing node can work on a portion of the problem in parallel by simply dividing the data to be processed, and then combining the final processing results for each portion. This type of parallelism is often referred to as data-parallelism, and data-parallel applications are a potential solution to petabyte scale data processing requirements.[10][11] Data-parallelism can be defined as a computation applied independently to each data item of a set of data which allows the degree of parallelism to be scaled with the volume of data. The most important reason for developing data-parallel applications is the potential for scalable performance in high-performance computing, and may result in several orders of magnitude performance improvement.

Commodity Computing Clusters

Commodity Computing Cluster
The resulting economies of scale in using multiple independent processing nodes for supercomputer design to address high-performance computing requirements led directly to the implementation of commodity computing clusters. A computer cluster is a group of shared individual computers, linked by high-speed communications in a local area network topology using technology such as gigabit network switches or InfiniBand, and incorporating system software which provides an integrated parallel processing environment for applications with the capability to divide processing among the nodes in the cluster. Cluster configurations can not only improve the performance of applications which use a single computer, but provide higher availability and reliability, and are typically much more cost-effective than single supercomputer systems with equivalent performance. The key to the capability, performance, and throughput of a computing cluster is the system software and tools used to provide the parallel job execution environment. Programming languages with implicit parallel processing features and a high-degree of optimization are also needed to ensure high-performance results as well as high programmer productivity. Clusters allow the data used by an application to be partitioned among the available computing resources and processed independently to achieve performance and scalability based on the amount of data.
Commodity computing clusters are configured using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) PC components. Rack-mounted servers or blade servers each with local memory and disk storage are often used as processing nodes to allow high-density small footprint configurations which facilitate the use of very high-speed communications equipment to connect the nodes (Figure 1). Linux is widely used as the operating system for computer clusters.

HPCC System Architecture

Thor Processing Cluster.
The HPCC system architecture includes two distinct cluster processing environments, each of which can be optimized independently for its parallel data processing purpose. The first of these platforms is called a Data Refinery whose overall purpose is the general processing of massive volumes of raw data of any type for any purpose but typically used for data cleansing and hygiene, ETL processing of the raw data, record linking and entity resolution, large-scale ad-hoc complex analytics, and creation of keyed data and indexes to support high-performance structured queries and data warehouse applications. The Data Refinery is also referred to as Thor, a reference to the mythical Norse god of thunder with the large hammer symbolic of crushing large amounts of raw data into useful information. A Thor cluster is similar in its function, execution environment, filesystem, and capabilities to the Google and Hadoop MapReduce platforms.
Figure 2 shows a representation of a physical Thor processing cluster which functions as a batch job execution engine for scalable data-intensive computing applications. In addition to the Thor master and slave nodes, additional auxiliary and common components are needed to implement a complete HPCC processing environment.

Roxie Processing Cluster.
The second of the parallel data processing platforms is called Roxie and functions as a rapid data delivery engine. This platform is designed as an online high-performance structured query and analysis platform or data warehouse delivering the parallel data access processing requirements of online applications through Web services interfaces supporting thousands of simultaneous queries and users with sub-second response times. Roxie utilizes a distributed indexed filesystem to provide parallel processing of queries using an optimized execution environment and filesystem for high-performance online processing. A Roxie cluster is similar in its function and capabilities to Hadoop with HBase and Hive capabilities added, and provides for near real time predictable query latencies. Both Thor and Roxie clusters utilize the ECL programming language for implementing applications, increasing continuity and programmer productivity.
Figure 3 shows a representation of a physical Roxie processing cluster which functions as a online query execution engine for high-performance query and data warehousing applications. A Roxie cluster includes multiple nodes with server and worker processes for processing queries; an additional auxiliary component called an ESP server which provides interfaces for external client access to the cluster; and additional common components which are shared with a Thor cluster in an HPCC environment. Although a Thor processing cluster can be implemented and used without a Roxie cluster, an HPCC environment which includes a Roxie cluster should also include a Thor cluster. The Thor cluster is used to build the distributed index files used by the Roxie cluster and to develop online queries which will be deployed with the index files to the Roxie cluster.
HPCC Software Architecture
The HPCC software architecture incorporates the Thor and Roxie clusters as well as common Middleware components, an external communications layer, client interfaces which provide both end-user services and system management tools, and auxiliary components to support monitoring and to facilitate loading and storing of filesystem data from external sources.

An HPCC environment can include only Thor clusters, or both Thor and Roxie clusters. The overall HPCC software architecture is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. HPCC Software Architecture


The Power of Networking
One great strength shared by successful ClickBank vendors is their ability to network. Vendors need to be able to entice lots of affiliates to promote their products to thousands of people in order to build a large list of customers.
Some people think they can simply launch a product on ClickBank and sit back and watch money fly out of their computer. That may have happened to a few people, however, it is more realistic to expect that you’ll have to build strategic alliances to increase the reach of the product or service you want to sell. This is where networking comes in.
Here are my top tips for networking and building a strong foundation before a launch:
1. Know your product or service. To start, you should write down a one-line sentence describing your product that would be easily understandable by any person you meet. For example, “A coaching programme for people who want to start a business.”
It’s also important to project product sales so you can work toward that goal. Many people write down a figure that represents the amount they want to earn in a tax year – $50,000, $100,000, $250,000 – and the number of paying customers they need to obtain to reach that figure. For instance if your product is $50 you’ll need 1,000 customers to hit your target of $50,000 in a year (plus there will be expenses on that figure to account for).
2. Build your credibility online. Find five websites in the same niche as yours. Slowly get more involved with those sites, become a regular reader and commenter and offer to write a guest post for their site. This will generate a link back to your site and help build your credibility online.
3. Determine social network targets. I’ve set a target for myself to achieve 10,000 connections on the three major social sites:
* 10,000 Twitter Followers
* 10,000 Facebook Likes
* 10,000 YouTube Friends
Your figure could be lower but it’s something to aim for before you launch your product or service. As a rule, if you plan to promote your product through social networking channels, you’ll need to get your social figures high since most people are so distracted online that only a small percentage will read and click on your links.
4. Email the experts. Make sure you have an email process in place to do so. You’ll need a plan for writing to the well-known bloggers and site owners. Keep these emails to a few lines, show enthusiasm and be as helpful as possible. You’ll be amazed by what help, advice and opportunities you might get back from the “Internet celebs.”
5. Attend industry events. Determine which relevant events are taking place over the next 12 months and make a point of going to five events. Spreading these dates out will ensure that you have a constant flow of emails to and from new contacts and opportunities from a variety of sources. Additionally, the contacts you make in “real life” can be more powerful than online.
Networking is a continual process and is a huge part of business. Scheduling networking time into your calendar is just as important as scheduling time for product or service creation, if not more!


Four Solid Bits of Advice to Help You Succeed in Internet Marketing
Advice #1: Find a Mentor
Whether in business, self-development or Internet marketing, growth can be rapidly moved forward by finding a mentor. Mentoring helps you develop at a faster rate, helping you learn faster, develop skills more adeptly and avoid making the same mistakes over and over again. A mentor, like a good teacher, will help you understand exactly what you need to learn, how to learn it and the best time for you to execute the knowledge.
I seek mentors in my life because I know it’s the fastest way to learn. Not only has mentoring helped me to get to where I am today in Internet marketing, but it also continues to be very important to me in other areas of my life. By having a mentor for each important aspect of my self-development, I learn faster and succeed faster. Since starting out on my own journey as an Internet marketer I myself have become a mentor to others. It has truly been a pleasure watching those I have helped grow from online newbie to successful online entrepreneur.
Advice #2: Don’t Work on too Many Projects at Once by Yourself
A huge mistake beginners make is thinking they need to do everything alone. Focus your energy on the most vital areas of your business; the areas that encourage growth and will help you reach your goals faster. If you work on too many projects at once you will find your progress is slow and hindered by many barriers. You can’t be an expert in every discipline, so outsource work where you can. Set aside a budget for delegating work to third parties that prevent you from paying attention to more important areas of your business. Taking on more and more work yourself will see you bogged down unnecessarily in tasks that will significantly slow your progress. Outsourcing will also allow you to have more valuable time away from your computer.
Advice #3: Utilize Free Resources
When a person first decides to get involved with Internet marketing, he or she will be exposed to numerous different online money making products. These products appear as very attractive prospects, and it isn’t uncommon for people to get excited and buy into multiple products in a short space of time. The truth is, almost every marketing method you will read about is potentially a profitable one, but mastering one takes considerable time. Don’t splash out on multiple expensive products. Instead, choose one or two referred to you by your mentor(s). Learn them and utilize them to their full potential before moving onto another area.
In addition to this, make use of as much free information as you can. There is a huge amount of great reference material online that can be found in books, eBooks, video and on blogs. It is often difficult to sift through conflicting information and ideas online, but again, ask your mentor and trusted associates for help in directing you toward informative blogs, forums and other reliable free resources.
Advice #4 Maintain Persistence
You never know when the breakthrough will come, it could be next week, it might even be tomorrow, or it could take six more months. If things are getting on top of you then take a step back from your business and re-think your strategy. Ask yourself, “Am I focusing my energy, time and investment on areas conducive to leading me to my goal?” “Are there things I am avoiding, ignoring or only doing half heartedly that could better position me for success?”
Your success in business is dependent on your mental attitude, your strategy and your devotion to learning and developing yourself on a daily basis. Commit to your goal of becoming a successful Internet marketer and be persistent in your endeavours. Take these words of advice into consideration and go for it. I hope that they help you to become successful in your online venture

NAIRABET-valentine uwakwe

Put your money where your mouth is… Customer Forum

Welcome to NairaBET. Nigeria’s first Internet based sports bookmaker.
Here on NairaBET, all you need to do to win money is to determine the outcome of a particular match or a series of matches. You don’t need to predict the exact scoreline. All you need to predict is one team will beat the other or maybe it will end in a draw.
It’s that easy.
We are the ones that determine the amount you can win from a particlular match. The price per match will be determined by how hard it is. The easier the match, the lesser the potential returns. The harder the match, the higher the potential outcome.
Assuming Manchester United wants to play Wigan Athletic at Old Trafford, we all know there is a very high likelihood that Manchester United would win. Isn’t it?
The money you are expected to win if you say Manchester United will beat Wigan will be very small. In fact, very very small. On the other hand, if you say Wigan will beat Manchester United, then the expected monetary returns would be high. It will be high as well if you say it will end in a draw.
Are you getting the picture?
Each football match has its own price. It’s called odds. Have you ever heard statements like “Bookmakers have said Chelsea to win the league at 6/4”? That 6/4 is the money tag on Chelsea to win the title. Don’t worry. I will explain more.
Using the Manchester United and Wigan example I gave above, a bookmaker can say his price/odds for the match is 1.2. This means that whatever you bet with will be multiplied by 1.2. Is it making sense now?
Predict that Wigan will beat Manchester United, the odds could be 14.2. That means that whatever you bet with will be multiplied by 14.2. Let’s still use the Manchester United and Wigan example.
So if you want to bet on it, what would you do? Manchester United to win at 1.2? If you put N1,000 on that, you will get just N1,200 in return. That is just N200 gain. Or will you back Wigan to win at 14.2? You only need to put in N1,000 to win N14,200. But will Wigan beat Manchester United?
That is where your football mind and knowledge is needed.
If 1.2 sounds small to you, there is something you can do to increase your potential returns. It’s called accumulators. Let me explain what that is. Let us assume that this weekend, these are the matches that will be played.
Man Utd V Wigan
Chelsea V West Brom
Arsenal V Sunderland
If the odds for Man Utd to win is 1.2 and Chelsea to win is also 1.2 and Arsenal to win is 1.4. What you can do is to combine these matches and say that Man Utd, Chelsea and Arsenal will win so your returns will be 1.2 multiplied by 1.2 multiplied by 1.4.

NairaBet Rules
1. Odds and Types of Bets
The house will make available sports events and the odds per outcome of as many sports events as possible. For example, if Arsenal is playing at home to Chelsea, we can offer Arsenal to win at 2.5, a draw at 3.0 and Chelsea to win at 2.2.
What this means is that whatever amount you stake on any of the outcomes will be multiplied by the odds. Using the above example, if you stake N1,000 on Arsenal to win, your total returns will be N2,500. That is a gain of N1,500. Please note that they do not have to predict the scoreline. The home team will be listed as 1, the away as 2 and a draw as X.
2. Accumulators
The player can accumulate events for higher returns. What this means is that if we offer Arsenal to beat Chelsea at 2.5 for the first match and we offer Manchester United to beat Liverpool at 2.0 in another match, the player can combine the two matches.
If he backs Arsenal and Manchester United, his odds will be multiplied. In this case, his odds become 2.5 multiplied by 2.0 which gives us 5.0. So if a customer stakes N1,000 his expected returns will be N5,000. The danger here is that if he loses one of the matches, the entire accumulator is lost. There is no limit to the number of matches a customer can accumulate.
3. Odds Change
The house can decide to change the odds of an event without notice. However, if a player had staked before the change, his return will be based on the old odds.
4. Match Cancellation
When a match is cancelled or postponed, the odds of that particular match turns to 1. For example, if a player stakes on a match with N1,000 he gets his N1,000 in return. For accumulators, the other matches are calculated and winnings paid.
An event is considered to be cancelled, if it was interrupted, and was not finished within 24 hours, and if no less than corresponding time was already played: football – not less than 70% of regular time.
The exception of this rule is equal score in matches, where there the draw is not possible (basketball, baseball, american football, etc.) In such cases the event is considered to be cancelled.
All event dates and times published by us are tentative. An incorrect event date, time or additional information is not a basis for bet cancelling. If an event is moved forward by less than 3 days, we have a right to cancel such bets or leave them valid, and if an event is moved forward by 3 days or more, all bets are returned.
5. Duration
Bets on football are valid for 90 minutes and injury time only. Extra time and penalties do not count.
6. Rights
We have the right not to accept bets from the client, who does not agree to our rules.
Only customers that are 18 years old and above can stake with us. When we have doubts about a customer’s age, we will demand for a proof of age.
7. Minimum and Maximum Stakes & Winnings
We have not yet set any minimum for stakes. Maximum winnings shall be N1,000,000. This means all winnings above N1,000,000 will be rounded down to N1,000,000
8. Bet Validity
Bets are accepted until the kick-off time is advertised. If a bet is accepted for a match after its kick-off time, the bet will be considered to be void. The exclusion of this rule should be made for “live betting”, when one makes bets after the match starts is possible. Live events bets are considered to be valid if they were made before the end of the match.
All bets placed are final. Customers cannot cancel their stakes after submitting their bets.
9. Withdrawals
Withdrawals take two working days. That means if you place a withdrawal request on a working Monday, you are expected to receive it by Wednesday. If you place it on a Friday, you are expected to receive it on Tueday.
The maximum amount you can withdraw at a time is Five Hundred Thousand Naira
Please note that the name you registered with on NairaBET must correspond with the name of the bank account you are withdrawing into.
Lastly in an effort to keep offering free withdrawals, you can only place withdrawals once a week.


NairaBET wants visitors to its website to know that we are just as concerned as you are about the privacy of any personal information that you may choose to provide us (“Personal Information”). In this respect we have invested heavily in providing a world class Information Security Management System.
Personal Information is any information about you and may include your name and address, date of birth, payment card details, details of betting transactions and account transfers and any other information you may wish to provide. NairaBET is endeavouring to ensure that our business practices that involve the use of your Personal Information are compliant with privacy regulations in our country. Accordingly, in this policy document (the Privacy Policy), NairaBET wants not only to advise you of your privacy rights but also explain how we intend to respect them.
How is your Personal Information collected by our website?
Personal Information may be submitted on our website in two areas:
Public Area
If you do provide your name and address on the public area of this website in order to request information about our products and services, you may voluntarily provide additional personal information. You will be asked to provide your personal information in this area for the purposes of registering with Betfair and opening an account with us.
Private Area
If you are already one of our customers and have opened an account with us, you must use a password to enter the NairaBET website.
A “session cookie” is used to enable you to leave and re-enter our website without re-entering your password. Our web server will record the pages you visit within our website.
To ensure a good quality of service we may monitor and record any communication you have with us whether in writing, by phone or by electronic mail. E-mail is not encrypted to/from either the public or private areas of this website. NairaBET recommends that with the exception of your name and username you do not send us Personal Information by e-mail. Any information which you transmit to us is transmitted at your own risk.
How we use Cookies on our Site and what Information we collect
For information about cookies please refer to
Session Cookies
We use session cookies for the following purposes:
To allow you to carry information across pages of our site and avoid having to re-enter information.
Within registration to allow you to access stored information.
Persistent Cookies
We use persistent cookies for the following purposes:
To help us recognise you as a unique visitor when you return to our website and to allow us to tailor content or promotions to match your preferred interests or to avoid showing you the same adverts repeatedly.
To compile anonymous, aggregated statistics that allow us to understand how people use our site and to help us improve the structure of our website.
To internally identify you by account name, name, email address, customer ID, currency and location (geographic and computer ID/IP address)
To differentiate users who are on the same network to enable us to correctly allocate bets to the appropriate account. Within research surveys to ensure you are not invited to complete a questionnaire too often or after you have already done so.
Third Party Cookies
Third parties serve cookies via this site. These are used for the following purposes:
To serve promotions on our site and track whether these promotions are clicked on by users.
To control how often you are shown a particular promotion.
To tailor content to your preferences.
To count the number of anonymous users of our site.
For website usage analysis
Use of Web Beacons.
Some of our Web pages may contain electronic images known as Web beacons (sometimes known as clear gifs) that allow us to count users who have visited these pages. Web beacons collect only limited information which includes a cookie number, time and date of a page view, and a description of the page on which the Web beacon resides. We may also carry web beacons placed by third party advertisers. These beacons do not carry any personally identifiable information and are only used to track the effectiveness of a particular campaign.
Disabling/Enabling Cookies.
You have the ability to accept or decline cookies by modifying the settings in your browser. However, you may not be able to use all the interactive features of our site if cookies are disabled.
To find out how to enable/disable cookies see
How your Personal Information will be used?
NairaBET will process your Personal Information in order to allow you access and make use of our website, to allow you to participate in the services offered, to administer your account, to maintain our accounts and records, to monitor website usage levels and the quality of the service we provide and to inform you, from time to time, about products and services that we consider may interest you and for related purposes. If you do not wish to receive future marketing, promotional or sales material from NairaBET, you may notify us that no further material be sent to you. Our contact details are located in the ‘Contact Us’ page of our website. NairaBET will as soon as reasonably practicable after receiving your request, remove your contact details from our marketing database.
NairaBET will also retain such information and may analyse it if asked to do so in order to investigate any actual or suspected criminal activity or, in respect of any event featured on our website, any threat to the integrity of that event and/or breaches of the rules of that event as laid down by the relevant governing (including sporting) bodies. All rights in the manner of recording your Personal Information held by NairaBET (including copyright and database rights) are and shall remain its property.
Telephone calls and betting data relating to users will be recorded and may be actively monitored for which purposes all users hereby consent.
To whom and where personal information may be disclosed?
Your Personal Information may, for the purposes described above, be transferred or disclosed to any company within the Group or, subject to appropriate agreement to third parties, for the processing of that Personal Information on our behalf. The Group may, from time to time, retain third parties to process your Personal Information for the purposes listed above and such processing will be governed by a contract in the form required by law.
Where required by law, your Personal Information may also be disclosed to an applicable governmental, regulatory, sporting or enforcement authority. Additionally, your Personal Information may be disclosed to any regulatory or sporting body in connection with policing the integrity or enforcing the rules of a sport or game and/or prevention and detection of crime and with whom the Group has agreements (Memoranda of Understanding or MOUs) from time to time for the sharing of such data and where the Group considers that there are reasonable grounds to suspect that you may be involved in a breach of such rules or the law, have knowledge of a breach of such rules or the law or otherwise pose a threat to the integrity of the relevant sport or game. Those bodies may then use your Personal Information to investigate and act on any such breaches in accordance with their procedures.
By providing your Personal Information and registering with us or logging on with us when you enter our website, you explicitly consent to the Group processing and disclosing your Personal Information for the purposes, and otherwise in the manner, set out in this policy, or as otherwise provided in accordance with the Terms and Conditions. If you wish to qualify, vary, modify or limit your consent in relation to marketing communications or in circumstances where any processing of your data is likely to cause damage or distress or such other circumstances as the law allows then you may do so by notifying us in writing. Our contact details are located in the ‘Contact Us’ page of our website.
NairaBET reserves the right to change the Privacy Policy including altering the purposes for which it processes your Personal Information. In the event that Betfair considers it appropriate to make any such change, the Privacy Policy will be updated and posted on our site. Your continued use of the site will constitute acceptance of those changes.
For full details about Group members, where they operate, or for a copy of your Personal Information or any other queries you may have about our Privacy Policy, please contact us. Again, our contact details are located in the ‘Contact Us’ page of our website.
Here are the answers to the most asked questions about NairaBET
What Is NairaBET All About? is Nigeria’s first Internet based football bookmakers. If you are
hearing about the term bookmakers (bookies for short) for the first time, they are
organizations or a person that takes bets and pays winnings depending upon
It’s all about trading on the results of football matches. There IS ALWAYS
money to be won on ALL the outcome of football matches. You don’t even
have to predict the exact scoreline. Just a home win, draw or away win
will do.
Each match and outcome have their own prices (called odds). You will have
a relatively small money to be won if you bet on a BIG team to beat a small
team but there will be high returns if you back the smaller teams to win or
to draw.
How Can I Start?
Visit and sign up for free. You can then fund your
account in Naira according to the instructions in the members area. Credit
your account with the amount you paid. You can start betting immediately.
How Will I Get My Money If I Win?
Simple. There is a place in the members area where you will submit your
bank details. Anytime you feel like withdrawing from your balance, just click
on “Withdrawal Request” and enter the amount.
The admin will approve and your money will be deposited into your account
in less than 2 working days.
I Have Registered At NairaBET. How Do I Place My Bet?
After registration, your balance will read zero point zero. That means
you have to fund your account with some money.
What Is The Minimum Amount I Can Deposit?
As I type this, we have not set a minimum or maximum amount so you
can deposit as you like.
What Is The Maximum Amount I Can Win?
The maximum payout on bet wins, is restricted to One Million Naira Only.
Bet wins exceeding this amount would be cut down to One Million Naira limit.
What Is The Minimum Amount I Can Withdraw?
The minimum amount you can withdraw is N1,000
What Is The Maximum Amount I Can Withdraw?
You can withdraw to a limit of Five Hundred Thousand Naira at a time. You
have to wait for one more week to place another withdrawal request.
What Is The Meaning Of 1, X and 2?
The teams listed first is 1, the second listed is 2 and draw
is X.
Let me give an example.
1 X 2
Barcelona V Man Utd 2.2 3.0 2.2
This means the price on Barcelona to win (first team listed first) is 2.2
Man Utd to win (second team to be listed) is also 2.2
A draw is priced at 3.0
I Have Funded My Account. How Do I Place Bets?
After your account is funded, log into your account and start
staking. If you want to choose just a single match, click on
Add To Slip beside it.
Wait for the page to reload and you will see at the top right
hand side that says “You have 1 match(es) in your Bet pool”
If you want to add more matches like I explained yesterday, click
on Add To Slip and wait for the page to reload.
Please note that the matches listed when you log in are the
next few matches coming up that day. Take a look at the left
hand side and you will see a list of countries and competitions.
If you want to stake on the English Premiership for instance,
take a look at United Kingdom. If you want to stake on the UEFA
Champions League, choose International Clubs and so on.
My point is, the matches listed when you log in are not the
only matches available.
When you have chosen your matches, you can then click on “Proceed
To Bet”. Wait for the page to reload and it will list the matches
you chose.
Its time for you to choose maybe 1 or X or 2. If it is an
accumulator, remember to check the boxes on the right hand side.
You then Place Bet. It will take you to a page where it
summarizes your bets and what you are going to win. You then
click Enter Bet.
That is that.
If you win, your account will be credited within 10 to 15
I Have Deposited Money But I Want To Withdraw It Back
You cannot withdraw money from your account unless you turn it
round by placing bets. You just cant depost and withdraw. You
deposit, bet and then withdraw.
What Is The Meaning Of Accumulator?
Accumulator means adding matches for potential higher returns.
For example if Man Utd to beat Chelsea is priced at 2.0 and Everton
to beat Arsenal is priced at 3.0, you can add (accumulate) the 2
matches. Your potential returns will be 2.0 time 3.0 which is 6.
The downside is that once one result goes wrong, your accumulator
goes wrong.
I Can See A Referall Code In My Account. What Does It Mean?
The referall program has been suspended indefinitely.
Can I own or operate more than one account?
No. Each member is entitled to just one account. If at any point we find
out that any one individual is operating or has access to more than one account,
we reserve the right to close such related accounts without notice.
As at today, YES but very soon, there will be other offers like first goal scorer, over, under, double chance etc.
If you have any question, call the customer service line on 08163606210. 10AM To 4PM Mondays To Fridays.
If you will like to run minds with thousands of other members, then go to the Customer Service forum at
PS: More Questions And Answers Are Being Added Regularly!
Contact Us
We appreciate the fact that you might have a question, query or issue with NairaBet. To this extent, we have created a customer
service forum.
Right there on the forum, you can ask any question you want to and you can also read the questions of other users that might be of help to you. You can even get match predictions there.
Web Forum:
Our Customer Service advisors are always ready to attend to your needs.
Telephone: 08163606210. 10 AM To 4 PM Monday To Friday
Follow us on Twitter: @NairaBET
Join us on Facebook:
NB; Nairabet recently launch its; newest website where a whole lot of opportunities in terms of betting can be found. why not rush in and join the excitement.


DEFINTION OF COMPUTER; computer is an electronic machine that is capable of accepting data (as input-processing the data and as output-producing information).

DATA can be considered as a computer raw material. The raw material may be such things as students, exam records, etc.

1. Digital computer
2. Analog computer

DIGITAL COMPUTER; this is the type of computer that is use in mathematical calculations and data processing.

ANALOG COMPUTER; this is the type of computer that measures physical magnitudes such as temperature, e.g speedometer. It is also use for scientific and engineering purposes.

1. IMPUT CONTROL UNIT; these are devices through which information to be processed is present to the computer.

2. OUTPUT CONTROL UNIT; these transform processed information from its internal form into ordinary form. E.g. Printer, speaker and digital-to-analog converters.
3.SYSTEM U NIT; these made up the CPU which is further divided into three main parts- control unit, logic unit and the main storage unit.

4. AUXILLIARY STORAGE UNIT; they are responsible for storage of data and process information. E.g hard disk magnetic tape, etc

1. FLOPPY DISK; this is an internal device mounted into an open drive bay of the system case
2. COMPACT DISK (C.D); this is the removable storage facilities that has the large storage capacity. It has read-only and read/write, read.write C.D which are very expensive than read-only C.D.
3. FLASH DRIVE; it is use through the use of USB

WWW.ONLINE TUTORING & LEARNING tutoring & learning is a process by which an individual is being interacted with computer and at the same time instructed or directed by computer also. Accordingly tutoring & learning is said to be personalized instruction in our centers, sylvan also offers live online tutoring for students. Also brainfuse online learning & tutoring is the complete learning system in which unique set of service designed to support wide range of learning by needing expert tutoring, self-study and collaborative learning.


1. It allowed individuals to find out fast by themselves through interaction with the computer.
2. Online instructors are highly trained and state certified
3. Online tutoring allow students to ask question and get instant answer
4. Online tutoring capture the student attention
5. It make student to be creative within themselves.


1. Now tutoring session can be set up at any hour that is convinent for the student and the tutor.
2. Online tutoring makes it easy for students to be running a tutoring session at the same time and it will be somewhere else.
3. Online tutoring session are also typically secure programs and also encourages parental contact with the students
4. It allow communication to be a face-to-face interaction
5. It help students to be computeralised and electronic oriented, and also make students to retain more information.

With the use of online tutoring, students can be able to learn individually in order to access the student capacity of knowledge of a particular child. Online tutoring is very necessary in the process of tutor learning because it makes students to be creative with the use of online materials. Thus, with the use of online tutoring, it makes the learning environment more condusive to the learner.


www. Learn


My name is UWAKWE FLORENCE, am a final year student of the faculty of educational management, department of political sciences. I hail from Imo state, Nigeria. Am 25years old. I am the 6th child and the 2nd daughter out of 10 children. My parent died in 1999 and 2002 respectively. My family background and foundation are very poor, to the extent that all my siblings dropped out from their schools due to financial difficulties. I am the only one striving to be educated with the motive that after my graduation and a better job I will sponsor and train my younger siblings. As a result of this, I have enroll in all kinds of petty little jobs since my entry into school in order to meet up to my school fees demands. But presently I do engage in hawking (trading of fairly used clothes) on the streets after my school hours.
I choose to read education/political science in order to become useful in life but the following reasons also attributed my desires;
1. I want to be a teacher. When my mother was alive, she used to tell me that a teacher is a role model, an ambassador, guidance and councilor, a psychologist, a mother or a father of all nations. She also told me that education is the mother of all faculties. So as a child hearing all this from my mother, I was moved and so picked so much interest in education.
2. I want to belong to the class of political scientists in any society I found myself especially here in Nigeria by contributing positively to its political development. I don’t like speculations, I like to be sure of what I hear, say or see on political, social and economic inputs of any society.
I want to be a beneficiary of the scholarship in order to meet up to the growing demands of my final years educational cost. During my pre-degree and fresher degree 100 level programmes in 2008 and 2009 respectively I passed through hell in order to pay those years’ school fees. Even from my 200level till date I have not been able to pay my school fees. if I could still hold on during my primary and secondary school days and not drop out from school, then why now. it would really hunt me and break my heart if I may drop out from school due to inability to pay my school fees at this final stage of my schooling in the university of portharcourt.with my present stance as an undergraduate, I have raise the hopes of my siblings and younger ones, I don’t want to fail them. Please consider me favorable to be awarded this scholarship as it would go along way to touch the lives of others after me who now look on to me a sign that one day and through my help to them they will all go to school. May God continue to bless wells mountain foundations.



Actually within educational and philosophical institutional framework, the concept of equality cannot be given one for all definition because of its controversial nature and the reason is that no two persons can be the same. Nevertheless, the concept of equality can be defined in the following perspective
1. Mathematical equality
2. Legal equality
3. Social equality
4. Universals equality
5. Natural equality
6. Metaphysical equality
7. Equality as a distributive justice

1.MATHEMATICAL EQUALITY; this is referred to a state of sameness in every possible details depicting identicalness in equality, quantity, nature, status, ability, etc. the mathematical equation 2+2 = 4 depicts the situation where the sum total of the figures on the right is perfectly the same total as that on the left of the equation.

2. LEGAL EQUALITY; this referred to the provision whereby every citizen whether high or low in the society is treated as equal before the law of the state. No one or person is above the land.

3.SOCIAL EQUALITY; this implies that everybody in the society should be treated fairly, infact the individual here should receive from the society as much as will be adequately to make him developed a feeling of belonging to that society.

4. UNIVERSAL PROCEDURAL EQUALITY; this is a principle which states that “all men ought to be considered equally”. This is more like a principle of procedure, not necessarily one which says that all men like characteristics need to be treated alike. But that all men ought to be treated equally despite their differences. Until a case is made for justifying that same particular differences between them would warrant their being treated differently. This can also be referred to as equally as impartiality. This impartiality required discrimination for good reason because men should be treated differently if there are relevant grounds for treating them.

5. NATURAL EQUALITY; this referred to the fact that all men are rational being which have the same basic needs and psychological devices. All men are subject to the same natural laws and so all should enjoy the same natural rights. According to Emmanuel Kant, all human being must be treated as ends not merely as means to an end. This is because all men are equally legislating members of the kingdom of end.

6. METAPHYSICAL EQUALITY; the biblical story of creation makes all men children of God. (Galatians 3: 26-29) says “ye are one with Christ”. Perhaps it is a metaphysical basis that universal declaration of human rights (UN General Assembly 1948) declares that “all human being are born free and equal to dignity and right.

7. EQUAITY AS DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE; this is equality considered along the line of Aristotle’s principle of distributive justice. This recommends that equals should be treated equally and unequal unequally. Its position is that justice demand that for every difference is the way men are treated a relevant reason should be given. Who determines what relevant reason is?

The concept of opportunity and right will be briefly examined so as to enable us have a better insight into the phrase of equality of educational opportunity. First opportunity means a chance or privilege. Infact, it is a condition which someone else execute rather than something which one is entitle, while right has to do with what a person is entitle to and what create obligations on the right. A right could either be natural or legal, that is created by law. Thus while a right is an entitlement, an opportunity is more of a privilege. In this respect, the right to education is quite different from an opportunity to have education.
Therefore equality of educational opportunity in Nigeria will be treated or discuss under three subtitles namely;
A. equality of educational opportunities as equal right to education.
B. equality of educational opportunity as right to equal education.
C. equality of educational opportunity as an access to education.

1. EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY AS EQUAL RIGHT TO EDUCATION; it is possible for every citizens in a state to have equal right is education? The answer is simply no. the reason is that the concept of equality itself is very fluid and seems unattainable. How then can equality in education be achievable? That is, if already the society is one with class system (inequality in social status). It follows logically that not all children within the society can have equal right to education.

2. EDUCATION OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY AS EQUAL ACCESS TO EDUCATION; as we have seen above, it is not possible for all children within a society to have equal right to education. We have also concluded that it is utopia to provide equal education to all the citizens of the society. We are then left with the most practical way to provide education to all. Nevertheless it seeks access to education to all citizens. The government ought to provide the enabling environment for all her citizens to attain qualitative education without hindrance.
3.EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY AS A RIGHT TO EQUAL EDUCATION; briefly speaking, the right to education will suggest that infrastructures available, curriculum content and implementation, equality of staff etc are made equally (mathematically) available and accessible to all users of the educational provision. It may even mean that education should be made available according to capabilities, disabilities, resources, and services provided on equal basis. This objective to put it very simple is utopia.


A presidential system is a system of government where an executive branch is led by a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. In such a system, this branch exists separately from the legislature, to which it is not responsible and which it cannot, in normal circumstances, The title president has been carried over from a time when such person actually presided over (sat in front of) the government body, as with the US President of the Continental Congress, before the executive function was split into a separate branch of government. After this split, the President was no longer needed to sit in front of the legislative body, although the executive title remained in legacy.
Although not exclusive to republics, and applied in the case of semi-constitutional monarchies where a monarch exercises power (both as head of state and chief of the executive branch of government) alongside a legislature, the term is often associated with republican systems in the Americas. Presidential systems are numerous and diverse, but the following are generally true of most such governments:
• The executive branch does not propose bills. However, they may have the power to veto acts of the legislature and, in turn, a supermajority of legislators may act to override the veto. This practice is generally derived from the British tradition of royal assent in which an act of parliament cannot come into effect without the assent of the monarch.
• In the case of presidential republics, the president has a fixed term of office. Elections are held at scheduled times and cannot be triggered by a vote of confidence or other such parliamentary procedures. Although in some countries, there is an exception to this rule, which provides for the removal of a president who is found to have broken a law.
• The executive branch is unipersonal. Members of the cabinet serve at the pleasure of the head of state and must carry out the policies of the executive and legislative branches. However, presidential systems frequently require legislative approval of executive nominations to the cabinet as well as various governmental posts such as judges. A presidential leader generally has power to direct members of the cabinet, military or any officer or employee of the executive branch, but generally has no power to dismiss or give orders to judges.
• The power to pardon or commute sentences of convicted criminals is often in the hands of the head of state.
Characteristics of presidents
Some national presidents are “figurehead” heads of state, like constitutional monarchs, and not active executive heads of government (although some figurehead presidents and constitutional monarchs maintain reserve powers). In contrast, in a full-fledged presidential system, a president is chosen by the people to be the head of the executive branch.Presidential governments make no distinction between the positions of head of state and head of government, both of which are held by the president. Many parliamentary governments have a symbolic head of state in the form of a president or monarch (Again, in some cases these symbolic heads of state maintain active reserve powers). That person is responsible for the formalities of state functions, or in cases where the head of state has reserve powers, the “hands off” ensuing of a functional parliament, while the constitutional prerogatives of head of government are generally exercised by the prime minister. Such figurehead presidents tend to be elected in a much less direct manner than active presidential-system presidents, for example, by a vote of the legislature. A few nations, such as Slovakia, Ireland and Portugal, do have a popularly elected ceremonial president. A few countries (e.g., South Africa) have powerful presidents who are elected by the legislature. These presidents are chosen in the same way as a prime minister, yet are heads of both state and government. These executives are titled “president”, but are in practice similar to prime ministers. Other countries with the same system include Botswana, the Marshall Islands, and Nauru.
Presidents in a presidential system are always active participants in the political process, though the extent of their relative power may be influenced by the political makeup of the legislature and whether their supporters or opponents have the dominant position therein. In some presidential systems such as Weimar Germany and South Korea, there is an office of prime minister or premier but, unlike in semi-presidential or parliamentary systems, the premier is responsible to the president rather than to the legislature.
Advantages of presidential systems
Supporters generally claim four basic advantages for presidential systems:
• Direct elections — in a presidential system, the president is often elected directly by the people. To some[who?], this makes the president’s power more legitimate than that of a leader appointed indirectly. However, this is not a necessary property of a presidential system. Some presidential states have an unelected or indirectly elected head of state.
• Separation of powers — a presidential system establishes the presidency and the legislature as two parallel structures. Supporters[who?] say that this arrangement allows each structure to monitor and check the other, preventing abuses.
• Speed and decisiveness — some[who?] argue that a president with strong powers can usually enact changes quickly. However, others argue that the separation of powers slows the system down.
• Stability — a president, by virtue of a fixed term, may provide more stability than a prime minister who can be dismissed at any time.
Disadvantages of presidential systems
• Tendency towards authoritarianism — some political scientists[who?] say that presidentialism is not constitutionally stable.
• Political gridlock – The separation of powers of a presidential system establishes the presidency and the legislature as two parallel structures. Critics[who?] argue that this frequently creates undesirable and long-term political gridlock and political instability whenever the president and the legislative majority are from different parties, which is common because the electorate usually expects more rapid results from new policies than are possible. In addition, this reduces accountability by allowing the president and the legislature to shift blame to each other.
• Impediments to leadership change — it is claimed[by whom?] that the difficulty in removing an unsuitable president from office before his or her term has expired represents a significant problem.
Tendency towards authoritarianism
Winning the presidency is a winner-take-all, zero-sum prize. A prime minister who does not enjoy a majority in the legislature will have to either form a coalition or, if he is able to lead a minority government, govern in a manner acceptable to at least some of the opposition parties. Even if the prime minister leads a majority government, he must still govern within (perhaps unwritten) constraints as determined by the members of his party—a premier in this situation is often at greater risk of losing his party leadership than his party is at risk of losing the next election. On the other hand, once elected a president can not only marginalize the influence of other parties, but can exclude rival factions in his own party as well, or even leave the party whose ticket he was elected under. The president can thus rule without any allies for the duration of one or possibly multiple terms, a worrisome situation for many interest groups. Juan Linz argues that:
The danger that zero-sum presidential elections pose is compounded by the rigidity of the president’s fixed term in office. Winners and losers are sharply defined for the entire period of the presidential mandate… losers must wait four or five years without any access to executive power and patronage. The zero-sum game in presidential regimes raises the stakes of presidential elections and inevitably exacerbates their attendant tension and polarization.
Constitutions that only require plurality support are said[who?] to be especially undesirable, as significant power can be vested in a person who does not enjoy support from a majority of the population.
Some[who?] political scientists say that presidentialism is not constitutionally stable. Some political scientists[who?] go further, and argue that presidential systems have difficulty sustaining democratic practices, noting that presidentialism has slipped into authoritarianism in many of the countries in which it has been implemented. According to political scientist Fred Riggs, presidentialism has fallen into authoritarianism in nearly every country it has been attempted. Seymour Martin Lipset pointed out that this has taken place in political cultures not conducive to democracy, and that militaries have tended to play a prominent role in most of these countries. Nevertheless, certain aspects of the presidential system may have played a role in some situations. On the other hand, an often-cited[citation needed] list of the world’s 22 older democracies includes only two countries (Costa Rica and the United States) with presidential systems. It is noteworthy that the youngest democracy (established under US influence) Afghanistan, is presidential, and many[who?] predict its quick failure after American pull-out.
In a presidential system, the legislature and the president have equally valid mandates from the public. There is often no way to reconcile conflict between the branches of government. When president and legislature are in disagreement and government is not working effectively, there is a powerful incentive to employ extra-constitutional maneuvres to break the deadlock.
Political gridlock
Some political scientists speak of the “failure of presidentialism” because the separation of powers of a presidential system frequently creates undesirable and long-term political gridlock and political instability whenever the president and the legislative majority are from different parties. This is common because the electorate usually expects more rapid results from new policies than are possible and often prefers candidates from a different party at the next election. These critics, including Juan Linz, argue that this inherent political instability can cause democracies to fail, as seen in such cases as Brazil and Chile.
Impediments to leadership change
Another alleged problem of presidentialism is that it is often difficult to remove a president from office early. Even if a president is “proved to be inefficient, even if he becomes unpopular, even if his policy is unacceptable to the majority of his countrymen, he and his methods must be endured until the moment comes for a new election.” (Balfour, intro to the English Constitution). Consider John Tyler, who only became president because William Henry Harrison had died after thirty days. Tyler refused to sign Whig legislation, was loathed by his nominal party, but remained firmly in control of the executive branch. Since most presidential systems provide no legal means to remove a president simply for being unpopular, many presidential countries have experienced military coups to remove a leader who is said to have lost his mandate.
In parliamentary systems, unpopular leaders can be quickly removed by a vote of no confidence, a procedure which is reckoned to be a “pressure release valve” for political tension. Votes of no confidence are easier to achieve in minority government situations, but even if the unpopular leader heads a majority government, nonetheless he is often in a far less secure position than a president. Removing a president through impeachment is a procedure mandated by most constitutions, but impeachment proceedings usually cannot be initiated except in cases where the president has violated the constitution and/or broken the law.
Finally, many have criticized presidential systems for their alleged slowness in responding to their citizens’ needs. Often, the checks and balances make action extremely difficult. Walter Bagehot said of the American system “the executive is crippled by not getting the law it needs, and the legislature is spoiled by having to act without responsibility: the executive becomes unfit for its name, since it cannot execute what it decides on; the legislature is demoralized by liberty, by taking decisions of others [and not itself] will suffer the effects”. (ibid.)