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EFFORTS TO OBTAIN DEMOGRAPIC INFORMATION ABOUT NIGERIA POPULATION


INTRODUCTION
A population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations.
DEMOGRAPIC OF NIGERIA POPULATION
The most populous country in Africa, Nigeria accounts for approximately one sixth of the African population (or one fifth of Sub-Saharan African population).
Approximately 50% of Nigerians are urban dwellers. At least 24 cities have populations of more than 100,000. The variety of customs, languages, and traditions among Nigeria’s 389 ethnic groups gives the country a cultural diversity. Census figures are used to determine regional funding and representation of ethnic and religious groups in government service. This provides an incentive for inflating local populations.
The most numerous ethnic groups in the northern two-thirds of the country are the Hausa and the Fulbe/Fulani, the overwhelming majority of whom are Muslim. Other major ethnic groups of the north are the Nupe, Tiv, and Kanuri. The Yoruba people are the overwhelming majority in the southwest, as well as parts of the north-central region. Over half of the Yorubas are Christian and about 40% are Muslim, while the remainder hold traditional Yoruba views. The predominantly Christian Igbo are to be found in the central parts of the southeast. Roman Catholic is the largest denomination, but Pentecostal, Anglican and other Evangelical denominations are also strong. The Efik, Ibibio, Annang, and Ijaw constitute other South Eastern populations.
Persons of different language backgrounds most commonly communicate in English, although knowledge of two or more Nigerian languages is widespread. Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo are the most widely used native Nigerian languages.
DEMORAPHIC FACTS
• The population of Nigeria is estimated at 178,516,904 as of July 1 2014.
• Nigeria’s population is equivalent to 2.46% of the total world population.
• Nigeria ranks number 7 in the list of countries by population.
• The population density in Nigeria is 193 people per Km2.
• 51% of the population is urban (91,834,051 people in 2014).
• The median age in Nigeria is 17.8 years.
The total population in Nigeria was last recorded at 173.6 million people in 2013 from 45.2 million in 1960, changing 284 percent during the last 50 years. Population in Nigeria averaged 94.88 Million from 1960 until 2013, reaching an all time high of 173.60 Million in 2013 and a record low of 45.15 Million in 1960. Population in Nigeria is reported by the National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria.
Here is the complete Population of different states in Nigeria. Data: from the 2006 national general census, in retrogressive pattern
1 Kano State 9,383,682
2 Lagos State 9,013,534
3 Kaduna State 6,066,562
4 Katsina State 5,792,578
5 Oyo State 5,591,589
6 River State 5,185,400
7 Bauchi State 4,676,465
8 Jigawa State 4,348,649
9 Benue State 4,219,244
10 Anambara State 4,182,032
11 Borno State 4,151,193
12 Delta State 4,098,391
13 Imo State 3,934,899
14 Niger State 3,950,249
15 Akwa Ibom State 3,920,208
16 Ogun State 3,728,098
17 Sokoto State 3,696,999
18 Ondo State 3,441,024
19 Osun State 3,423,535
20 Kogi State 3,278,487
21 Zamfara State 3,259,846
22 Enugu State 3,257,298
23 Kebbi State 3,238,628
24 Edo State 3,218,332
25 Plateau State 3,178,712
23 Adamawa State 3,168,101
27 Cross River State 2,888,966
28 Abia State 2,833,999
29 Ekiti State 2,384,212
30 Kwara State 2,371,089
31 Gombe State 2,353,879
32 Yobe State 2,321,591
33 Taraba State 2,300,736
34 Ebonyi State 2,173,501
35 Nasarawa State 1,863,275
36 Bayelsa State 1,703,358
And Abuja, the Federal capital territory has a total of 1,405,201 persons living in it.
From the 2006 population census, Nigerian women were outnumbered by men. The country’s total population of 140,431,790 (2006) comprises of 71,345,488 males and 69,086,302 females. This means that there are 2,259,186 more males than females in the country. Males outnumbered females only in four states of the country – Ebonyi, Enugu, Ogun and Plateau States.

CONCLUSION
According to the United Nations, the population of Nigeria will reach 440 million by 2050. Nigeria will then be the 3rd most populous country in the world. In 2100, the population of Nigeria will reach 914 million. Nigeria has experienced a population explosion for at least the last 50 years due to very high fertility rates, quadrupling its population during this time. Growth was fastest in the 1980s, after child mortality had dropped sharply, and has slowed slightly since then as the birth rate has sunk slightly. According to the 2012 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 159,708,000 in 2010, compared to only 37,860,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 44.0%, 53.2% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.7% was 65 years or older

REFERENCES
• “Population”. Biology Online. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
• • “Definition of population (biology)”. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 December 2012. a community of animals, plants, or humans among whose members interbreeding occurs
• • Hartl, Daniel (2007). Principles of Population Genetics. Sinauer Associates. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-87893-308-2.
• • Hartl, Daniel (2007). Principles of Population Genetics. Sinauer Associates. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-87893-308-2.
• • Fisher, R. A. (1999). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850440-3.
• • Gordon, Ian L. (2000). “Quantitative genetics of allogamous F2 : an origin of randomly fertilized populations”. Heredity 85: 43–52. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2540.2000.00716.x. PMID 10971690.
• • Gordon, Ian L. (2001). “Quantitative genetics of autogamous F2”. Hereditas 134 (3): 255–262. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.2001.00255.x. PMID 11833289.
• • U.S. Census Bureau – World Pop Clock Projection
• • to a World of Seven Billion People UNFPA 12.9.2011
• “Cities in Nigeria: 2005 Population Estimates – MongaBay.com”. Retrieved 1 July 2008.

DISCUSS IN DETAILS THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES WHAT EMOTIONS IS


DISCUSS IN DETAILS THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES WHAT EMOTIONS IS
INTRODUCTION
Emotion is, in everyday speech, a person’s state of mind and instinctive responses, but scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a definition. Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation. On some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting primarily on emotion may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, particularly in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of danger and subsequent arousal of the nervous system (e.g. rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is integral to the experience of fear. Other theories, however, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition.
Emotions are complex. According to some theories, they are a state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior. The physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating, apparently, to particular emotions. Emotion is also linked to behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more likely to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more likely to be more socially withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative. An alternative definition of emotion is a “positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity.” According to other theories, emotions are not causal forces but simply syndromes of components, which might include motivation, feeling, behavior, and physiological changes, but no one of these components is the emotion or is the emotion an entity that causes these components
Emotions involve different components, such as subjective experience, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, psychophysiological changes, and instrumental behavior. At one time, academics attempted to identify the emotion with one of the components: William James with a subjective experience, behaviorists with instrumental behavior, psychophysiologists with physiological changes, and so on. More recently, emotion is said to consist of all the components. The different components of emotion are categorized somewhat differently depending on the academic discipline. In psychology and philosophy, emotion typically includes a subjective, conscious experience characterized primarily by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, and mental states. A similar multicomponential description of emotion is found in sociology. For example, Peggy Thoits described emotions as involving physiological components, cultural or emotional labels (e.g., anger, surprise etc.), expressive body actions, and the appraisal of situations and contexts.
Research on emotion has increased significantly over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, neuroscience, endocrinology, medicine, history, sociology, and even computer science. The numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology, experience, and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic. Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion. In addition PET scans and fMRI scans help study the affective processes in the brain. It also is influenced by hormones and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, oxytocin, cortisol and GABA.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF EMOTIONS
Emotion can be differentiated from a number of similar constructs within the field of affective neuroscience:[13]
• Feelings are best understood as a subjective representation of emotions, private to the individual experiencing them.
• Moods are diffuse affective states that generally last for much longer durations than emotions and are also usually less intense than emotions.
• Affect is an encompassing term, used to describe the topics of emotion, feelings, and moods together, even though it is commonly used interchangeably with emotion.
In addition, relationships exist between emotions, such as having positive or negative influences, with direct opposites existing. These concepts are described in contrasting and categorization of emotions. Graham differentiates emotions as functional or dysfunctional and argues all functional emotions have benefits.
In Scherer’s components processing model of emotion,[18] five crucial elements of emotion are said to exist. From the component processing perspective, emotion experience is said to require that all of these processes become coordinated and synchronized for a short period of time, driven by appraisal processes. Although the inclusion of cognitive appraisal as one of the elements is slightly controversial, since some theorists make the assumption that emotion and cognition are separate but interacting systems, the component processing model provides a sequence of events that effectively describes the coordination involved during an emotional episode.
• Cognitive appraisal: provides an evaluation of events and objects
• Bodily symptoms: the physiological component of emotional experience
• Action tendencies: a motivational component for the preparation and direction of motor responses.
• Expression: facial and vocal expression almost always accompanies an emotional state to communicate reaction and intention of actions
• Feelings: the subjective experience of emotional state once it has occurred
An evolutionary perspective leads one to view the mind as a crowded zoo of evolved, domain-specific programs. Each is functionally specialized for solving a different adaptive problem that arose during hominid evolutionary history, such as face recognition, foraging, mate choice, heart rate regulation, sleep management, or predator vigilance, and each is activated by a different set of cues from the environment. But the existence of all these microprograms itself creates an adaptive problem: Programs that are individually designed to solve specific adaptive problems could, if simultaneously activated, deliver outputs that conflict with one another, interfering with or nullifying each other’s functional products. For example, sleep and flight from a predator require mutually inconsistent actions, computations, and physiological states. It is difficult to sleep when your heart and mind are racing with fear, and this is no accident: disastrous consequences would ensue if proprioceptive cues were activating sleep programs at the same time that the sight of a stalking lion was activating ones designed for predator evasion. To avoid such consequences, the mind must be equipped with superordinate programs that override some programs when others are activated (e.g., a program that deactivates sleep programs when predator evasion subroutines are activated). Furthermore, many adaptive problems are best solved by the simultaneous activation of many different components of the cognitive architecture, such that each component assumes one of several alternative states (e.g., predator avoidance may require simultaneous shifts in both heart rate and auditory acuity; see below). Again, a superordinate program is needed that coordinates these components, snapping each into the right configuration at the right time.
Emotions are such programs. To behave functionally according to evolutionary standards, the mind’s many subprograms need to be orchestrated so that their joint product at any given time is functionally coordinated, rather than cacophonous and self-defeating. This coordination is accomplished by a set of superordinate programs – the emotions. They are adaptations that have arisen in response to the adaptive problem of mechanism orchestration (Tooby & Cosmides, 1990a; Tooby, 1985). In this view, the exploration of the statistical structure of ancestral situations and their relationship to the mind’s battery of functionally specialized programs is central to mapping the emotions. This is because the most useful (or least harmful) deployment of programs at any given time will depend critically on the exact nature of the confronting situation.

CONCLUSION
According to modern evolutionary theory, different emotions evolved at different times. Primal emotions, such as fear, are associated with ancient parts of the brain and presumably evolved among our premammal ancestors. Filial emotions, such as a human mother’s love for her offspring, seem to have evolved among early mammals. Social emotions, such as guilt and pride, evolved among social primates. Sometimes, a more recently evolved part of the brain moderates an older part of the brain, such as when the cortex moderates the amygdala’s fear response. Evolutionary psychologists consider human emotions to be best adapted to the life our ancestors led in nomadic foraging bands.

REFERENCES
1.”Theories of Emotion”. Psychology.about.com. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
2.Gaulin, Steven J. C. and Donald H. McBurney. Evolutionary Psychology. Prentice Hall. 2003. ISBN 978-0-13-111529-3, Chapter 6, p 121-142.
3.Schacter, Daniel L. (2011). Psychology Second Edition. 41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010: Worth Publishers. p. 310. ISBN 978-1-4292-3719-2.
4.Barrett, L.F. and Russell, J.A. The psychological construction of emotion. Guilford Press. 2015. ISBN 978-1462516971.
5.Thoits, P. A. (1989). “The sociology of emotions”. Annual Review of Sociology : 317–342. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.15.1.317.
6.Cacioppo, J.T & Gardner, W.L (1999). Emotion. “Annual Review of Psychology”, 191.
7.Dixon, Thomas. From passions to emotions: the creation of a secular psychological category. Cambridge University Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0521026697.
8.Merriam-Webster (2004). The Merriam-Webster dictionary (11th ed.). Springfield, MA: Author.
9.Fehr, B.; Russell, J.A. (1984). “Concept of Emotion Viewed from a Prototype Perspective”. Journal of Experimental Psychology, General 113: 464–486. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.113.3.464.
10.Hume, D. Emotions and Moods. Organizational Behavior, 258-297.

DISCUSS THE PSYCHOLOGY EFFECT OF HEALTH ON PATIENTS


DISCUSS THE PSYCHOLOGY EFFECT OF HEALTH ON PATIENTS

INTRODUCTION
Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the problem created by use of the word “complete” Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health.
While a patient is any recipient of health care services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physiotherapist, physician, physician assistant, advanced practice registered nurse, psychologist, podiatrist, veterinarian, or other health care provider.
Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences. The term “healthy” is also widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person’s surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background, lifestyle, and economic, social conditions, and spirituality; these are referred to as “determinants of health.” Studies have shown that high levels of stress can affect human health.
EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS ON THE PATIENT
Individuals with psychological disorders are at greater risk for decreased quality of life, educational difficulties, lowered productivity and poverty, social problems, vulnerability to abuse, and additional health problems. Education is often compromised when early-onset mental disorders prevent individuals from completing their education or successfully pursuing a career. Kessler et al. (1995) found that individuals with a psychological disorder were significantly less likely to complete high school, enter college, or receive a college degree, compared to their peers without mental illness. In addition, psychological disorders result in lowered individual productivity due to unemployment, missed work, and reduced productivity at work. Reduced earnings and decreased employment potential put mentally ill individuals at an increased risk of poverty.
Psychological disorders can also contribute to other health problems and stressors. For instance, patients with comorbid depression (depression co-occurring with another health condition) are three times less likely to adhere to medical treatment regimens than are non-depressed patients.
EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS ON FAMILIES/CAREGIVERS
The burden of caring for a mentally ill individual often falls on the patient’s immediate family or relatives. Families and caregivers of individuals with psychological disorders are often unable to work at full capacity due to the demands of caring for a mentally ill individual, leading to decreased economic output and a reduction in household income. Loss of income and the financial costs of caring for a mentally ill person put these households at an increased risk of poverty. Family members may also experience significant and chronic stress due to the emotional and physical challenges of caring for a mentally ill family member. Although the experience of caring for mentally ill relatives varies among families and cultures,
EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS ON SOCIETY
Although the specific societal impact of mental illness varies among cultures and nations, untreated mental illness has significant costs to society. In 2001, the WHO estimated that health problems cost developed nations between three and four % of their GNP (gross national product).
In addition, psychological effects of health issues on patients can exacerbate other public health issues, increasing the burden on national economies and impeding international public health efforts. In 2001, at least five to ten million people worldwide used intravenous drugs, and five to ten % of new HIV infections were due to transmission via intravenous drug use.
Some other psychological effects of health on patients can be outline below;
• It would lead to reduction in family income if the patient is the working bread winner of the house
• It would lead to serious emotional and nervous breakdown
• It could pile up pressure on family members when treatment bills begin to sour higher.
• The mental health of the patient may be affected, thus leading to isolation
• It could lead to the death of the patient if not properly handle by health experts.
• Where it is not properly reported to a counselor or an health expert, it could deteriorate to the point of affecting other person close by.
The physical healthcare environment is capable of affecting patients. This concept of ‘healing environments’ refers to the psychological impact of environmental stimuli through sensory perceptions. It excludes more physiological effects such as those produced by ergonomic (i.e. fall prevention) or facilitative (i.e. hygiene-related) variables. The importance of an atmosphere in the healthcare environment that promotes the health and well-being of patients is evident, but this environment should not negatively affect healthcare personnel. The physical healthcare environment is part of the personnel’s ‘workscape’. This can make the environment an important determinant of subjective work-related outcomes like job satisfaction and well-being, as well as of objective outcomes like absenteeism or quality of care. In order to effectively build or renovate healthcare facilities, it is necessary to pay attention to the needs of both patients and healthcare personnel.

CONCLUSION
The WHO recommends that developing and developed nations adopt more comprehensive preventative and interventional mental health programs to reduce the negative effects of illness on patients and their local and global communities.

REFERENCES
Bellieni CV, Buonocore G. (2009): “Pleasing desires or pleasing
wishes? A new approach to pain definition”.
Callahan D. (1973): “The WHO definition of ‘health'”. The Hastings
Center Studies

Davidson, K.W., Mostofsky, E. & Whang, W. (2010): “Don’t worry,
by happy: Positive affect and reduced 10-year
incident coronary heart disease: The
Canadian Nova Scotia Health Survey.”
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Denollet, J., et al. (2010): “A general propensity to psychological
distress affects cardiovascular outcomes:
Evidence from research on the type D
(distressed) personality profile.” Circulation:
Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 3, 546-
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Krantz, D.S., Whittaker, K.S. & Sheps, D.S. (2011): “Psychosocial
risk factors for coronary artery disease:
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Mind: Evolution of Cardiac Psychology .
Washington, DC: APA.
Krantz, D.S. & McCeney, M.K. (2002): “Effects of psychological
and social factors on organic disease: A
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WITH EXAMPLES TRACE THE METHODS OF ACCESSMENT IN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY


WITH EXAMPLES TRACE THE METHODS OF ACCESSMENT IN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
Psychology is the study of mind and behavior. It is an academic discipline and an applied science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to the study of behavior and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great many topics, including, among others sensation & perception, memory, cognition, learning, motivation, emotion; developmental processes, social psychology, and the neural substrates of all of these.[ The experimental approach in psychology has certain differences in comparison with the other sciences, which is probably caused by the peculiarity of the subject of investigation. In the most general view, psychology is considered as a science of “mind and behavior” and it studies the whole variety of aspects of human mental activity, including those that determine behavior. That is why, the lack of knowledge about the human mind is probably one of the reasons why the practice of experiment originated so late in psychology. Before they could start to bring actual results, the researches had to solve the following problems:
1. To develop adequate research methods for studying the mind as a substance neither being exposed to a direct observation nor interacting with any object of such kind.
2. To learn how to formulate the correct questions, which is crucial for experiments that are usually developed in order to answer some particular question, e.g. if some hypothesis is correct or not.
Starting with the first of these points, we may try to discover the common features of the human mental research methods. These features originate from the fact that it is still known so little about the subject. Of course, it is clear that the mental processing is carried out in the nervous system, which consists of the brain, spinal cord and the sympathetic nerves, but this kind of information has more value for neurophysiology then psychology. That’s why one of the common features of the experimental psychology methods is the necessity to consider the incertitude of the mind organizational principles, still being able to answer the particular research question concerning some aspects of its activity.
METHODS OF ACCESSMENT IN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
As the human mental activity takes a big variety of different forms, the “black box” system is adjusted to be capable to describe any kind of them. It is done through selecting different input/output systems, which supposes only the use of inputs/outputs carrying representational information and ignoring all other inputs/outputs. The famous reflex studies by I.P. Pavlov (carried on dogs because of the ethical principles) are considered to be one of the outstanding examples in experimental psychology (figure 4). These studies also constitute the “black-box” research, with the taste and audio receptors as inputs and the saliva secretion as the output. Of course, the usual types of psychological assessment on humans are much simpler then Pavlov’s experiments, they may not take clinical equipment or a long learning period to proceed.
EXAMPLE
A term “psychological test” is commonly used to refer to some kind of task, which a person is supposed to do in order to estimate his/her abilities, mental health or personal qualities. This may result in a possible equalization of notions of psychological test and assessment. However in the reality a psychological test actually represents a constituent part of assessment, which may also include such components like interview, demographic and medical profile, personal history, etc. These components may be represented on their own and/or may influence the results calculation of a test or a group of tests. This point of view is one of the basic believes in the experimental psychology, what can be seen expressed in the following definitions, shared by most experts in the field of psychological assessment.
EXPERIMENTAL INSTRUMENTS USED IN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
Instruments used in experimental psychology evolved along with technical advances and with the shifting demands of experiments. The earliest instruments, such as the Hipp Chronoscope and the kymograph, were originally used for other purposes. The list below exemplifies some of the different instruments used over the years.
Hipp chronoscope / chronograph
This instrument, dating from around 1850, uses a vibrating reed to tick off time in 1000ths of a second. Originally designed for experiments in physics,it was later adapted to study the speed of bullets.[30] After then being introduced to physiology, it was finally used in psychology to measure reaction time and the duration of mental processes.
Stereoscope
The first stereoscope was invented by Wheatstone in 1838.[31] It presents two slightly different images, one to each eye, at the same time. Typically the images are photographs of the same object taken from camera positions that mimic the position and separation of the eyes in the head. When one looks through the steroscope the photos fuse into a single image that conveys a powerful sense of depth and solidity.
Kymograph
Developed by Carl Ludwig in the 19th century, the kymograph is a revolving drum on which a moving stylus tracks the size of some measurement as a function of time. The kymograph is similar to the polygraph, which has a strip of paper moving under one or more pens. The kymograph was originally used to measure blood pressure and it later was used to measure muscle contractions and speech sounds. In psychology, it was often used to record response times.
Photokymographs
This device is a photographic recorder. It used mirrors and light to record the photos. Inside a small box with a slit for light there are two drive rollers with film connecting the two. The light enters through the slit to record on the film. Some photokymographs have a lens so an appropriate speed for the film can be reached.
Galvanometer
The galvanometer is an early instrument used to measure the strength of an electric current. Hermann von Helmholtz used it to detect the electrical signals generated by nerve impulses, and thus to measure the time taken by impulses to travel between two points on a nerve.
Audiometer
This apparatus was designed to produce several fixed frequencies at different levels of intensity. It could either deliver the tone to a subject’s ear or transmit sound oscillations to the skull. An experimenter would generally use an audiometer to find the auditory threshold of a subject. The data received from an audiometer is called an audiogram.
Colorimeters
These determine the color composition by measuring its tricolor characteristics or matching of a color sample. This type of device would be used in visual experiments.[24]
Algesiometers and algometers
Both of these are mechanical stimulations of pain. They have a sharp needle-like stimulus point so it does not give the sensation of pressure. Experimenters use these when doing an experiment on analgesia.
Olfactometer
An olfactometer is any device that is used to measure the sense of smell. The most basic type in early studies was placing a subject in a room containing a specific measured amount of an odorous substance. More intricate devices involve some form of sniffing device, such as the neck of a bottle. The most common olfactometer found in psychology laboratories at one point was the Zwaardemker olfactometer. It had two glass nasal tubes projecting through a screen. One end would be inserted into a stimulus chamber, the other end is inserted directly into the nostrils.
Mazes
Probably one of the oldest instruments for studying memory would be the maze. The common goal is to get from point A to point B, however the mazes can vary in size and complexity. Two types of mazes commonly used with rats are the radial arm maze and the Morris water maze.[32] The radial arm maze consists of multiple arms radiating from a central point. Each arm has a small piece of food at the end. The Morris water maze is meant to test spatial learning. It uses a large round pool of water that is made opaque. The rat must swim around until it finds the escape platform that is hidden from view just below the surface of the water.
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
The EEG is an instrument that can reflect the summed electrical activity of neural cell assemblies in the brain. It was originally used as an attempt to improve medical diagnoses. Later it became a key instrument to psychologists in examining brain activity and it remains a key instrument used in the field today.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
The fMRI is an instrument that can detect changes in blood oxygen levels over time. The increase in blood oxygen levels shows where brain activity occurs. These are rather bulky and expensive instruments which are generally found in hospitals. They are most commonly used for cognitive experiments.
Positron emission tomography (PET)
PET is also used to look at the brain. It can detect drugs binding neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. A down side to PET is that it requires radioisotopes to be injected into the body so the brain activity can be mapped out. The radioisotopes decay quickly so they do not accumulate in the body.

REFERENCES
1.Pashler, H. (Ed)(2002) Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology; New York: Wiley
2.Khaleefa, Omar (1999). “Who Is the Founder of Psychophysics and Experimental Psychology?”. American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 16: 2.
3.Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009) An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Cengage Learning.
4.Fraisse, P, Piaget, J, & Reuchlin, M. (1963). Experimental psychology: its scope and method. 1. History and method. New York: Basic Books.
5.Peirce, C.S.; Jastrow, J. (1885). “On Small Differences in Sensation”. Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 3: 73–83.
6.Hacking, Ian (September 1988). “Telepathy: Origins of Randomization in Experimental Design”. Isis 79 (A Special Issue on Artifact and Experiment): 427–51. doi:10.1086/354775. JSTOR 234674. MR 1013489.
7.Stigler, S.M. (November 1992). “A Historical View of Statistical Concepts in Psychology and Educational Research”. American Journal of Education 101 (1): 60–70. doi:10.1086/444032.
8.Trudy Dehue (December 1997). “Deception, Efficiency, and Random Groups: Psychology and the Gradual Origination of the Random Group Design”. Isis 88 (4): 653–73. doi:10.1086/383850. PMID 9519574.
Liszka, J.J. (1996). A General Introduction to the Semeiotic of C.S. Peirce. Indiana University Press.
Sowa, J.F. (1984). Conceptual structures: Information processing in mind and machine. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF ANY COMPANY OF YOUR CHOICE, ANALYSE THE STATEMENT USING THE 6 MAJOR FINANCIAL RATIOS. EXPLAIN THE PURPOSE OF EACH OF THE FINANCIAL RATIOS. THEN ATTACH THE COMPANY WITH IT.


FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF ANY COMPANY OF YOUR CHOICE, ANALYSE THE STATEMENT USING THE 6 MAJOR FINANCIAL RATIOS. EXPLAIN THE PURPOSE OF EACH OF THE FINANCIAL RATIOS. THEN ATTACH THE COMPANY WITH IT.
INTRODUCTION
A financial statement (or financial report) is a formal record of the financial activities of a business, person, or other entity.
Relevant financial information is presented in a structured manner and in a form easy to understand. They typically include basic financial statements, accompanied by a management discussion and analysis:
SIX MAJOR FINANCIAL RATIOS
Financial ratios are relationships determined from a company’s financial information and used for comparison purposes. Examples include such often referred to measures as return on investment (ROI), return on assets (ROA), and debt-to-equity, to name just three. These ratios are the result of dividing one account balance or financial measurement with another. Usually these measurements or account balances are found on one of the company’s financial statements—balance sheet, income statement, cashflow statement, and/or statement of changes in owner’s equity. Financial ratios can provide small business owners and managers with a valuable tool with which to measure their progress against predetermined internal goals, a certain competitor, or the overall industry. In addition, tracking various ratios over time is a powerful means of identifying trends in their early stages. Ratios are also used by bankers, investors, and business analysts to assess a company’s financial status.
1.PROFITABILITY OR RETURN ON INVESTMENT RATIOS
Profitability ratios provide information about management’s performance in using the resources of the small business. Many entrepreneurs decide to start their own businesses in order to earn a better return on their money than would be available through a bank or other low-risk investments. If profitability ratios demonstrate that this is not occurring—particularly once a small business has moved beyond the start-up phase—then entrepreneurs for whom a return on their money is the foremost concern may wish to sell the business and reinvest their money elsewhere.
2.LIQUIDITY RATIOS
Liquidity ratios demonstrate a company’s ability to pay its current obligations. In other words, they relate to the availability of cash and other assets to cover accounts payable, short-term debt, and other liabilities. All small businesses require a certain degree of liquidity in order to pay their bills on time, though start-up and very young companies are often not very liquid. In mature companies, low levels of liquidity can indicate poor management or a need for additional capital. Any company’s liquidity may vary due to seasonality, the timing of sales, and the state of the economy.
3.LEVERAGE RATIOS
Leverage ratios look at the extent to which a company has depended upon borrowing to finance its operations. As a result, these ratios are reviewed closely by bankers and investors. Most leverage ratios compare assets or net worth with liabilities. A high leverage ratio may increase a company’s exposure to risk and business downturns, but along with this higher risk also comes the potential for higher returns. Some of the major measurements of leverage include:
Debt to equity ratio: Debt ratio: Fixed to worth ratio: Interest coverage:
4.EFFICIENCY RATIOS
By assessing a company’s use of credit, inventory, and assets, efficiency ratios can help small business owners and managers conduct business better. These ratios can show how quickly the company is collecting money for its credit sales or how many times inventory turns over in a given time period. This information can help management decide whether the company’s credit terms are appropriate and whether its purchasing efforts are handled in an efficient manner. The following are some of the main indicators of efficiency:
Annual inventory turnover: Cost of Goods Sold for the Year/Average Inventory—shows how efficiently the company is managing its production, warehousing, and distribution of product, considering its volume of sales. Higher ratios—over six or seven times per year—are generally thought to be better, although extremely high inventory turnover may indicate a narrow selection and possibly lost sales. A low inventory turnover rate, on the other hand, means that the company is paying to keep a large inventory, and may be overstocking or carrying obsolete items.
Inventory holding period: Inventory to assets ratio Accounts receivable turnover Net (credit) Collection period 365/Accounts Receivable Turnover
5.RETURN ON ASSETS
The return on assets (ROA) shows the percentage of how profitable a company’s assets are in generating revenue.
ROA can be computed as:
[1]
This number tells you what the company can do with what it has, i.e. how many dollars of earnings they derive from each dollar of assets they control. It’s a useful number for comparing competing companies in the same industry. The number will vary widely across different industries. Return on assets gives an indication of the capital intensity of the company, which will depend on the industry; companies that require large initial investments will generally have lower return on assets. ROAs over 5% are generally considered good.
ROA tells you what earnings were generated from invested capital (assets). ROA for public companies can vary substantially and will be highly dependent on the industry. This is why when using ROA as a comparative measure, it is best to compare it against a company’s previous ROA numbers or the ROA of a similar company.

6. DEBT-EQUITY RATIO
The debt-equity ratio is another leverage ratio that compares a company’s total liabilities to its total shareholders’ equity. This is a measurement of how much suppliers, lenders, creditors and obligors have committed to the company versus what the shareholders have committed.
To a large degree, the debt-equity ratio provides another vantage point on a company’s leverage position, in this case, comparing total liabilities to shareholders’ equity, as opposed to total assets in the debt ratio.
Thus, The debt-to-equity ratio (D/E) is a financial ratio indicating the relative proportion of shareholders’ equity and debt used to finance a company’s assets.[1] Closely related to leveraging, the ratio is also known as Risk, Gearing or Leverage. The two components are often taken from the firm’s balance sheet or statement of financial position (so-called book value), but the ratio may also be calculated using market values for both, if the company’s debt and equity are publicly traded, or using a combination of book value for debt and market value for equity financially.

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ORGANIZATION RESOURCES AND THEIR UTILIZATION WITH MANAGEMENT, MANPOWER, MONEY, MATERIALS AND MACHINES


ORGANIZATION RESOURCES AND THEIR UTILIZATION WITH MANAGEMENT, MANPOWER, MONEY, MATERIALS AND MACHINES
INTRODUCTION
An organization can be conceptualized as a collection of individuals deliberately structured within identifiable boundaries to achieve predetermined goals.”
• Organizations are social entities
• All organizations have a structure
• Organizations are designed to achieve specific goals
• Organizations have identifiable boundaries
• Organizations exist in a relatively permanent basis
• All formal organizations use specific knowledge (or technology) to perform work-related activities.
These features are visible in most organizations. In general, formal organizations are the means by which we produce and supply a variety of goods and services. In this text, I also use the terms “enterprise,” “corporation,” “firm,” and “company,” synonymously, although I recognize that each has a particular legal connotation.
Every organization has various types of goals. “Organizational goals are desired states of affairs or preferred results that organizations attempt to realize and achieve” (Amitai Etzioni). The idea of organizational goals has a long history in economics, in which the classic position posits an entrepreneur or ownership group which in turn establishes the goals of the firm. Alternatively, these goals may represent a consensus arrived at by all members of the organization.
Organizational Resources are all assets that are available to a firm for use during the production process. The four basic types of organizational resources are human, monetary, raw materials and Capital. Organizational resources are combined, used, and transformed into finished products during the production process.

Process of Organizational Resources
Human resources are the people who work for an organization. Their skills and knowledge are invaluable to the managers. Monetary resources are amounts of money used by managers to pay for goods and services for the organization. Raw materials are the elements used directly to manufacture products. Examples of raw materials would be the wood, rubber, metal and lead used to make a pencil. Capital resources are the machines used during the manufacturing process. Modern machines can greatly improve the efficiency of the manufacturing process. If an organization uses old obsolete machinery it may not be able to compete with an organization using more efficient machinery.
The organization is where resources come together. Organizations use different resources to accomplish goals. The major resources used by organizations are often described as follow:
(1) Human resources,
(2) Financial resources,
(3) Physical resources, and
(4) Information resources.
Managers are responsible for acquiring and managing the resources to accomplish goals. Human resource is systematic process of training and growth, by which individual gain apply knowledgeable insight and attitude to manage organization, work effectively. It emphasize the opportunity to apply ones knowledge and need to learn and grow by so doing knowledge is meaningless unless there is opportunity to apply it and this is achieved through exposure.
Human resource development as a theory is a framework for the expansion of human capital within an organization through the development of both the organization and individual to achieve performance improvement. Wikipedia, (2012). Adam Smith states “the capacities of individual depended on their access to education”. It is the integrated use of training; organization and career develop effort to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organization to perform current and future job through planned learning activities. It is the organized activities arranged within an organization in order to improve performance and or perform general growth for the purpose of improving the jobs, the individual or the organization. It includes planning and development, careers development, organization development.
According to Susan, (2012), Human Resources and its Development is a frame work for helping employees develop their personal and organization skills, knowledge and abilities. Training on the other hand is an organizational efforts aimed at helping an employee to acquire basis skills required for the effective and efficient execution of the functions for which he or she is hired. That is having focuses on Technical skills, supervisory skills, and relatively specific areas of accounting methods, material management and planning techniques

ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT
The term management can be and often is used in several different ways. Mary Parker Follett, described management as “the art of getting things done through people.” From Peter Drucker’s viewpoint, managers give direction to their organizations, provide leadership, and decide how to use organizational resources to accomplish goals. The term management in this thesis refers to the definition of management described by Richard L. Daft:
“Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources”
There are two important ideas in this definition:
(1) The four functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling and
(2) The attainment of organization goals in an effective and efficient manner.
Management is needed in all types of organized activities. Moreover, management principles are applicable to all types of organizations, including profit-seeking organizations (industrial firms, banks, insurance companies, small business, etc.) and not-for-profit organizations (governmental organizations, health care organizations. educations organizations, churches, etc.). Any group of two or more people working to achieve a goal and having resources at its disposal is engaged in management. Obviously, a manager’s job is somewhat different in different types of organizations, exists in unique environments, and uses different technology. However, all organizations need the common basic activities: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Management is also universal in that it uses a systematic body of knowledge including economics, sociology, and laws. This knowledge can be applied to all organizations, whether business, or government, or religious, and it is applicable at all levels of management in same organizations.

ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES AND MANPOWER
The objective of human resource manpower development is to provide a framework for employees to develop their competencies necessary for individual and organizational efficiency and productivity as well as career growth. The employer is responsible for devising programs geared toward an employee’s career development and job skills acquisition after employment through training, performance management and organization development. Manpower development is typically a part of the organization’s human resource strategy and aims to maximize human capital potential so as to attain strategic business objectives
ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES AND MONEY
The function of management is to plan, organize, staff, lead, and control. Every one of these functions is influenced to a great degree by how much money there is. Managers and programme staff simply cannot carry out their assigned responsibilities effectively without understanding their financial constraints.
Managers need to have some means for knowing what is happening with respect to their financial resources if they are to make informed management decisions. The notion that leaders of extension organizations are accountable to funding partners is one of the reasons managers need to keep track of how money is spent. The organization will be expected to report how much money there was, how much was spent, what it was spent for, and how much is left.
This responsibility is carried out by installing and managing a financial accounting system. That system may well be automated at some point, but a manual system will serve most needs at the outset. But regardless of how reports are produced and records maintained, they should be accurate and produced in a timely fashion so that staff can base their decisions on good information. A number of acceptable computer software programmes are available to meet this accounting need. It is generally unnecessary for most organizations to spend time and resources designing and implementing a unique system.

ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES AND MATERIALS AND MACHINES
Materials Management is the planning, directing, controlling and coordinating those activities which are concerned with materials and inventory requirements, from the point of their inception to their introduction into the manufacturing process.
It begins with the determination of materials quality and quantity and ends with its issuance to production to meet customer’s demand as per schedule and at the lowest cost.
Thus, material and machines in the set up of organizational resources is an important function of an organisation covering various aspects of input process, i.e., it deals with raw materials, procurement of machines and other equipment’s necessary for the production process and spare parts for the maintenance of the plant. Thus in a production process materials management can be considered as an preliminary to transformation process.
It involves planning and programming for the procurement of material and capital goods of desired quality and specification at reasonable price and at the required time.
It is also concerned with market exploration for the items to be purchased to have up to date information, stores and stock control, inspection of the material received in the enterprise, transportation and material handling operations related to materials and many other functions. In the words of Bethel, “Its responsibility end when the correct finished product in proper condition and quantity passes to the consumer.”
Materials and machines contributes to survival and profits of an organization by providing adequate supply of materials at the lowest possible costs to the firm production capacity
The fundamental objectives of its activities can be:
(i) MATERIAL SELECTION:
Correct specification of material and components is determined. Also the material requirement in agreement with sales programme is assessed. This can be done by analysing the requisition order of the buying department. With this standardisation one may have lower cost and the task of procurement, replacement etc. may be easier.
(ii) LOW OPERATING COSTS:
It should endeavor to keep the operating costs low and increase the profits without making any concessions in quality.
(iii) Receiving and controlling material safely and in good condition.
(iv) Issue material upon receipt of appropriate authority.
(v) Identification of surplus stocks and taking appropriate measures to produce it.
The outcome of all these objectives can be listed as given below:
(i) Regular uninterrupted supply of raw-materials to ensure continuity of production.
(ii) By providing economy in purchasing and minimising waste it leads to higher productivity.
(iii) To minimise storage and stock control costs.
(iv) By minimising cost of production to increase profits.
(v) To purchase items of best quality at the most competitive price.

CONCLUSION
Resources are money-derived. You can spend money and immediately acquire a resource. For example, a book is a resource because you can immediately purchase it. A physical server is a resource because you can buy one and have it shipped to you. Thus, computers joined in the fray of increasing production and reduction in time spent by man for manufacturing and general production of goods and services. However, without man and materials, machines will be useless. They need to be operated by man and fed with materials. That again is a doubtless fact. Money Without money, no venture or enterprise can motivate workers, get quality and sufficient materials, get the right machines and maintain them or even ensure that time is properly managed. Money management, when not properly organized has been the most known factor involved in collapse of enterprises in history. The quantity and quality of money expended in ventures have a direct bearing on the fruitfulness of same over time. Accounts department have been revolutionaries over the years, by man, to ensure maximum operations of surviving business organizations. Where there is not enough money, no good workers, materials, or machines can be employed or purchased or acquired. In other words, such a venture will be wasting its time existing in the first place.