This work examines sport administration and entrepreneur cause in changing economy in Nigeria. This work looks at sport administration in Nigeria and also sees entrepreneurship as the process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, with the accompanying financial and social risks, and receiving in return monetary rewards, personal satisfaction and independence. In this era of shrinking economic activities, government should endeavour to provide the necessary infrastructures required for skills acquisition among its citizenry. This is because without technological skills, entrepreneurial spirit which drives economic development through job creation will be lacking. The work conclude that entrepreneurship is essential for rapid and sustained economic growth but there is urgent need to change the mindset of the average Nigerian especially the youths towards embracing self employment and de-emphasize the search for white collar jobs that are non-existent. Entrepreneurship as a means of self employment suffers a number of great challenges”, and these challenges are what this research work would identify.

Sports administration is a varied field that encompasses everything from professional and collegiate athletics to facilities management and municipal recreation programs. Sports administrators help to ensure the smooth running of a sports organisation, which may range from reception work at a local sports club to marketing or human resources at a major sports club. There are also opportunities in sports funding bodies and local authority sports development.The prosperity and progress of a nation depends on the quality of its people. If they are enterprising, ambitious and courageous enough to bear the risk, the community/society will develop quickly. Such people are identified as entrepreneurs and their character reflects entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is no monopoly of any religion or community, Business Timus (1995) entrepreneurial potential can be found and developed anywhere irrespective of age, qualification, experience or socio-economic background, only efforts are required in the right direction. Entrepreneurship may not be regarded as a sufficient condition for growth activity but is surely a necessary condition. (Destipande 1984) hence it must be given top priority in the national programmes of a country. It is widely acknowledged in entrepreneurship literature that entrepreneurship is about people who realize new opportunities. Entreprenuers are persistent, passionate, adaptable and able to take risks. As a result entrepreenuership can occur in a range of environments. However, at the core of entreprenership lies the creation of new business ventures by individuals or teams. Timmons, (1999).
Enterpreneurship is the lifeblood of the Nigerian economy. It is the cradle of job and weath creation in the most innovative ways. It is therefore imperative that we recognised an contribution that the entreprenuer makes to our economy and development.
A small business unit, is, thus an enterprise, its owner, an entrepreneur and his activities are the entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is a human activity development. It indicates to the spirit of enterprise such as spirit transforms the man from a nomad to a cattle rearer, to a settled agriculturist, to a trader and an industrialist. Murthy (1989).

Nigerian sports, though always exercised, were noted first in the 1950s. Nigeria had it’s first appearance in the Helsinki Olympic Games in 1952, and it’s first victory in 1954, when Emmanuel Ifeanjuna won a gold medal in the high jump at the Commonwealth games in Cardiff. In 1962, the Nationals Sports Council was set up, In terms of football/soccer, the Nigerian Football Federation was created in 1945. It was the first year that a competition was organized bringing together clubs from Lagos, Port Harcourt and Calabar. The championship was also renamed the Challenge Cup replacing the Governor’s Cup as it had been known under their British colonizers. It was only several years later that the Challenge Cup became a national trophy when other top clubs from different provinces were invited to play. However, the clubs had to wait till 1990 for the professional league to be introduced.
Nigeria emerged on the international football/soccer scene in 1960 when it first entered the World Cup, but failed to qualify for the finals. It eventually qualified for the 1970 World Cup in Mexico. The Nigerian National League began in 1972 when five teams entered the league. This grew to 12 teams by 1978. The victories Nigeria has won are stated in the records section below. Locally within Nigeria, there are many sporting clubs that one can join.
Sports Played in Nigeria includes;
Athletics (track and field), Badminton, Basketball, Baseball, Boxing, Chess, Cricket, Cycling, Football (most popular sport in Nigeria), Gymnastics, Golf, Handball, Hockey, Judo, Lawn Tennis, Rowing, Shooting, Squash rackets, Swimming, Table Tennis / Ping-Pong, Taekwondo, Volleyball, Weight-lifting and Wrestling
Nigerians, especially its sports officials and administrators to whom responsibility has been entrusted to, have always done harm to the development of the nation’s sporting institutions rather than the otherwise. If the national sporting leaders don’t take cues from the sporting programmes of the Americans and Chinese, then the sporting prowess, talents and passion for which the black race is known for may slowly ebb out of the country.
The performance of Nigerian athletes in the London 2012 Olympics game was a revealer of sorts and the point which glaringly proves that you reap only what you sow was evidently portrayed by Team Nigeria Athletes. Nigerian sorts have continue to nose dive due to corruption of officials in the sporting area.
An entrepreneur is a person while entrepreneurship is the process of its actual working. Entrepreneurship is also consistently equated with the establishment and management of small business enterprises. In United States, the entrepreneur is often defined as one who starts his own, new and small business. (Drucker 1985).
Modern literature on economic development classifies the entrepreneurship in four broad categories. The innovating, The imitating, The Fabian and The drone entrepreneurship (Williamson and Bultrick 1969). Innovating and imitating entrepreneurship is generally available in developed countries and very rare and limited in developing countries. Developing countries have in them the Fabian and Drone types of entrepreneurship.
The reason of the backwardness of the developing countries lies in the fact that they are deficient in innovating and imitating entrepreneurs whereas they are found in abundance in developed countries. Entrepreneurship has been a major factor in the economic growth of the west, the USSR and of Japan in Asia and it was undoubtedly of innovating and imitating type which made the process of development smooth and fast there. This bring to mine an area of interest that has captured the imagination of scholars regarding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship is the big question, “Are entrepreneurs born or made”. Many people believe that entrepreneurs possess innatic, genetic talents. However, experts generally agree that most entrepreneurs were not born, rather, it is the environment, traning family tradition etc which help in the development of successful entrepreneurs (Jha,1989).
The Concept of Enterpreneurship
The whole idea about entrepreneurship is about self-employment which will generate employment opportunities to other that must work with him as he cannot work alone. Entrepreneurship is the most effective method for bridging the gap between science and the market place, creating new enterprises, and bringing new products and service to the market. These entrepreneurial activities significantly affect the economy of an area (Nig) by building the economic base and providing jobs.
According to Peter Drucker (1970) and K. knight (1967), entrepreneurship is about taking a risk; it is the process of creating new values that did not previously exist; it is the practice of starting new organization, especially new business; it involves creation of new wealth through implementation of new concepts. Drucker (1970) believes that what entrepreneurs have in common is not personality traits but a commitment to innovation. For innovation to occur the entrepreneur must have not only talent, ingenuity and knowledge but he must also be hard working, focused and purposeful.
Howard defines entrepreneurship as the pursuit of opportunities without regard to resources currently controlled. To be enterprising is to keep yours eyes open and your mind active. It is to be skilled enough, confident enough, creative enough, and discipline enough to seize opportunities that present themselves regardless of the economy condition (Nwafor 2007).
Robert (1985) looked at entrepreneurship as the process of creating
something different with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, and social risk and receiving the rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction. Development in entrepreneurship is sometimes seen as arising from three sources, namely;
(i) From the contributions of economic writers and thinkers on the role of the entrepreneurs in economic development and the application of economic theory.
(ii) From the psychological trait approach on personality characteristics of the entrepreneurs and
(iii) From social behavioral approach which stresses the influence of
social environment as well as personality trait.

McGrath and Macmillan identified five characteristics of habitual
(i) They passionately seek new opportunities, are alert, always seeking for the change to profit from change and disruption in the way business is done.
(ii) They pursue opportunities with economics discipline, are not only alert to spot opportunities but make sure they act on them.
(iii) They pursue only the very best opportunities and avoid chasing
after every option, are ruthlessly disciplined about limiting the number of projects they pursue and go after a tightly controlled portfolio of opportunities in different stages of development.
(iv) They focus specifically on adaptive execution, rather than analyzing new ideas to death, people with entrepreneurial mindset execute yet they are adaptive-able to change direction as the real opportunity and the best way to exploit it evolves.
(v) They engage the energies of everyone in their domain; involve many people, inside and outside the organization in the pursuit of an opportunity. They create and sustain networks of relationship rather than going alone, making the most of the intellectual and the
other resources people have to offer and helping those people achieve their goals too (Soyibo 2006).
According to Aruwa (2004), it is the ability of some people to accept risk and combine factors of production in order to produce goods and services. It can also be seen as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities in an environment, and be able to establish and run an enterprise successfully based on the identified opportunities.
Entrepreneurship Opportunities in Nigeria Economy
Most good business opportunities do not suddenly appear, but rather result from an entrepreneur’s alertness to possibilities or, in some case, the establishment of mechanisms that identify potential opportunities. Most entrepreneurs do not have formal mechanisms for identifying business opportunities, some source are often fruitful. These include consumers and business associate, members of distribution system, and technical people. Often, consumer, such as business associates purchasing products to fit a certain lifestyle, is the best source of ideas for a new venture. Many business hare started as a result of complain about poor quality or high cost of the product or service by the consumers. Many other entrepreneurs have identified business opportunities through a discussion with a retailer, wholesaler, or manufacturer’s representative. Technically oriented individuals often conceptualize business opportunities when working on other projects. There are several entrepreneurship opportunities in Nigeria.
According to the Nigeria small and medium scale enterprises toolkit, developing a business idea is
 A matter of creating a vision
 Leveraging your strength and
 Determining what the market needs.
From these three ideas you might begin to ask some question and the answers to those questions will pave way for you to start a business. The role played by entrepreneurship in the development of western countries has made the people of developing countries very much conscious of its importance in the programme of rapid economic development. People have begun to realize that for achieving the goal of development it is necessary to increase both the quantitative and qualitative entrepreneurship in the country. The qualitative entrepreneurship implies the stress on innovating and the quantitative implies the stress on imitating entrepreneurship. Both of them contribute stimulus for development. It is also known that even though a country has resources – labour, technology, capital and raw material etc, but these remain under-explored in the absence of the active and enthusiastic entrepreneurs, who have the ability to organize the various factors of productions.
Innovating entrepreneurs are rarely found in developing countries. In the past these countries have depended, largely on developed countries for their manufacturing requirements. But now they are planning to develop as early as possible for which they require modern kinds of innovating and imitating entrepreneurs. Fabian entrepreneurs do not want to take huge risk, they do not believe in making big changes, unless, of course, it becomes inevitable for their existence. Drone entrepreneurs go on using their own traditional techniques, even at a loss.
Industrial entrepreneurship in developing countries is about 15% of world industrial output. See; Woriel Baul Survey, 2002. The efforts are in progress for enlarging the developing countries share of world industrial output from 7% in 1974 to at least 25% by the year 2005 A.D. While scope for bilateral and multilateral cooperation exists between developed and developing countries, the developing countries can advantageously establish linkages among themselves in sharing technologies and industrial know how with each other.

Nigeria is blessed with abundant human and natural resources which if properly harnessed would have turned this country into a developed economy. But given the massive corruption, lack of commitment, the dominant role of public sector in the economic life of the nation, the country has lost opportunities for growth and sustainable development. Entrepreneurship is essential for rapid and sustained economic growth and development. It creates the required man power and skills necessary for accelerated growth, reduce unemployment and poverty. It is therefore strategic and wise for Nigeria to assign a significant and increasing role to entrepreneurship in their effort to revamp the economy.
It is an attempt to reverse this decline in the nation’s economy, that current government policy of private sector led growth for job and wealth creation which is anchored on entrepreneurship is being pursued with vigor. In this new dispensation, government is to provide an enabling and conducive environment for the private sector to strive. This could only come from total change of attitude and a genuine embrace of entrepreneurial development which is a contemporary phenomenon now. Globalization calls for value creation and greater competitiveness for Nigeria not to loose out.


Aruwa S.A.S (2004), The Business of Entrepreneurs; A Guide to
Entrepreneurial Development. Advances in Management: Journal of Development of Business Administration University of Ilorin, Ilorin Nigeria, 2 (1): 112-122.
Deshpande, M.U (1984) Entrepreneurship of Small Scale Industries,
Deep and Deep Publication, New Delhi, Pp 49.
Drucker Peter F. (1985) Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Heinemann, London, Pp. 20.
Murthy, N. (1989a) Entrepreneurship in Small Towns, In
Samuddin (ed) Entrepreneurship Development in India, Mittal Publication, Delhi Pp4.
Nwafor P.Z (2007), Practical Approach to Entrepreneurship; Small
and Medium Scale Enterprise (SMES).
Williams and Bultrick (1969). Economic Development – Change and
Entrepreneur, Cambridge University Press. Pp 265-285
Soyibo, A. (2006), The Concept of Entrepreneurship.


Classification is a general process related to categorization, the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood. A classification system is an approach to accomplishing classification.
Classification systems are systems with a distribution of classes created according to common relations or affinities. Now-a-days Media is most important agent in defining or solving many political and social irregularities. So we should understand the basic terms and definitions of media to gain proper knowledge about media. The term ‘medias’ is incorrect one, and media is considered as a singular and plural word at the same time.
Simply media is an ‘agent’. It removes social irregularities and social evils. We live in a society which needs communication for better arrangements. For communication we find out equipments for better communication. Mass communication is a word which has a large in depth meaning in the media
terms. we can explore through simple technical study of media technology.

Media is a term referring to those organized means of dissemination of fact, opinion, entertainment, and other information such as newspapers, magazines, films, radio, television, internet, books, Cd’s, DVDs, and all other forms of publishing.
There are different ways to classify media.
1. Print media, non-print media, electronic media
• Print media. They include: books, journals, magazines, newspapers, workbook, textbooks
• Non-print media: they include: projected and non-projected media
• Electronic media: they include: Audio media, Visual media and Audio-Visual
2. Projected media & non-projected media
• Projected media: they require light source for projection. E.g. film projector slides etc.
• Non-projected media: they do not require light source. They include 3dimensional objects, 2dimensional objects, prints, charts, models etc.
3. Audio media, Visual media & Audio-visual
• Audio media: this form of media carry sounds alone. E.g. audio tapes, record player,
• Visual media: These are the ones that can be seen. E.g. TV, computer, white board
• Audio-Visual: this term refers to those instructional materials which provide students with audio and visual experiences by appearing to the hearing and seeing senses at the same time. E.g. TV, video tapes, closed circuit television (CCTV).
4. Hardware and software
• Hardware: this the classification of machines or equipment used in the instructional process. It is upon these gadgets that the software is transmitted. E.g. Television set, tape recorder etc.
• Software: this classification consists of all materials used with the machine. They are the real carrier of knowledge or information. They include, films, tapes transparencies.


The classification system itself must include an element of centralised control so that data may be classified in the context of overall strategic business objectives, such as compliance.
Secondly, before attempting to design a new classification system, it is important to check that the data sets to be classified and fed into the system are of good quality.
“A common problem with current information systems is that too much rubbish is allowed to accumulate, from duplication to copies of office party photos and personal letters to bank managers, making the task difficult, at best,” says Hale.
Storage cleansing products are useful here, because they remove redundant, obsolete or trivial content.
The third step is to carry out an information audit, to gain an accurate view of the nature of the data, including the dominant themes, semantics or the gist of the information, and not just the metadata.
The results of an audit then need to be placed in context with the existing metadata information, as well as the details of where and how the information has been stored, to give the richest possible view of the content. Audit presentation technology can help here, assisting classification designers to query, sift and filter audit results rapidly.
The last stage of the data classification and identification strategy is the classification design stage. Hale recommends that users combine classification design tools with audit presentation, which means that the audit results can be acted on: this ensures the system is more effective.
Hale urges IT managers to look at technology which use the audit themes and metadata to build a scheme, and then test that scheme against selected data sets to determine how successful the resulting classification will be.

Users should then be prepared to monitor and maintain the data classification system. “Once a classification scheme is up and running, it must not be considered to be set in stone – a process for review and update, again involving users, is required to ensure that adoption grows and that it continues to meet the changing needs of the organisation,” said Hale.

Classification of Media

The various types of Mass media are the following

1. Television
2. Radio
3. Print
4. Electronic
1. Television

Television first came to India named as Doordarshan on 1959. The first telecast started on 1959 in New Delhi. After a gap of 13 years, a second television station was established in Mumbai in 1972. The Ramayana and mahabharatha were the first programmes telecasted through Doordashan.In 1992 government liberated the brodcasting rules and many private channels came. Asianet communication limited was the first private cable channel in kerala. Now there are hunderds of channels in the cable network like Soorya, We tv, kairali, DD Malayalam, Manorama,India vision, Asianet Plus, Amrita, Jai Hind, reporter, ACV etc. Live
telecasting using OB Van became a new trend in Kerala to repot important issues. Zee Tv was the first private owned Indian channel to broadcast over cable. Now the LCD Television Sets came into the Market. It offer more clarity in the video and audio.

Content of the channels

Public Television in India has some social objectives like national integration, preservation of ecological balance,stimulation of agricultural activities, and also to promote interest in sports and games.

Radio Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras in 1936, the Indian broadcasting unit had been renamed as All India Radio(AIR). National Integration was the aim of the AIR after Independence.There are AM, SW, MW, FM type of broadcasting. FM broadcasting introduced in Madras in1977 and later in Jalandhar in 1992 and now common in kerala like Radio Mango, Club FM etc.
3. Newspapers

The first Newspaper in India is the Bengal gazette , later renamed as Hicky’s gazette. The first Newspaper in Kerala was the Rajyasamacharam published from Thalassery.Now there are Malayala manorama, Mathrbhumi, mangalam, Deshabhimani,
keralakoumudi, Madhyamam,Deepika, Veekshanam, metro vartha etc.

Electronic media means the media which can be operated by electricity, but in large sense,is the electronically transferred data. Internet, Email, Fax,Mobile are some examples. This is considered as the era of electronic media, such as internet.

Social Network is the one of the best utilities of the internet. Description of Mass Media here is concluding, because it is a vast subject like sea. It never ends. I would like to say that this is only a brief introduction of the subject. If you like to know more about the subject you can further study at journalism courses in kerala. This is an interesting subject also.
Classification system and classify information are material that a government body claims is sensitive information that requires protection of confidentiality, integrity, or availability. Access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of people, and mishandling can incur criminal penalties and loss of respect. A formal security clearance is often required to handle classified documents or access classified data. The clearance process usually requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other information assets are typically marked with one of several (hierarchical) levels of sensitivity—e.g. restricted, confidential, secret and top secret. The choice of level is often based on an impact assessment; governments often have their own set of rules which include the levels, rules on determining the level for an information asset, and rules on how to protect information classified at each level. This often includes security clearances for personnel handling the information. Although “classified information” refers to the formal categorization and marking of material by level of sensitivity, it has also developed a sense synonymous with “censored” in US English. A distinction is often made between formal security classification and privacy markings such as “commercial in confidence”. Classifications can be used with additional keywords that give more detailed instructions on how data should be used or protected.
Some corporations and non-government organizations also assign sensitive information to multiple levels of protection, either from a desire to protect trade secrets, or because of laws and regulations governing various matters such as personal privacy, sealed legal proceedings and the timing of financial information releases.
The purpose of classification is to protect information. Higher classifications protect information that might endanger national security. Classification formalises what constitutes a “state secret” and accords different levels of protection based on the expected damage the information might cause in the wrong hands.
However, classified information is frequently “leaked” to reporters by officials for political purposes. Several U.S. presidents have leaked sensitive information to get their point across to the public
Typical classification levels
Although the classification systems vary from country to country, most have levels corresponding to the following British definitions (from the highest level to lowest)
Top secret (TS)

KGB traitors list seen in Museum of Genocide Victims Vilnius: originally marked top secret
Top secret is the highest level of classified information. Information is further compartmented so that specific access using a code word after top secret is a legal way to hide collective and important information. Such material would cause “exceptionally grave damage” to national security if made publicly available. Prior to 1942, the UK and other members of the British Empire used Most Secret, but this was changed to match the US’s Top Secret to simplify Allied interoperability.
The Washington Post reports in an investigation entitled Top Secret America, that per 2010 “An estimated 854,000 people … hold top-secret security clearances” in the United States.
“It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans and might have adverse effect on public opinion or result in legal suits. Documents covering such work field should be classified ‘secret’.”
April 17, 1947 Atomic Energy Commission memo from Colonel O.G. Haywood, Jr. to Dr. Fidler at the Oak Ridge Laboratory in Tennessee.[8] As of 2010, Executive Order 13526 bans classification of documents simply to “conceal violations of law, inefficiency, or administrative error” or “prevent embarrassment to a person, organization, or agency”.[9]
Secret material would cause “serious damage” to national security if it were publicly available.[10]
In the United States, operational “Secret” information can be marked with an additional “LIMDIS”, to limit readership.
Confidential material would cause damage or be prejudicial to national security if publicly available.[11]
Restricted material would cause “undesirable effects” if publicly available.[11] Some countries do not have such a classification; in public sectors, such as commercial industries, such level are also called and known as “Private Information”.
Official material forms the generality of government business, public service delivery and commercial activity. This includes a diverse range of information, of varying sensitivities, and with differing consequences resulting from compromise or loss. OFFICIAL information must be secured against a threat model that is broadly similar to that faced by a large private company.
The OFFICIAL classification replaces the Confidential and Restricted classifications after April 2014 in the UK.[12]
Unclassified is technically not a classification level, but this is a feature of some classification schemes, used for government documents that do not merit a particular classification. This is because the information is low-impact, and therefore does not require any special protection, such as vetting of personnel.
A plethora of pseudo-classifications exist under this category.
Clearance is a general classification, that comprises a variety of rules controlling the level of permission required to view so classified information, and how it must be stored, transmitted, and destroyed. Additionally, access is restricted on a “need to know” basis. Simply possessing a clearance does not automatically authorize the individual to view all material classified at that level or below that level. The individual must present a legitimate “need to know” in addition to the proper level of clearance.
Compartmented information
In addition to the general risk-based classification levels, additional compartmented constraints on access exist, such as (in the U.S.) Special Intelligence (SI), which protects intelligence sources and methods, No Foreign dissemination (NOFORN), which restricts dissemination to U.S. nationals, and Originator Controlled dissemination (ORCON), which ensures that the originator can track possessors of the information. Information in these compartments is usually marked with specific keywords in addition to the classification level.
Government information about nuclear weapons often has an additional marking to show it contains such information (CNWDI).
When a government agency or group shares information between an agency or group of other country’s government they will generally employ a special classification scheme that both parties have previously agreed to honour.
For example, the marking ATOMAL, is applied to U.S. RESTRICTED DATA or FORMERLY RESTRICTED DATA and United Kingdom ATOMIC information that has been released to NATO. ATOMAL information is marked COSMIC TOP SECRET ATOMAL (CTSA), NATO SECRET ATOMAL (NSAT), or NATO CONFIDENTIAL ATOMAL (NCA).
Private corporations often require written confidentiality agreements and conduct background checks on candidates for sensitive positions.[35] In the U.S. the Employee Polygraph Protection Act prohibits private employers from requiring lie detector tests, but there are a few exceptions. Policies dictating methods for marking and safeguarding company-sensitive information (e.g. “IBM Confidential”) are common and some companies have more than one level. Such information is protected under trade secret laws. New product development teams are often sequestered and forbidden to share information about their efforts with un-cleared fellow employees, the original Apple Macintosh project being a famous example. Other activities, such as mergers and financial report preparation generally involve similar restrictions. However, corporate security generally lacks the elaborate hierarchical clearance and sensitivity structures and the harsh criminal sanctions that give government classification systems their particular tone.

Classification systems are systems with a distribution of classes created according to common relations or affinities. Now-a-days Media is most important agent in defining or solving many political and social irregularities. So we should understand the basic terms and definitions of media to gain proper knowledge about media. The term ‘medias’ is incorrect one, and media is considered as a singular and plural word at the same time.

“United States Cryptologic History: Attack on a Sigint Collector, the U.S.S. Liberty” (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-14.
Turner, Stansfield (2005). Burn Before Reading: Presidents, CIA Directors and Secret Intelligence. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 9780786867820.
Goldsmith, Jack (29 September 2010). “Classified Information in Woodward’s ‘Obama’s Wars'”. Lawfare. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary (2. ed., [Nachdr.] ed.). New York [u.a.]: Random House. 2004. ISBN 0375425993.
Defense Technical Information Center (April 1997). “DoD Guide to Marking Classified Documents” (PDF).
Federation of American Scientists (June 8, 2013). “Chapter 7. CLASSIFICATION LEVELS”.
Priest, Dana; Arkin, William (19 July 2010). “A hidden world, growing beyond control”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 September 2015.


Referencing is an important feature of academic writing, and we know it’s one that can be confusing at times. That’s why the Library has put together a collection of resources to help you acknowledge your sources properly. See your Subject Portal to find the referencing style relevant to your subject, or check with your department.
Why Reference?
Referencing is the process of citing or documenting the sources of quotes, theories, ideas, illustrations and diagrams that you have used in writing your university assignments. When we acknowledge sources in this way, we give credit to another person’s words, ideas or opinions in the form of a note and/or bibliographic reference or citation.
There are a number of reasons why you need to reference your work:
• To show that relevant sources have been investigated
• To enable the person reading our work to trace the original sources we have used
• To provide documentary support for an argument
• To give differing points of view of an argument
• To indicate that we have not used someone else’s ideas and claimed them as our own
Referencing your work adequately will ensure that you are not accused of plagiarism. You must acknowledge (reference or cite) any work, or part of any work, that you quote, paraphrase, summarise or copy. You do not have to reference information that is considered general knowledge (e.g. that Wellington is the capital of New Zealand).

A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used (whether referenced or not) in the process of researching your work. In general, a bibliography should include:
• the authors’ names
• the titles of the works
• the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources
• the dates your copies were published
• the page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multi-source volumes)


1. Referencing is the process of citing or documenting the sources of quotes, theories, ideas, illustrations and diagrams that you have used in writing your university assignments. 1. A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used (whether referenced or not) in the process of researching your work.
2. To enable the person reading our work to trace the original sources we have used
2. Bibliography includes authors name and source of work
3. To indicate that we have not used someone else’s ideas and claimed them as our own
3. the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources are indicated in a bibliography
4. Referencing includes the dates your copies of work were source from 4. Bibliography includes the dates your copies or work were published
5. Referencing includes authors name and year of publications as well as publishers 5. Bibliography includes the page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multi-source volumes)

Referencing or citing your sources is an important part of academic writing. It lets you acknowledge the ideas or words of others if you use them in your work and helps avoid plagiarism. Referencing also demonstrates that you’ve read relevant background literature and you can provide authority for statements you make in your assignments. There are different citation styles used in writing research reports or papers in Nigeria schools .
These includes
1. The Chicago style of the University of Chicago Press,
2.The Turabian style of Kate Turabian of the University of Chicago, which are often the preferred styles in History;
3. The Modern Language Association (MLA) of America style, used in the field of literature, arts, humanities, and some other disciplines;
4. The CBE format of the American Council of Science Educator, preferred in the natural sciences.
5. The American Psychological Association (APA) format is the documentation advice for writers in the social sciences (education inclusive), produced by the American Psychological Association.
However, the American Psychological Association (APA) format is the most widely accepted style in the field of education. The most current edition of their publication manual is the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2001), written primarily for professional publications in scholarly journals. Updates on the publication have also been published on-line by APA (2003). The manual and updates present information on manuscript content, organisation, writing style, in-text referencing, tables, figures, reference list, and so on.

The Harvard citation style can vary in minor features such as punctuation, capitalisation, abbreviations, and the use of italics.
The examples in this guide have been developed in collaboration with the UWA Business School. Always check with your lecturer/tutor for which citation style they prefer you to use.

Referencing correctly is important to demonstrate how widely you have researched your subject, to show the basis of your arguments and conclusions, and to avoid plagiarism.
Each school in the University requires students to use a specific style of referencing. Check the referencing style used in your school before you begin.

Guides to Referencing Styles
Abbreviation Full Name
American Chemical Society
Australian Guide to Legal Citation
American Medical Association
American Psychological Assocation
Chicago Manual of Style
Council of Science Editors/Council of Biology Editors

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Modern Language Association of America


Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is inflammation of the skin. It is characterized by itchy, erythematous, vesicular, weeping, and crusting patches. The term eczema is also commonly used to describe atopic dermatitis also known as atopic eczema. In some languages, dermatitis and eczema are synonyms, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one. The cause of dermatitis is unclear. One possibility is a dysfunctional interplay between the immune system and skin.
The term eczema is broadly applied to a range of persistent skin conditions. These include dryness and recurring skin rashes that are characterized by one or more of these symptoms: redness, skin swelling, itching and dryness, crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding. Areas of temporary skin discoloration may appear and are sometimes due to healed injuries. Scratching open a healing lesion may result in scarring and may enlarge the rash.
Treatment is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams.[3] If these are not effective, creams based on calcineurin inhibitors may be used. The disease was estimated as of 2010 to affect 230 million people globally (3.5% of the population). While dermatitis is not life-threatening, a number of other illnesses have been linked to the condition, including osteoporosis, depression, and heart disease.
You call it a rash. Your doctor calls it dermatitis. Either way, your skin gets red and tender after you’ve touched something.
It could be caused by an allergy, or because the protective layer of your skin got damaged. Dermatitis is a general term that describes an inflammation of the skin. Dermatitis can have many causes and occurs in many forms. It usually involves an itchy rash on swollen, reddened skin. Skin affected by dermatitis may blister, ooze, develop a crust or flake off. Examples of dermatitis include atopic dermatitis (eczema), dandruff, and rashes caused by contact with any of a number of substances, such as poison ivy, soaps and jewelry with nickel in it.
Dermatitis is a common condition that’s not contagious and usually isn’t life-threatening. Even so, it can make you feel uncomfortable and self-conscious. A combination of self-care steps and medications can help you treat dermatitis.
Globally eczema affected approximately 230 million people as of 2010 (3.5% of the population). The lifetime clinician-recorded prevalence of eczema has been seen to peak in infancy, with female predominance of eczema presentations occurring during the reproductive period of 15–49 years. In the UK about 20% of children have the condition, while in the United States about 10% are affected.
Although little data on the rates of eczema over time exists prior to the Second World War (1939–45), the rate of eczema has been found to have increased substantially in the latter half of the 20th Century, with eczema in school-aged children being found to increase between the late 1940s and 2000. In the developed world there has been rise in the rate of eczema over time. The incidence and lifetime prevalence of eczema in England has been seen to increase in recent times.
Dermatitis affected about 10% of U.S. workers in 2010, representing over 15 million workers with dermatitis. Prevalence rates were higher among females than among males, and among those with some college education or a college degree compared to those with a high school diploma or less. Workers employed in healthcare and social assistance industries and life, physical, and social science occupations had the highest rates of reported dermatitis. About 6% of dermatitis cases among U.S. workers were attributed to work by a healthcare professional, indicating that the prevalence rate of work-related dermatitis among workers was at least 0.6%

A moderate case of dermatitis of the hands

Each type of dermatitis may look a little different and may tend to occur on different parts of your body. The most common types of dermatitis include:
• Atopic dermatitis (eczema). Usually beginning in infancy, this red, itchy rash most commonly occurs where the skin flexes — inside the elbows, behind the knees and the front of the neck. When scratched, the rash can leak fluid and crust over. People with atopic dermatitis may experience improvement and then flare-ups.
• Contact dermatitis. This rash occurs on areas of the body that have come into contact with substances that either irritate the skin or cause an allergic reaction, such as poison ivy. The red rash may burn, sting or itch. Blisters may develop.
• Seborrheic dermatitis. This condition causes scaly patches, red skin and stubborn dandruff. It usually affects oily areas of the body, such as the face, upper chest and back. It can be a long-term condition with periods of remission and flare-ups. In infants, this disorder is known as cradle cap.
When to see a doctor
See your doctor if:
• You’re so uncomfortable that you are losing sleep or are distracted from your daily routines
• Your skin becomes painful
• You suspect your skin is infected
• You’ve tried self-care steps without success

Atopic dermatitis

Contact dermatitis on the wrist

Seborrheic dermatitis on the face
A number of health conditions, allergies, genetic factors and irritants can cause different types of dermatitis:
• Atopic dermatitis (eczema). This form of dermatitis is likely related to a mix of factors, including dry skin, a gene variation, an immune system dysfunction, bacteria on the skin and environmental conditions.
• Contact dermatitis. This condition results from direct contact with one of many irritants or allergens — such as poison ivy, jewelry containing nickel, cleaning products, perfumes, cosmetics, and even preservatives in many creams and lotions.
• Seborrheic dermatitis. This condition may be caused by a yeast (fungus) that is in the oil secretion on the skin. People with seborrheic dermatitis may notice their condition tends to come and go depending on the season.

Risk factors
A number of factors can increase your risk of developing certain types of dermatitis. Examples include:
• Age. Dermatitis can occur at any age, but atopic dermatitis (eczema) usually begins in infancy.
• Allergies and asthma. People who have a personal or family history of eczema, allergies, hay fever or asthma are more likely to develop atopic dermatitis.
• Occupation. Jobs that put you in contact with certain metals, solvents or cleaning supplies increase your risk of contact dermatitis. Being a health care worker is linked to hand eczema.
• Health conditions. You may be at increased risk of seborrheic dermatitis if you have one of a number of conditions, such as congestive heart failure, Parkinson’s disease and HIV infection
Treatments and drugs
The treatment for dermatitis varies, depending on the cause and each person’s experience of the condition. In addition to the lifestyle and home remedies recommendations below, the cornerstone of most dermatitis treatment plans includes one or more of the following:
• Applying corticosteroid creams
• Applying certain creams or lotions that affect your immune system (calcineurin inhibitors)
• Exposing the affected area to controlled amounts of natural or artificial light (phototherapy)
Diagnosis of eczema is based mostly on the history and physical examination. However, in uncertain cases, skin biopsy may be useful. Those with eczema may be especially prone to misdiagnosis of food allergies. Patch tests are used in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.
There is no good evidence that a mother’s diet during pregnancy, the formula used, or breastfeeding changes the risk. There is tentative evidence that probiotics in infancy may reduce rates but it is insufficient to recommend its use.
People with eczema should not get the smallpox vaccination due to risk of developing eczema vaccinatum, a potentially severe and sometimes fatal complication.

An eczema diagnosis often implies atopic dermatitis (which is very common in children and teenagers) but, without proper context, may refer to any kind of dermatitis. In some languages, dermatitis and eczema are synonyms, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one. The two conditions are often classified together.
There is currently no scientific evidence for the claim that sulfur treatment relieves eczema. It is unclear whether Chinese herbs help or harm. Dietary supplements are commonly used by people with eczema. Neither evening primrose oil nor borage seed oil taken orally have been shown to be effective. Both are associated with gastrointestinal upset. Probiotics do not appear to be effective. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of zinc, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin E, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), sea buckthorn oil, hempseed oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as dietary supplements.
Other remedies lacking evidential support include chiropractic spinal manipulation and acupuncture. There is little evidence supporting the use of psychological treatments. While dilute bleach baths have been used for infected dermatitis there is little evidence for this practice.

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