In a modern military usage, a missile, or guided missile, is a self-propelled guided weapon system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as just a rocket. Missiles have four system components: targeting and/or guidance, flight system, engine, and warhead. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles (ballistic, cruise, anti-ship, anti-tank, etc.), surface-to-air missiles (anti-aircraft and anti-ballistic), air-to-air missiles, and anti-satellite missiles. All known existing missiles are designed to be propelled during powered flight by chemical reactions inside a rocket engine, jet engine, or other type of engine.[citation needed] Non-self-propelled airborne explosive devices are generally referred to as shells and usually have a shorter range than missiles.
An ordinary English-language usage predating guided weapons, a missile is “any thrown object”, such as objects thrown at players by rowdy spectators at a sporting event.[1]
Early development
The first missiles to be used operationally were a series of missiles developed by Nazi Germany in World War II. Most famous of these are the V-1 flying bomb and V-2, both of which used a simple mechanical autopilot to keep the missile flying along a pre-chosen route. Less well known were a series of anti-shipping and anti-aircraft missiles, typically based on a simple radio control system directed by the operator. However, these early systems in World War II were only built in small numbers.
Guidance systems
Missiles may be targeted in a number of ways. The most common method is to use some form of radiation, such as infrared, lasers or radio waves, to guide the missile onto its target. This radiation may emanate from the target (such as the heat of an engine or the radio waves from an enemy radar), it may be provided by the missile itself (such as a radar) or it may be provided by a friendly third party (such as the radar of the launch vehicle/platform, or a laser designator operated by friendly infantry). The first two are often known as fire-and-forget as they need no further support or control from the launch vehicle/platform in order to function. Another method is to use a TV camera—using either visible light or infra-red—in order to see the target. The picture may be used either by a human operator who steers the missile onto its target, or by a computer doing much the same job. One of the more bizarre guidance methods instead used a pigeon to steer the missile to its target.
Many missiles use a combination of two or more of the above methods, to improve accuracy and the chances of a successful engagement.
Targeting systems
Another method is to target the missile by knowing the location of the target, and using a guidance system such as INS, TERCOM or GPS. This guidance system guides the missile by knowing the missile’s current position and the position of the target, and then calculating a course between them. This job can also be performed somewhat crudely by a human operator who can see the target and the missile, and guides it using either cable or radio based remote-control, or by an automatic system that can simultaneously track the target and the missile. Furthermore, some missiles use initial targeting, sending them to a target area, where they will switch to primary targeting, using either radar or IR targeting to acquire the target.
Flight system
Whether a guided missile uses a targeting system, a guidance system or both, it needs a flight system. The flight system uses the data from the targeting or guidance system to maneuver the missile in flight, allowing it to counter inaccuracies in the missile or to follow a moving target. There are two main systems: vectored thrust (for missiles that are powered throughout the guidance phase of their flight) and aerodynamic maneuvering (wings, fins, canards, etc.).
Missiles are powered by an engine, generally either a type of rocket or jet engine. Rockets are generally of the solid fuel type for ease of maintenance and fast deployment, although some larger ballistic missiles use liquid fuel rockets. Jet engines are generally used in cruise missiles, most commonly of the turbojet type, due to its relative simplicity and low frontal area. Turbofans and ramjets are the only other common forms of jet engine propulsion, although any type of engine could theoretically be used. Missiles often have multiple engine stages, particularly in those launched from the surface. These stages may all be of similar types or may include a mix of engine types – for example, surface-launched cruise missiles often have a rocket booster for launching and a jet engine for sustained flight.
Some missiles may have additional propulsion from another source at launch; for example the V1 was launched by a catapult and the MGM-51 was fired out of a tank gun (using a smaller charge than would be used for a shell).
Missiles generally have one or more explosive warheads, although other weapon types may also be used. The warhead or warheads of a missile provides its primary destructive power (many missiles have extensive secondary destructive power due to the high kinetic energy of the weapon and unburnt fuel that may be on board). Warheads are most commonly of the high explosive type, often employing shaped charges to exploit the accuracy of a guided weapon to destroy hardened targets. Other warhead types include submunitions, incendiaries, nuclear weapons, chemical, biological or radiological weapons or kinetic energy penetrators. Warheadless missiles are often used for testing and training purposes.
Basic roles
Missiles are generally categorized by their launch platform and intended target. In broadest terms, these will either be surface (ground or water) or air, and then sub-categorized by range and the exact target type (such as anti-tank or anti-ship). Many weapons are designed to be launched from both surface or the air, and a few are designed to attack either surface or air targets (such as the ADATS missile). Most weapons require some modification in order to be launched from the air or surface, such as adding boosters to the surface-launched version.
After the boost-stage, ballistic missiles follow a trajectory mainly determined by ballistics. The guidance is for relatively small deviations from that.
Ballistic missiles are largely used for land attack missions. Although normally associated with nuclear weapons, some conventionally armed ballistic missiles are in service, such as ATACMS. The V2 had demonstrated that a ballistic missile could deliver a warhead to a target city with no possibility of interception, and the introduction of nuclear weapons meant it could efficiently do damage when it arrived. The accuracy of these systems was fairly poor, but post-war development by most military forces improved the basic inertial platform concept to the point where it could be used as the guidance system on ICBMs flying thousands of kilometers. Today the ballistic missile represents the only strategic deterrent in most military forces, however some ballistic missiles are being adapted for conventional roles, such as the Russian Iskander or the Chinese DF-21D anti-ship ballistic missile. Ballistic missiles are primarily surface launched from mobile launchers, silos, ships or submarines, with air launch being theoretically possible with a weapon such as the cancelled Skybolt missile.
The Russian Topol M (SS-27 Sickle B) is the fastest (7,320 m/s) missile currently in service[2]
Cruise missile
The V1 had been successfully intercepted during World War II, but this did not make the cruise missile concept entirely useless. After the war, the US deployed a small number of nuclear-armed cruise missiles in Germany, but these were considered to be of limited usefulness. Continued research into much longer ranged and faster versions led to the US’s SM-64 Navaho, and its Soviet counterparts, the Burya and Buran cruise missile. However, these were rendered largely obsolete by the ICBM, and none were used operationally. Shorter-range developments have become widely used as highly accurate attack systems, such as the US Tomahawk missile, the Russian Kh-55 the German Taurus missile and the Pakistani Babur cruise missile.The BrahMos cruise missile which is a joint venture between India and Russia. The Brahmos is different in this class as it’s a supersonic cruise missile which can travel much faster(2-3m) than other cruise missile which are subsonic.
Cruise missiles are generally associated with land attack operations, but also have an important role as anti-shipping weapons. They are primarily launched from air, sea or submarine platforms in both roles, although land based launchers also exist.
Another major German missile development project was the anti-shipping class (such as the Fritz X and Henschel Hs 293), intended to stop any attempt at a cross-channel invasion. However the British were able to render their systems useless by jamming their radios, and missiles with wire guidance were not ready by D-Day. After the war the anti-shipping class slowly developed, and became a major class in the 1960s with the introduction of the low-flying jet- or rocket-powered cruise missiles known as “sea-skimmers”. These became famous during the Falklands War when an Argentine Exocet missile sank a Royal Navy destroyer.
A number of anti-submarine missiles also exist; these generally use the missile in order to deliver another weapon system such as a torpedo or depth charge to the location of the submarine, at which point the other weapon will conduct the underwater phase of the mission.
By the end of WWII all forces had widely introduced unguided rockets using HEAT warheads as their major anti-tank weapon (see Panzerfaust, Bazooka). However these had a limited useful range of a 100 m or so, and the Germans were looking to extend this with the use of a missile using wire guidance, the X-7. After the war this became a major design class in the later 1950s, and by the 1960s had developed into practically the only non-tank anti-tank system in general use. During the 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and Egypt, the 9M14 Malyutka (aka “Sagger”) man-portable anti-tank missile proved potent against Israeli tanks. While other guidance systems have been tried, the basic reliability of wire-guidance means this will remain the primary means of controlling anti-tank missile in the near future. Anti tank missiles may be launched from aircraft, vehicles or by ground troops in the case of smaller weapons.
By 1944 US and British air forces were sending huge air fleets over occupied Europe, increasing the pressure on the Luftwaffe day and night fighter forces. The Germans were keen to get some sort of useful ground-based anti-aircraft system into operation. Several systems were under development, but none had reached operational status before the war’s end. The US Navy also started missile research to deal with the Kamikaze threat. By 1950 systems based on this early research started to reach operational service, including the US Army’s Nike Ajax, the Navy’s “3T’s” (Talos, Terrier, Tartar), and soon followed by the Soviet S-25 Berkut and S-75 Dvina and French and British systems. Anti-aircraft weapons exist for virtually every possible launch platform, with surface-launched systems ranging from huge, self-propelled or ship-mounted launchers to man portable systems.
Like most missiles, the Arrow missile, S-300, S-400, Advanced Air Defence and MIM-104 Patriot are for defense against short-range missiles and carry explosive warheads.
However, in the case of a large closing speed, a projectile without explosives is used, just a collision is sufficient to destroy the target.
German experience in World War II demonstrated that destroying a large aircraft was quite difficult, and they had invested considerable effort into air-to-air missile systems to do this. Their Me-262’s jets often carried R4M rockets, and other types of “bomber destroyer” aircraft had unguided rockets as well. In the post-war period the R4M served as the pattern for a number of similar systems, used by almost all interceptor aircraft during the 1940s and ’50s. Lacking guidance systems, such rockets had to be carefully aimed at relatively close range to successfully hit the target. The US Navy and U.S. Air Force began deploying guided missiles in the early 1950s, most famous being the US Navy’s AIM-9 Sidewinder and USAF’s AIM-4 Falcon. These systems have continued to advance, and modern air warfare consists almost entirely of missile firing. In the Falklands War, less powerful British Harriers were able to defeat faster Argentinian opponents using AIM-9G missiles provided by the United States as the conflict began. The latest heat-seeking designs can lock onto a target from various angles, not just from behind, where the heat signature from the engines is strongest. Other types rely on radar guidance (either on-board or “painted” by the launching aircraft). Air to Air missiles also have a wide range of sizes, ranging from helicopter launched self-defense weapons with a range of a few kilometers, to long range weapons designed for interceptor aircraft such as the Vympel R-37.
In the 1950s and 1960s, Soviet designers started work on an anti-satellite weapon, called the “Istrebitel Sputnik”, which meant literally, interceptor of satellites, or destroyer of satellites. After a lengthy development process of roughly 20 years, it was finally decided that testing of the Istrebitel Sputnik be canceled. This was when the U.S. started testing their own systems. The Brilliant Pebbles defense system proposed during the 1980s would have used kinetic energy collisions without explosives. Anti satellite weapons may be launched either by an aircraft or a surface platform, depending on the design. To date, only a few known tests have occurred.



A debt is an obligation owed by one party (the debtor) to a second party, the creditor; usually this refers to assets granted by the creditor to the debtor, but the term can also be used metaphorically to cover moral obligations and other interactions not based on economic value. A debt is created when a creditor agrees to lend a sum of assets to a debtor. Debt is usually granted with expected repayment; in modern society, in most cases, this includes repayment of the original sum, plus interest.
The word comes from the French dette and ultimately Latin debere (to owe), from de habere (to have). The letter b in the word debt was reintroduced in the 18th century, possibly by Samuel Johnson in his Dictionary of 1755 – several other words that had existed without a b had them reinserted at around that time.
In finance, debt is a means of using anticipated income and future purchasing power in the present before it has actually been earned. Some companies and corporations use debt as a part of their overall corporate finance strategy.
Interest is the fee charged by the creditor to the debtor. Interest is generally calculated as a percentage of the principal sum per year, and is generally paid periodically at intervals, such as monthly or semi-annually.
Interest rates may be fixed or floating. In floating-rate structures, the rate of interest that the borrower pays during each time period is tied to a pre-established benchmark such as LIBOR or, in the case of inflation-indexed bonds, inflation.
Loans may be structured so that the entire principal balance is due at the maturity of the loan; so that the entire principal balance is paid slowly or amortized over the term of the loan; or so that the loan partially amortizes during the term of the loan and a larger “balloon payment” is due at maturity. Amortization structures are common in mortgages and credit cards.
Collateral and recourse
A debt obligation is considered secured if creditors have recourse to specific collateral. Collateral may include claims on tax receipts (in the case of a government), specific assets (in the case of a company) or a home (in the case of a consumer). Unsecured debt comprises financial obligations for which creditors do not have recourse to the assets of the borrower to satisfy their claims.
Governments issue debt to pay for ongoing expenses as well as major capital projects. Government debt may be issued by sovereign states as well as by local governments.
The overall level of indebtedness by a government is typically shown as a ratio of debt / GDP. This ratio helps to assess the speed of changes in government indebtedness and the size of the debt due.
A company may use various kinds of debt to finance its operations. The various types of debt can generally be categorized into:1) secured and unsecured debt, 2) private and public debt, 3) syndicated and bilateral debt, and 4) other types of debt that display one or more of the characteristics noted above.
Private debt comprises bank-loan type obligations, whether senior or mezzanine. Public debt is a general definition covering all financial instruments that are freely tradeable on a public exchange or over the counter, with few if any restrictions.
A basic loan or “term loan” is the simplest form of debt. It consists of an agreement to lend a fixed amount of money, called the principal sum or principal, for a fixed period of time, with this amount to be repaid by a certain date. In commercial loans interest, calculated as a percentage of the principal sum per year, will also have to be paid by that date, or may be paid periodically in the interval, such as annually or monthly. Such loans are also colloquially called bullet loans, particularly if there is only a single payment at the end – the “bullet” – without a “stream” of interest payments during the life of the loan. There are many conventions on how interest is calculated – see day count convention for some – while a standard convention is the annual percentage rate (APR), widely used and required by regulation in the United States and United Kingdom, though there are different forms of APR.
In some loans, the amount actually loaned to the debtor is less than the principal sum to be repaid; the additional principal has the same economic effect as a higher interest rate (see point), and is sometimes referred to as a banker’s dozen, a play on “baker’s dozen” – owe twelve (a dozen), receive a loan of eleven (a banker’s dozen). Note that the effective interest rate is not equal to the discount: if one borrows $10 and must repay $11, then this is ($11–$10)/$10 = 10% interest; however, if one borrows $9 and must repay $10, then this is ($10–$9)/$9 = 11 1/9% interest.
A syndicated loan is a loan that is granted to companies that wish to borrow more money than any single lender is prepared to risk in a single loan. A syndicated loan is provided by a group of lenders and is structured, arranged, and administered by one or several commercial banks or investment banks known as arrangers. Loan syndication is a risk management tool that allows the lead banks underwriting the debt to reduce their risk and free up lending capacity.
A bond is a debt security issued by certain institutions such as companies and governments. A bond entitles the holder to repayment of the principal sum, plus interest. Bonds are issued to investors in a marketplace when an institution wishes to borrow money. Bonds have a fixed lifetime, usually a number of years; with long-term bonds, lasting over 30 years, being less common. At the end of the bond’s life the money should be repaid in full. Interest may be added to the end payment, or can be paid in regular installments (known as coupons) during the life of the bond. Bonds may be traded in the bond markets, and are widely used as relatively safe investments in comparison to equity.
A letter of credit or LC can also be the source of payment for a transaction, meaning that redeeming the letter of credit will pay an exporter. Letters of credit are used primarily in international trade transactions of significant value, for deals between a supplier in one country and a customer in another. They are also used in the land development process to ensure that approved public facilities (streets, sidewalks, stormwater ponds, etc.) will be built. The parties to a letter of credit are usually a beneficiary who is to receive the money, the issuing bank of whom the applicant is a client, and the advising bank of whom the beneficiary is a client. Almost all letters of credit are irrevocable, i.e., cannot be amended or canceled without prior agreement of the beneficiary, the issuing bank and the confirming bank, if any. In executing a transaction, letters of credit incorporate functions common to giros and Traveler’s cheques. Typically, the documents a beneficiary has to present in order to receive payment include a commercial invoice, bill of lading, and a document proving the shipment was insured against loss or damage in transit. However, the list and form of documents is open to imagination and negotiation and might contain requirements to present documents issued by a neutral third party evidencing the quality of the goods shipped, or their place of origin.
Common types of debt owed by consumers include mortgage loans, car loans, and credit card debt.
Private households
Besides these more formal debts, private households also lend informally to other people, mostly relatives or friends. One reason for such informal debts is that many people, in particular those who are poor, have no access to affordable credit. Such debts can cause problems when they are not paid back according to expectations of the lending household. In 2011, 8% of people in the 28 European Union countries reported their households has been in arrears, that is, unable to pay as scheduled ‘payments related to informal loans from friends or relatives not living in your household’.
Role of central banks
Central banks, such as the US Federal Reserve System, play a key role in the debt markets. Debt is normally denominated in a particular currency, and so changes in the valuation of that currency can change the effective size of the debt. This can happen due to inflation or deflation, so it can happen even though the borrower and the lender are using the same currency.
Role of rating agencies
Specific bond debts owed by both governments and private corporations are rated by rating agencies, such as Moody’s, Standard & Poor’s, Fitch Ratings, and A. M. Best. The government or company itself will also be given its own separate rating. These agencies assess the ability of the debtor to honor his obligations and accordingly give him or her a credit rating. Moody’s uses the letters Aaa Aa A Baa Ba B Caa Ca C, where ratings Aa-Caa are qualified by numbers 1-3. S&P and other rating agencies have slightly different systems using capital letters and +/- qualifiers.
A change in ratings can strongly affect a company, since its cost of refinancing depends on its creditworthiness. Bonds below Baa/BBB (Moody’s/S&P) are considered junk- or high risk bonds. Their high risk of default (approximately 1.6% for Ba) is compensated by higher interest payments. Bad Debt is a loan that can not (partially or fully) be repaid by the debtor. The debtor is said to default on his debt. These types of debt are frequently repackaged and sold below face value. Buying junk bonds is seen as a risky but potentially profitable form of investment.
Securitization markets
Securitization occurs when a company groups together assets or receivables and sells them in units to the market through a trust. Any asset with a cashflow can be securitized. The cash flows from these receivables are used to pay the holders of these units. Companies often do this in order to remove these assets from their balance sheets and monetize an asset. Although these assets are “removed” from the balance sheet and are supposed to be the responsibility of the trust, that does not end the company’s involvement. Often the company maintains a special interest in the trust which is called an “interest only strip” or “first loss piece”. Any payments from the trust must be made to regular investors in precedence to this interest. This protects investors from a degree of risk, making the securitization more attractive. The aforementioned brings into question whether the assets are truly off-balance-sheet given the company’s exposure to losses on this interest.
Effects of debt
Debt allows people and organizations to do things that they would otherwise not be able, or allowed, to do. Commonly, people in industrialised nations use it to purchase houses, cars and many other things too expensive to buy with cash on hand. Companies also use debt in many ways to leverage the investment made in their assets, “leveraging” the return on their equity. This leverage, the proportion of debt to equity, is considered important in determining the riskiness of an investment; the more debt per equity, the riskier. For both companies and individuals, this increased risk can lead to poor results, as the cost of servicing the debt can grow beyond the ability to pay due to either external events (income loss) or internal difficulties (poor management of resources).
Excesses in debt accumulation have been blamed for exacerbating economic problems. For example, prior to the beginning of the Great Depression debt/GDP ratio was very high. Economic agents were heavily indebted. This excess of debt, equivalent to excessive expectations on future returns, accompanied asset bubbles on the stock markets. When expectations corrected, deflation and a credit crunch followed. Deflation effectively made debt more expensive and, as Fisher explained, this reinforced deflation again, because, in order to reduce their debt level, economic agents reduced their consumption and investment. The reduction in demand reduced business activity and caused further unemployment. In a more direct sense, more bankruptcies also occurred due both to increased debt cost caused by deflation and the reduced demand.
It is possible for some organizations to enter into alternative types of borrowing and repayment arrangements which will not result in bankruptcy. For example, companies can sometimes convert debt that they owe into equity in themselves. In this case, the creditor hopes to regain something equivalent to the debt and interest in the form of dividends and capital gains of the borrower. The “repayments” are therefore proportional to what the borrower earns and so can not in themselves cause bankruptcy. Once debt is converted in this way, it is no longer known as debt.


We have seen from all available facts that online soccer betting is real and one can win…in fact your fortunes can change if you know all the antics and follow what has been stated here carefully. I have received several calls for my manual to be given free but alas…..if you get anything free, you may not value it, but when you pay for something you value it and tend to be serious in it. Here is great chance to get it. Some of the hidden facts on my manual have been included here to make u see that I am saying the truth. I am not here to deceive anyone as I have and will continue to be a witness to life transformation through Nairabet.
You must have read my other articles and many more will be publish but meanwhile after you must have seen this, please print it out and make use of it. Online betting is real and it can help you. Don’t be so discourage about the heavy losses you must have gone through, you can recover such in one day or gradually. I too would not say it has been rosy for me but I can clearly say that weekly at least I put in a weekly request withdrawal of 5,000.when ever it’s the champions league round of sixteen upwards to the finals as well as the Europa cup, I make in a withdrawal request of 10,000 per week.
I have been with nairabet since September 2011 and this whole years have afforded me the opportunity to know, studied, and reveal the secrets and hidden facts about online betting.
The key word here is making it as a BUSINESS VENTURE AND SEE THAT REAL MONEY is involved here! A business investment where your profit and losses would always count. Most of us just see it as fun or “try-n-luck” stuff whereas it is a real time investment. Even the bookies, let say nairabet or 1960bet, etc make huge profits from losers’ week in, week out. For example, nairabet have 410,000 registered members if that numbers play a certain event or game with N50 and losses, that will translate to 410,000 x N50 given you =N20,500,000! Can u imagine that?
I know again most bet sites would hate me on this but I am always involve in the ones that gives instant returns on my investment…I mean, when I win a game, let my income be paid within 48hrs and also withdraw as I love daily.

These are the various bet sites who wants you to join then and place your bets. They will lure you with various antics and juicy odds, but the truth is that they all want you to fail…so bear these in mind…to loss and for them to make profit from you. This is the simple truth. They are also business people like you and I.
These are the numerous soccer betting sites that always want you to use their analyses and index to place your bets…the truth is that most of them work hand in hand for you to fail and for them to make profit from your bets. Imagine a bookie of bet365 given you analyses to place bets from their site and win…think of it.
Please, don’t mistake this to be bad.At times high odds on a match can mislead punters to think something else, i.e in the process of making huge winnings you fall for it. The underdogs may be given the higher odds and you fall into the trap. So don’t be lure into by high odds on a team or teams, just analyze your games and go for them.
Online betting is not a game after all as you see it…or something of fun. Its business. You must have heard people saying football is real business, in fact BIG business…That slogan you should always stay in your mind. The money you are investing or have lost is hard earned money and it will be so painful if you lose such investment over a space of short time.
This is where we all want to make big time money and in the process loss out for real. Except for sheer luck and in rear cases, you cannot use N50 naira and accumulate above 10 matches and expect to win. it’s now done so….the temptation of winning big from a bigger odds is always there and you will loss such game. That where people will say. Ahh…na one cut me…but the truth is that learn to develop your own strategy.
Virtual sporting events on all betting sites have been programme by them to suite them and help them make profit from your losses. So when you read through my virtual football league write up, you will understand better below.
This is one of the most difficult ways of making it. You just have to be careful here. In the event of playing live events, please make sure there are varieties of other live sporting events so that you can have options to choose from. as for the football live betting……..from the 76mins, you can place bets on the team you feel will win.

Never be lure from opening more than one bet account with a single bet site, as this will make you lose focus and become confuse in your betting system. Instead open bet accounts with other different bet sites, e.g you can open with nairabet, 1960bet, nairastake, naijabet, surebet, betnaija, 9japredict.
Learn to choose your own style of betting strategy by choosing which type of betting to adopt. There are a lot of option to take from; double chance, handicap, most scoring half, 1st half result,2nd half result, 1×2(straight wins or draws),draw no bet, etc.

From all I have said, football and online betting are big business and should be taken seriously…..i have taken time to let this stuff out and I sincerely hope you will make good use of it….if u open a nairabet account through my link https://www.nairabet.com/Odds/registration/affiliate77456 , please try to text me your username and email address so as to send you the E-book manual for FREE…yes I said for free….if this small article can reveal all these, imagine what the papa, being the eBook will do. So my dear, online betting is big time and has come to stay, however to be successful you must have these four marks of honour.
1. Discipline
Being discipline entails knowing what you are investing your funds on. Please know that online betting is real and also very risky but also an avenue to make many funds in shorter moments. You should know when to place bets on a match or event as well as when to stop or reduce your losses.
2. Dedication
You must be dedicated to it as if your life depends on it. You must see as your source of revenue and so must be guarded at all times. This shows that you will never be lure to place more than 5 or 6 bets.
3. Avoid being greedy
You must not hammer at once or in a game…just try to take profits gradually. Don’t expect to use N100 to win N934, 000….it will never happen and even if it will happen, my brother, na with sheer luck. Why not take a odds of 3.45 with N5000….this will amount to N16, 000.
4. Never be discouraged…
Don’t be discourage about your losses, it happens as before you can go to the next level there should be some form of losses (sacrifice.).Keep trying and don’t lose faith. If you believe in what you are doing, you will never fail.so keep trying but watch your expenses and be wise..
Over the last three years of my involvement in online betting, I have gain these vast experience and wish to let it out to online readers. To make profit from your investments and games in soccer betting please adopt all the strategies I will outline and see to it that you follow my instructions. These small piece you will never find anywhere on the internet but here at HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM, I am giving it out free.

Most betting site have this new platform where in every 4minutes you can make money…in nairabet platform, the VFL is structure like;

Place bets on one team at a go and don’t accumulate here. If you are unfortunate to open the full match schedule that involves or shows the current scores as match is going on, as well as the league table. From there you can now how and where to place bets. if a team you see is strong, go ahead and give him one goal ahead.
The real thing here is that VFL is computer base and has been programmed by the site operators to suite them so on the nairabet VFL, from MATCH DAY 1-8, these teams which are at home will win most of their games
N.B make sure you watch their league standings before you place your bets.
Also, on the VFL from MATCH DAY 9-14 you have to be weary but the table topping teams will still wins…from MATCH DAY 18-30, you will see a lot of draws so you need to be careful here, so playing handicap here is good. i remember using N500 to get N30,000 in this VFL playing all nites. The odds are always between 1.50 – 2.45 for most games and 3.50 and 4.25 for draws. You should also try over 0.5 or 1.5 goals in this bet from match day 1-16 but remember, the VFL is also risky.
However, you need a strong connection in order to open the VFL platform on nairabet. So try this offer and go for it.
For these games, handicap and double chance can be confusing for most punters placing games online. I have been using this handicap system presently by selecting just 3 games only with N5000.
A handicap game simply means you are giving one team or teams’ one goal ahead. That before a football has started; you have already giving one team a goal ahead.

This is one of the newest bet systems I lay hand on and I hate self for discovering it late. In this type of bet, you have three options to decide when in which halves goals will be scored most. Is it 1st half, 2nd half or equal.it dosent matter who win as long as goals are score in the half you have predicted it will be scored the most.
I know am throwing out a lot in these article but I want all men to succeed even if we are not born the same. Business is all about profit and losses and it becomes bad when our losses out weights our profits. So it is intelligent and wise we adopt certain simple steps to follow. After making this league known, I expect my call rates to drop as I will explain here in details, so am asking have u sent this article for print?
Here we use what we all call comparative cost advantage in economics. People go say wetin bring economics enter betting again o…but the simple fact is you will never succeed in something you don’t know. So that’s what we call comparative advantage. Select and place bets from the league you are much sure of….not when you see Spain la liga have matches today, you now rush to place bet…you will lose..Even if you analyze properly. So choose out one or more leagues and develop a strategy there.
There are no best leagues to choose from and place your bets, remember that. However, it all depends on what is going on in the leagues so far and what kind of bets you want to place. On a normal circumstance, I normally place bets from these leagues.
ALL the above leagues have been studied by me and you will be surprise I don’t play England premier league because the odds are small. Try the above leagues, their odds are high and with only N200 on 5games you can be sure of N50, 000 and above.
So to place bets follow my strategy here
Iran division 1
Egypt league
Tunisian league
Japan j league
English championship, league I and league 2 (mostly in the months of September, October and early November).
Greece football league
Egypt league
Iran division
Tunisia league
Ghana league
English championship, league I and league 2
Japan leagues
English championship, league I and league 2
Japan leagues
Japanese league
Iran division league
English championship, league I and league 2
Choosing 2nd half will be ok but let it be from September-January. From mid February choose 1st half.
When leagues are about to end, say 5 or 4 matches to go, please use the various leagues standing tables to place bets. This will do you a lot of good as most games then are either fixed or sold out to teams trying to win, stay afloat or escape relegation. So know where each team is position and their anticipated position before deciding on your bet.
At times we may be tempted to accumulate more in order to take huge pay winning, but we often fail to see meaning that one or two games will either default or cut us. From my statistical research, the best number of games to accumulate is between 4 or 5 games at least. these you can use from N500 to place the bets in order to get a substantial returns on your investment.
In handicap or double chance bets where the odds may be low as either 1.8, 2.4 or 3.4, it is much advisable you accumulate only 3games and place a huge N3,000 or N5,000 on it. 2.4 Or 3.4odds x N5000 would bring a better return. It is better you earn little by little than trying to hit them big and at the end you lost all.
If you are going for correct score, please try not to be tempted to accumulate all. Here the odds are much higher with odds going as high as 7.25 to 12.25 and if you are not careful you will lose much. My advice here is accumulate only 2 or 3 games. To make a correct score is when the league is about 3 games to go.
The odds here should determine the amount you want to place bets on. My advice here is if you accumulate a high odds use small amount to place the bet and if you accumulate little odds, use big amount to place the bet.
This is one of the newest tricks most bet site have put up to dwindle our earnings. It like a modernize pool where one goes to select an event and place bet on it. Most of the strategy are not allow their and most importantly handicap bets are not allowed. It’s hard playing offline but if you like it, its best you place with big amounts from N1000 in order to make reasonable returns. And for those of you trying to open something like that or partner them, you will have to bear the cost of payment when someone wins alone, while the loses is shared in these format;
The bite site…………………50%
National lottery…………….20%
If someone wins N50, 000 na only you go pay the winner. So who is making money here?
It’s now gaining grounds among youths but like forex trade, it will cool off soon.
The above information must have enlighten you the more but always have it in mind that you are into online betting for business. Don’t call it fun or game, it business. So learn to manage self so that you don’t fall into debts. All we progress I will release more article, infact the final one will be the boom so order for the manual. Its N3000 only and equip selves with all the inform you need in soccer betting. If I could explain this, imagine what the manual will contain. Do you know the latest best bet now is 1st half, 2nd half and most scoring half bets? Find out more from me. Enter our site daily and find us online.
We at HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM are always ready to help you…
Valentine Uwakwe
08033559733, 08098984202

THE LIFE OF Martin Luther King, Jr.

Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.
He was born Michael King, but his father changed his name in honor of German reformer Martin Luther. A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. With the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia, in 1962, and organized nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama, that attracted national attention following television news coverage of the brutal police response. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history. J. Edgar Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s COINTELPRO for the rest of his life. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, and on one occasion, mailed King a threatening anonymous letter which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide.
On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. In 1965, he and the SCLC helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery marches and the following year, he took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing. In the final years of his life, King expanded his focus to include poverty and the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled “Beyond Vietnam”. In 1968 King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People’s Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U.S. cities. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing King, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting. The jury of a 1999 civil trial found Loyd Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King.
King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, and as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets and a county in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor. A memorial statue on the National Mall was opened to the public in 2011.

Early life and education
Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. His legal name at birth was “Michael King”.King’s father was also born Michael King. The father “changed” both names on his own during a 1934 trip to Nazi Germany to attend the Fifth Baptist World Alliance Congress in Berlin. It was during this time he chose to be called Martin Luther King in honor of the great German reformer Martin Luther.
Martin, Jr., was a middle child, between an older sister, Willie Christine King, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind.
King was originally skeptical of many of Christianity’s claims. At the age of thirteen, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school. From this point, he stated, “doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly”. However, he later concluded that the Bible has “many profound truths which one cannot escape” and decided to enter the seminary.
Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School. A precocious student, he skipped both the ninth and the twelfth grades and entered Morehouse College at age fifteen without formally graduating from high school. In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a B.A. degree in sociology, and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with a B.Div. degree in 1951. King married Coretta Scott, on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents’ house in her hometown of Heiberger, Alabama. They became the parents of four children: Yolanda King, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott King, and Bernice King. During their marriage, King limited Coretta’s role in the civil rights movement, and expected her to be a housewife.
Ideas, influences, and political stances
King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, when he was twenty-five years old, in 1954. As a Christian minister, his main influence was Jesus Christ and the Christian gospels, which he would almost always quote in his religious meetings, speeches at church, and in public discourses. King’s faith was strongly based in Jesus’ commandment of loving your neighbor as yourself, loving God above all, and loving your enemies, praying for them and blessing them. His non-violent thought was also based in the injuction to turn the other cheek in the Sermon on the Mount, and Jesus’ teaching of putting the sword back into its place (Matthew 26:52). In his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, King urged action consistent with what he describes as Jesus’ “extremist” love, and also quoted numerous other Christian pacifist authors, which was very usual for him. In his speech I’ve Been to the Mountaintop, he stated that he just wanted to do God’s will.

Veteran African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin had studied Gandhi’s teachingsand Christian pacifism and applied them with the Journey of Reconciliation in the 1940s. Rustin counseled King to dedicate himself to the principles of non-violence. Rustin served as King’s main advisor and mentor throughout his early activism.
Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s success with non-violent activism, King had “for a long time…wanted to take a trip to India”.With assistance from the Quaker group the American Friends Service Committee, he was able to make the journey in April 1959. The trip to India affected King, deepening his understanding of non-violent resistance and his commitment to America’s struggle for civil rights. In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, “Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity”.
Bayard Rustin’s open homosexuality, support of democratic socialism, and his former ties to the Communist Party USA caused many white and African-American leaders to demand King distance himself from Rustin, which King agreed to do. However, King agreed that Rustin should be one of the main organizers of the 1963 March on Washington.
King’s admiration of Gandhi’s non-violence did not diminish in later years, he went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, hailing the “successful precedent” of using non-violence “in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to Challenge the might of the British Empire…He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage.”
Gandhi seemed to have influenced him with certain moral principles, though Gandhi himself had been influenced by The Kingdom of God Is Within You, a nonviolent classic written by Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy. In turn, both Gandhi and Martin Luther King had read Tolstoy. King quoted Tolstoy’s War and Peace in 1959.
Another influence for King’s non-violent method was Thoreau’s essay On Civil Disobedience, which King read in his student days influenced by the idea of refusing to cooperate with an evil system. He also was greatly influenced by the works of Protestant theologians Reinhold Niebuhr and Paul Tillich, as well as Walter Rauschenbusch’s Christianity and the Social Crisis. In his later career, King used the concept of “agape” (the deepest form of Christian love), which may have represented an influence of Paul Ramsey.
As the leader of the SCLC, King maintained a policy of not publicly endorsing a U.S. political party or candidate: “I feel someone must remain in the position of non-alignment, so that he can look objectively at both parties and be the conscience of both—not the servant or master of either.” In a 1958 interview, he expressed his view that neither party was perfect, saying, “I don’t think the Republican party is a party full of the almighty God nor is the Democratic party. They both have weaknesses … And I’m not inextricably bound to either party.”
King critiqued both parties’ performance on promoting racial equality:
Actually, the Negro has been betrayed by both the Republican and the Democratic party. The Democrats have betrayed him by capitulating to the whims and caprices of the Southern Dixiecrats. The Republicans have betrayed him by capitulating to the blatant hypocrisy of reactionary right wing northern Republicans. And this coalition of southern Dixiecrats and right wing reactionary northern Republicans defeats every bill and every move towards liberal legislation in the area of civil rights.
Although King never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October 1956 he said that he was undecided as to whether he would vote for Adlai Stevenson or Dwight Eisenhower, but that “In the past I always voted the Democratic ticket.” In his autobiography, King says that in 1960 he privately voted for Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy: “I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one.” King adds that he likely would have made an exception to his non-endorsement policy for a second Kennedy term, saying “Had President Kennedy lived, I would probably have endorsed him in 1964.”
King stated that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of $50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups.
He posited that “the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils”. He presented this idea as an application of the common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor, but clarified that he felt that the money should not be spent exclusively on blacks. He stated, “It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races”.
Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955
In March 1955, a fifteen-year-old school girl in Montgomery, Claudette Colvin, refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in compliance with Jim Crow laws, laws in the US South that enforced racial segregation. King was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; because Colvin was pregnant and unmarried, E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr decided to wait for a better case to pursue.
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat. The Montgomery Bus Boycott, urged and planned by Nixon and led by King, soon followed. The boycott lasted for 385 days, and the situation became so tense that King’s house was bombed. King was arrested during this campaign, which concluded with a United States District Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses. King’s role in the bus boycott transformed him into a national figure and the best-known spokesman of the civil rights movement.
March on Washington, 1963
King, representing the SCLC, was among the leaders of the so-called “Big Six” civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on August 28, 1963. The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were Roy Wilkins from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Whitney Young, National Urban League; A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James L. Farmer, Jr. of the Congress of Racial Equality.
The primary logistical and strategic organizer was King’s colleague Bayard Rustin. For King, this role was another which courted controversy, since he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. However, the organizers were firm that the march would proceed. With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. President Kennedy was concerned the turnout would be less than 100,000. Therefore, he enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and the UAW union to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause.
The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern U.S. and an opportunity to place organizers’ concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nation’s capital. Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone. As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the “Farce on Washington”, and the Nation of Islam forbade its members from attending the march.
The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for Washington, D.C., then governed by congressional committee. Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success. More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington, D.C.’s history.
King delivered a 17-minute speech, later known as “I Have a Dream”. In the speech’s most famous passage—in which he departed from his prepared text, possibly at the prompting of Mahalia Jackson, who shouted behind him, “Tell them about the dream!”—King said:
I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
“I Have a Dream” came to be regarded as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory. The March, and especially King’s speech, helped put civil rights at the top of the agenda of reformers in the United States and facilitated passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The original, typewritten copy of the speech, including Dr. King’s handwritten notes on it, was discovered in 1984 to be in the hands of George Raveling, the first African-American basketball coach of the University of Iowa. In 1963, Raveling, then 26, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King if he could have his copy of the speech. He got it.
Opposition to the Vietnam War
In 1965 King began to publicly express doubts about the Vietnam War. In an April 4, 1967 appearance at the New York City Riverside Church—exactly one year before his death—King delivered a speech titled “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence”.He spoke strongly against the U.S.’s role in the war, arguing that the U.S. was in Vietnam “to occupy it as an American colony”[ and calling the U.S. government “the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today”. He also connected the war with economic injustice, arguing that the country needed serious moral change:
Assassination and its aftermath
On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees, represented by AFSCME Local 1733, who had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.
On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” address at Mason Temple, the world headquarters of the Church of God in Christ. King’s flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. In the close of the last speech of his career, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following:
And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?
Well, I don’t know what will happen now. We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn’t matter with me now. Because I’ve been to the mountaintop. And I don’t mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. So I’m happy, tonight. I’m not worried about anything. I’m not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.
King was booked in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel, owned by Walter Bailey, in Memphis. Abernathy, who was present at the assassination, testified to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at room 306 at the Lorraine Motel so often it was known as the “King-Abernathy suite”. According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, King’s last words on the balcony before his assassination were spoken to musician Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was attending: “Ben, make sure you play ‘Take My Hand, Precious Lord’ in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty.”
Then, at 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, a shot rang out as King stood on the motel’s second-floor balcony. The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder. Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King on the floor. Jackson stated after the shooting that he cradled King’s head as King lay on the balcony, but this account was disputed by other colleagues of King’s; Jackson later changed his statement to say that he had “reached out” for King.
After emergency chest surgery, King was pronounced dead at St. Joseph’s Hospital at 7:05 p.m.[164] According to biographer Taylor Branch, King’s autopsy revealed that though only 39 years old, he “had the heart of a 60 year old”, which Branch attributed to the stress of 13 years in the civil rights movement.
The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington D.C., Chicago, Baltimore, Louisville, Kansas City, and dozens of other cities. Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of King’s death. He gave a short speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King’s ideal of non-violence. James Farmer, Jr. and other civil rights leaders also called for non-violent action, while the more militant Stokely Carmichael called for a more forceful response. The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers.
President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader.[171] Vice President Hubert Humphrey attended King’s funeral on behalf of the President, as there were fears that Johnson’s presence might incite protests and perhaps violence At his widow’s request, King’s last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church was played at the funeral, a recording of his “Drum Major” sermon, given on February 4, 1968. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to “feed the hungry”, “clothe the naked”, “be right on the [Vietnam] war question”, and “love and serve humanity”. His good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn, “Take My Hand, Precious Lord”, at the funeral.
Two months after King’s death, escaped convict James Earl Ray was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia. Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King’s murder. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later. On the advice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray pled guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. He was sentenced to a 99-year prison term. Ray later claimed a man he met in Montreal, Quebec, with the alias “Raoul” was involved and that the assassination was the result of a conspiracy. He spent the remainder of his life attempting, unsuccessfully, to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had.
Allegations of conspiracy
Ray’s lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists. One of the claims used to support this assertion is that Ray’s confession was given under pressure, and he had been threatened with the death penalty. Ray was a thief and burglar, but he had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon.
Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point to the two successive ballistics tests which proved that a rifle similar to Ray’s Remington Gamemaster had been the murder weapon, but did not prove that his specific rifle had been the one used. Moreover, witnesses surrounding King at the moment of his death say the shot came from another location, from behind thick shrubbery near the rooming house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the rooming house window.
In 1997, King’s son Dexter Scott King met with Ray, and publicly supported Ray’s efforts to obtain a new trial. Two years later, Coretta Scott King, King’s widow, along with the rest of King’s family, won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers and “other unknown co-conspirators”. Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King’s assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found Jowers guilty and that government agencies were party to the assassination. William F. Pepper represented the King family in the trial.
In 2000, the U.S. Department of Justice completed the investigation about Jowers’ claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented. In 2002, The New York Times reported that a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilson—not James Earl Ray—assassinated Martin Luther King, Jr. He stated, “It wasn’t a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way.” Wilson provided no evidence to back up his claims.
King researchers David Garrow and Gerald Posner disagreed with William F. Pepper’s claims that the government killed King. In 2003, William Pepper published a book about the long investigation and trial, as well as his representation of James Earl Ray in his bid for a trial, laying out the evidence and criticizing other accounts. King’s friend and colleague, James Bevel, also disputed the argument that Ray acted alone, stating, “There is no way a ten-cent white boy could develop a plan to kill a million-dollar black man.”[ In 2004, Jesse Jackson stated:
The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. … I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray.
FBI and King’s personal life
FBI surveillance and wiretapping
FBI director J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader. According to the Church Committee, a 1975 investigation by the U.S. Congress, “From December 1963 until his death in 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was the target of an intensive campaign by the Federal Bureau of Investigation to ‘neutralize’ him as an effective civil rights leader.”
The Bureau received authorization to proceed with wiretapping from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the fall of 1963 and informed President John F. Kennedy, both of whom unsuccessfully tried to persuade King to dissociate himself from Stanley Levison, a New York lawyer who had been involved with Communist Party USA. Although Robert Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King’s phones “on a trial basis, for a month or so”, Hoover extended the clearance so his men were “unshackled” to look for evidence in any areas of King’s life they deemed worthy. The Bureau placed wiretaps on Levison’s and King’s home and office phones, and bugged King’s rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country. In 1967, Hoover listed the SCLC as a black nationalist hate group, with the instructions: “No opportunity should be missed to exploit through counterintelligence techniques the organizational and personal conflicts of the leaderships of the groups … to insure the targeted group is disrupted, ridiculed, or discredited.”
NSA monitoring of King’s communications
In a secret operation code-named “Minaret,” the National Security Agency (NSA) monitored the communications of leading Americans, including King, who criticized the U.S. war in Vietnam. A review by NSA of the NSA’s Minaret program concluded that Minaret was “disreputable if not outright illegal.”
Allegations of communism
For years, Hoover had been suspicious about potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights. Hoover directed the FBI to track King in 1957, and the SCLC as it was established (it did not have a full-time executive director until 1960). The investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when the FBI learned that one of King’s most trusted advisers was New York City lawyer Stanley Levison.
The FBI feared Levison was working as an “agent of influence” over King, in spite of its own reports in 1963 that Levison had left the Party and was no longer associated in business dealings with them. Another King lieutenant, Hunter Pitts O’Dell, was also linked to the Communist Party by sworn testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). However, by 1976 the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations.
For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to communism, stating in a 1965 Playboy interview that “there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida”. He argued that Hoover was “following the path of appeasement of political powers in the South” and that his concern for communist infiltration of the civil rights movement was meant to “aid and abet the salacious claims of southern racists and the extreme right-wing elements”. Hoover did not believe King’s pledge of innocence and replied by saying that King was “the most notorious liar in the country”.After King gave his “I Have A Dream” speech during the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, the FBI described King as “the most dangerous and effective Negro leader in the country”.It alleged that he was “knowingly, willingly and regularly cooperating with and taking guidance from communists”.
The attempt to prove that King was a communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot but had been stirred up by “communists” and “outside agitators”. However, the civil rights movement arose from activism within the black community dating back to before World War I. King said that “the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavals—the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations.”
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
Beginning in 1971, cities such as Saint Louis, Missouri, and states established annual holidays to honor King. At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. Following President George H. W. Bush’s 1992 proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of King’s birthday. On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King Jr. Day was officially observed in all fifty U.S. states. Arizona (1992), New Hampshire (1999) and Utah (2000) were the last three states to recognized the holiday. Utah previously celebrated the holiday at the same time but under the name Human Rights Day.
Awards and recognition

King was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities. On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading non-violent resistance to racial prejudice in the U.S. In 1965, he was awarded the American Liberties Medallion by the American Jewish Committee for his “exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty”. In his acceptance remarks, King said, “Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free.”
In 1957, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP. Two years later, he won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for his book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King the Margaret Sanger Award for “his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity”. Also in 1966, King was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1971 he was posthumously awarded a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam.
In 1977, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was posthumously awarded to King by President Jimmy Carter. The citation read:
“Martin Luther King, Jr., was the conscience of his generation. He gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down. From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to fulfill the promises of our founding fathers for our humblest citizens, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream for America. He made our nation stronger because he made it better. His dream sustains us yet.”[
King and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004.
King was second in Gallup’s List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century. In 1963, he was named Time Person of the Year, and in 2000, he was voted sixth in an online “Person of the Century” poll by the same magazine. King placed third in the Greatest American contest conducted by the Discovery Channel and AOL.
More than 730 cities in the United States have streets named after King. King County, Washington rededicated its name in his honor in 1986, and changed its logo to an image of his face in 2007. The city government center in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is named in honor of King. King is remembered as a martyr by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America (feast day April 4) and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (feast day January 15).
In 1980, the U.S. Department of the Interior designated King’s boyhood home in Atlanta and several nearby buildings the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site. In 1996, Congress authorized the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, of which King had been a member, to establish a foundation to manage fund raising and design of a national Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial on the Mall in Washington, D.C. King was the first African American and the fourth non-president honored with his own memorial in the National Mall area. The memorial opened in August 2011 and is administered by the National Park Service. The address of the monument, 1964 Independence Avenue, S.W., commemorates the year that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law.

1. Jump up ^ Ogletree, Charles J. (2004). All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half Century of Brown v. Board of Education. W W Norton & Co. p. 138. ISBN 0-393-05897-2.
2. Jump up ^ “Upbringing & Studies”. The King Center. Archived from the original on 2013-01-09. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
3. Jump up ^ “Martin Luther King, Jr. name change”. German-way.com. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
4. Jump up ^ King 1992, p. 76.
5. Jump up ^ Katznelson, Ira (2005). When Affirmative Action was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. WW Norton & Co. p. 5. ISBN 0-393-05213-3.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) a Change Agent in Student Centered Learning in Higher Education

There are few aspects of life in this present days which are unaffected by ICT. In the office, factory or at home, visiting a bank, supermarket or garage and in many other places. ICT provides information, carry out transactions, record data, make decisions and perform an ever increasing range of tasks (terry Lucey 2005). He further stated that traditionally, the basis of all information systems was a manual one. Data were recorded on paper, stored in filling cabinets and processed manually using simple procedures and office equipment such as typewriters, calculators multi-pat form, duplicating machines and so on. In recent years, the position systems even in small organizations are now almost entirely computer based.
The Concept of ICT
Information Communication Technology are versatile and powerful technologies that have assisted individuals, groups and organizations in many different ways.
Different people have different views on what ICT is all about. Onyegeme- Okerenta in Asodike, Ebong, Oluwuo and Abraham (2013) views ICT as an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing, radio, television, cellular phone, computer and network hardware and software, satellite system, etc, as well as the various services and applications associating and distant learning.
Similarly, Ajayi in Ain (2003) in Asodike et al (2013) view ICT as an electronic based system of information, transmission, reception, processing and retrieval. Abifarm (2003) in Asodike et al defines ICT as the application of computers, telecommunication, equipment to process, store, retrieve and send information to all kinds in whatever form. From the above ICT can be viewed or defined as electronic and communication devices used in transmitting, processing, receiving storing and retrieving information. They assist humans to collect information.

The Concept of Change
Change can be seen as a process of making something different. It is a form of activity or event that takes place around us all the time. The world that we live in and all that around us witness constant change. These changes are experienced virtually in every aspect of life from when one is born even unto death. Change is a systematic paradigm shift. Shannon (1990) in Lu and Ortleib (2009) notes that from historical perspective on education, we are confronting many struggles just to survive, such as the concepts of teaching, approaches to literacy, school system reform, etc.
Change agents according to Lu and Ortlieb (2009) are those who fell unsafe, uncomfortable, dissatisfied with the current situation and plant to change it. They initiate change schedule the change and create the climate for the change. A change agent aims at communicating an innovation to an intended adopter (Ellsworth, 2000). This is accomplished using a change process, which establishes a channel through the change environment.

Concept of Student Centered Learning
Student- centred learning is used widely in teaching and learning. It is linked with such terms as flexible learning, experiential learning and self-directed learning. Student-centred learning focuses on the student learner rather than the teacher, driven by a need for change in the traditional environment which is known as the educational environment.
According to Slarin (2009), learning is much more than memory. For students to really understand and be able to apply knowledge, they must work to solve problems, and to discover things for themselves, to wrestle with ideas. He further stated that the task of education is not to pour out information into the students heads, but to engage students’ minds with powerful and useful concepts. This view is affirmed by Sharma (2007) as he posits that modern methods condemn rote memorization and promote the adoption of lively and effective methods like playway, learning by doing, learning by experience, etc and that these methods stimulate motivation, interest and attention.
The paradigm shift away from teaching to an emphasy of learning has moved power from the teacher to the student. In the past, the teacher focused on the transmission of information in the form of lecturing but now is paving way to a wide spread growth of student-centered learning. Student-centered learning involves the construction of knowledge by the student with the lecturer as the facilitator of learning rather than a presenter of information.
Student learning created room for the reliance on active learning rather than passive learning. It places emphasy on deep learning and unresponsibility and accountability leads to an increased sense of antonomy in the learner; and results in a reflexive approach to on the part of both teacher and learner.
Impact of ICT on Higher Education
Conventional teaching has emphasized content. Before now, courses have been written around textbooks, teachers have taught through lectures and presentations interspersed with tutorials and learning activities designed to consolidate and rehearse the content. According to Amaele (2007). The teacher has upper hand in the class, which the learner is restricted in the activity of the class and that strategies are mapped to make the class more convement to the teacher than to the learner; that learning activities are selected by the teacher. Presently, higher education fapours curricula that promote competency and performance where learners will begin to construct knowledge.
Slarin (2009) posits that students must construct knowledge in their own minds and that the teacher can facilitate this process by teaching in ways that make information meaningful and relevant to students, by giving students opportunities’ to discover and apply ideas and consciously use their own strategies for learning.
Anderson, Greeno, Reder, & Simon (2000); Waxman, Padrun, & Arnold (2001) state that learners must individually discover and transform complex information if they are to make it the own.
Hence curricula are beginning to emphasize capabilities and how information will be used than with what information is.
According to Bilte & Legacy (2008) ICT application in education could be applied in three ways; first teachers use ICT on their classroom teaching or plan instruction and present content to their classes. Second, students use ICT to explore practice ad prepare papers and presentations.
Finally teachers and administrators use ICT to accomplish administrative tasks associated with their profession, such as assessment record keeping, reporting and management tasks and the males teaching-learning experience an appealing one.
Just as technology is influencing and supporting what is being learned in schools and universities, so too is it supporting changes to the way students are learning. Mores from content-centered curricula to competency-based curricula are associated with moves away from teacher centered forms of delivery to student centered forms through technology-facilitated approaches, contemporary learning setting now encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning. In the past students have become very confortable to leering through transitive model. Students have been trained to let others present to them the information that forms the curriculum. The growing use of ICT as an instructional medium is changing and will likely continue to change many of the strategies employed by both teachers and students in the learning process. This (Hoeffler & Leutner 2006; Reed, 2006) concludes when they said that technology is used on the increase to combine text and visual content and that this multimedia approach enhance students’ learning as long as the text and visuals directly support each other.
Chambers et al (2006) in Slavin (2009) in as study of first-grade reading found that adding video content on letter founds, sound blending, and vocabulary to teacher-led reading lessons significantly increased students’ learning.
The many technological tools available they say, make teachers’ lessons more dynamic and leering more exciting. The fears that computers might replace teachers are unfounded.
Technology has the capacity to promote and encourage the transformation of education from a very teacher directed enterprise to one which supports more student- centered models.
Evidence of this today is manifested in the proliferation of capability competency and outcomes focused curricula, moves towards problem-based learning and increased us of the web as an information source, untsnet users are able to choose the exports from whom they will learn Becker (2001) conclude this when he said that computers have replaced typewriter and encyclopedias and that students use technology for a wide variety of purposes in the following categories word processing ad publishing spreadsheets and databases computer-assisted.
Instruction, the internet multimedia, integrated learning system, and computer programming.
The use of ICT in educational settings by itself acts as a catalyst for change in this domain ICTs by their very nature are tools that aid, encourage and support independent learning students using ICTs for learning purposes become immersed in the process of learning and as more and more students use computer as information sources and cognitive tools the influence of the technology on supporting how students learn will continue to increase. This is the view of Bitter & Legacy et al (2008) in Slavin (2009) where they noted the three general types of technology applications in education and stated that first teachers use ICT in their classroom teaching to plan instruction and present content to their classes. Second students use ICT to explore, practice and prepare papers and presentations, finally teachers and administrators use ICT to accomplish administrative tasks associated with their profession such as assessment, record keeping, reporting and management tasks and these makes teaching-learning experience an appealing one.
Information communication technology has become indispensable of schools. Its application in all spheres of human activities has changed the face of the earth. The world is undergoing tremendous change as a result of advance in science and technology. The school needs such advancement. All Stakeholders in the education industry need to encourage a technological based environment for a better learning and quality output.
There is need to make people aware of the benefits derivable from the use of ICT as this will help to make the society a healthy one, enhance productivity and professional practice. Students should be interested in ICT and ensure they get connected
Anderson, J. R. Greeno, J.G. Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. (2000). Perspectives on learning, thinking, and activity. Educational Researcher, 29 (4)11-13.

Asodike, J. D, Ebong, J.M., Oluwuo, N.M., & Abraham, N. M., (2013). Contemporary Administrative and Teaching Issues in Nigerian Schools Owerri Alphabet Nigeria Publishers.

Becker, H.J. (2001). How are Teachers using computers in instruction? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle W.A.

Ellsworth, J.B., (2000). Surviving change; A Survey of Educational change Models. N.Y; Eric clearing house on Information and Technology.

Hoeffler, T. & Leutner, D. (2006) Instructional animation versus Static picture; A meta-analysis. Poster Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Fransisco, C. A.

Sharma, P.S. (2007). Basic principles of Education. New Delhi Kanishka Publishers.

Slavin, E. R., (2009). Educational Psychology. Theory and Practice. Ohio, Upper saddle River.

Terry, L. (2005) Management Information Systems Singapore Seng Lee Press.

Waxman, H. Pardon, Y. & Arnold, K. (2001). Effective instructional practices for students placed at risk of academic failure in G. Borman, S. Stringfield, & R. Slavin (Eds). Title 1: Compensatory Education at the crossroads. Mahwah, N.J., Eribaum


The term Globalization refers to processes of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.
The term globalization has been increasing use since the mid-1980s and especially since the mid-1990s. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment.
The term globalization is derived from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of social and economic systems. One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled, Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education. A related term, corporate giants, was coined by Charles Taze Russell in 1897 to refer to the largely national trusts and other large enterprises of the time. By the 1960s, both terms began to be used as synonyms by economists and other social scientists. It then reached the mainstream press in the later half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, with antecedents dating back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onwards. Due to the complexity of the concept, research projects, articles, and discussions often remain focused on a single aspect of globalization.

In a certain, important sense, the present human world is more tightly integrated than at any earlier point in history. In the age of the jet plane and satellite dish, the age of global capitalism, the age of ubiquitous markets and global mass media, various commentators have claimed that the world is rapidly becoming a single place. Although this slightly exaggerated description has an important point to make, a perhaps even more striking aspect of the post-cold war world is the emergence — seemingly everywhere — of identity politics whose explicit aim is the restoration of rooted tradition, religious fervour and/or commitment to ethnic or national identities.
It is doubtless true that globalization is a pervasive tendency influencing the lives of people everywhere — from the Amazon rainforest to Nigerian cities. The concept has recently become a fashionable one, and as a result, its meaning is becoming fuzzy. I would propose, therefore, a view of globalization as all the sociocultural processes that contribute to making distance irrelevant. It has important economic, political and cultural dimensions, as well as equally important ethical implications. Truly global processes affect the conditions of people living in particular localities, creating new opportunities and new forms of vulnerability. Risks are globally shared in the age of the nuclear bomb and potential ecological disasters. On the same note, the economic conditions in particular localities frequently (some would say always) depend on events taking place elsewhere in the global system. If there is an industrial boom in Taiwan, towns in the English Midlands will be affected. If oil prices rise, this implies salvation for the oil-exporting Trinidadian economy and disaster for the oil-importing Barbadian one.

Patterns of consumption also seem to merge in certain respects; people nearly everywhere desire similar goods, from cellular phones to readymade garments. Now, naturally a precondition for this to happen is the more or less successful implementation of certain institutional dimensions of modernity, notably that of a monetary economy — if not necessarily wagework and literacy. The ever-increasing transnational flow of commodities, be they material or immaterial, seems to create a set of common cultural denominators which threaten to eradicate local distinctions. The hot-dog (halal or not, as the case may be), the pizza and the hamburger (or, in India, the lamburger) are truly parts of world cuisine; identical pop songs are played at identical discotheques in Costa Rica and Thailand; the same Coca-Cola commercials are shown with minimal local variations at cinemas all over the world, and so on. Investment capital, military power and world literature are similarly being disembedded from the constraints of space; they no longer belong to a particular locality. With the development of the jet plane, the satellite dish and more recently, the Internet, distance no longer seems a limiting factor for the flow of influence, investments and cultural meaning.
Globalization is, in other words, not merely another word for the growing transnational economy. It is true that it is largely driven by technology and economic interests, but it must be kept in mind that it encompasses a wide range of processes that are not in themselves technological or economic. Take the human rights discourse, for example: In the course of the second half of the twentieth century, the ideas and values associated with human rights have spread from educated elites worldwide (and not just, as some wrongly believe, in the West) to villagers and farmers in remote areas. The rapid dissemination of human rights ideas is probably one of the most spectacular successes of globalization.
At the same time, we have in recent years witnessed the growth, in very many societies in all continents, of political movements seeking to strengthen the collective sense of uniqueness, often targeting globalization processes, which are seen as a threat to local distinctiveness and self-determination. A European example with tragic consequences is the recent rise of ethnic nationalism in Croatia and Serbia, but even in the more prosperous and stable European Union, strong ethnic and nationalist movements have grown during the 1990s, ranging from Scottish separatism to the anti-immigration Front National in France. In Asia, two of the most powerful recent examples are the rise of the Taliban to power in Afghanistan and the meteoric success of the Hindu nationalist BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party, “Party of the Indian People”) in India; and many African countries have also seen a strong ethnification of their politics during the last decade, as well as the rise of political Islam in the north. In the Americas, various minority movements, from indigenous groups to African Americans, have with increasing success demanded cultural recognition and equal rights. In sum, politics in the 1990s has to a great extent meant identity politics.
This new political scene, difficult to fit into the old left–right divide, is interpreted in very different ways by the many academics and journalists who have studied them. This is partly because identity politics comes in many flavours: Some are separatist nationalist movements; some represent historically oppressed minorities which demand equal rights; some are dominant groups trying to prevent minorities from gaining access to national resources; some are religious, some are ethnic, and some are regional. Many writers see identity politics in general as an anti-modern counterreaction to the individualism and freedom embodied by globalization, while others see it as the defence of the weak against foreign dominance, or even as a concealed strategy of modernization. Some emphasise the psychological dimension of identity politics, seeing it as nostalgic attempts to retain dignity and a sense of rootedness in an era of rapid change; others focus on competition for scarce resources between groups; some see identity politics as a strategy of exclusion and an ideology of hatred, while yet others see it as the trueborn child of socialism, as an expression of the collective strivings of the underdog.
Neither of these interpretations and judgements tells the whole story, both because the concrete movements in question differ and because the phenomenon of identity politics is too complex for a simple explanation to suffice. What is clear, however, is that the centripetal or unifying forces of globalization and the centrifugal or fragmenting forces of identity politics are two sides of the same coin, two complementary tendencies which must be understood well for anyone wishing to make sense of the global scene at the turn of the millennium.
For a variety of reasons, globalization creates the conditions for localization, that is various kinds of attempts at creating bounded entities — countries (nationalism or separatism), faith systems (religious revitalization), cultures (linguistic or cultural movements) or interest groups (ethnicity). For this reason, a more apt term, coined by sociologist Roland Robertson, might be glocalization. I shall now present some features that the “glocal” identity movements of the turn of the millennium seem to have in common.
First, identity politics always entails competition over scarce resources. Successful mobilisation on the basis of collective identities presupposes a widespread belief that resources are unequally distributed along group lines. “Resources” should be interpreted in the widest sense possible, and could in principle be taken to mean economic wealth or political power, recognition or symbolic power — although what is usually primarily at stake are either economic or political resources.
Secondly, modernisation and globalization actualize differences and trigger conflict. When formerly discrete groups are integrated into shared economic and political systems, inequalities are made visible, since direct comparison between the groups becomes possible. In a certain sense, ethnicity can be described as the process of making cultural differences comparable, and to that extent, it is a modern phenomenon boosted by the intensified contact entailed by globalization. You do not envy your neighbour if you are unaware of his existence.
Thirdly, similarity overrules equality ideologically. Ethnic nationalism, politicized religion and indigenous movements all depict the in-group as homogeneous, as people “of the same kind”. Internal differences are glossed over, and for this reason, it can often be argued that identity politics serves the interests of the privileged segments of the group, even if the group as a whole is underprivileged, since it conceals internal class differences.
Fourthly, images of past suffering and injustice are invoked. To mention a few examples: Serbs bemoan the defeat at the hands of the Turks in Kosovo in 1389; leaders of the Hindu BJP have taken great pains to depict Mughal (Muslim) rule in India from the 1500s as bloody and authoritarian; and the African American movement draws extensively on the history of slavery. Even spokesmen for clearly privileged groups, such as anti-immigrant politicians in Western Europe, may argue along these lines.
Fifthly, the political symbolism and rhetoric evokes personal experiences. This is perhaps the most important ideological feature of identity politics in general. Using myths, cultural symbols and kinship terminology in addressing their supporters, promoters of identity politics try to downplay the difference between personal experiences and group history. In this way, it becomes perfectly sensible for a Serb to talk about the legendary battle of Kosovo in the first person (“We lost in 1389”), and the logic of revenge is extended to include metaphorical kin, in many cases millions of people. The intimate experiences associated with locality and family are thereby projected onto a national screen.
Sixthly, first-comers are contrasted with invaders. Although this ideological feature is by no means universal in identity politics, it tends to be invoked whenever possible, and in the process, historical facts are frequently stretched.
Finally, the actual social complexity in society is reduced to a set of simple contrasts. As Adolf Hitler already wrote in Mein Kampf, the truly national leader concentrates the attention of his people on one enemy at the time. Since cross-cutting ties reduce the chances of violent conflict, the collective identity must be based on relatively unambiguous criteria (such as place, religion, mother-tongue, kinship). Again, internal differences are undercommunicated in the act of delineating boundaries towards the frequently demonised Other.

Identity quality is frequently dismissed as an anachronistic survival from a time when kinship (“blood relations”), religion or local belonging formed the basis of politics. Against this view, it has been argued many times, always correctly, that although identity politics tends to be dressed in traditional garb, beneath the surface it is a product of modernity. The strong emotions associated with a tradition, a culture or a religion can never be mobilised unless people feel that it is under siege. To put it metaphorically: A fish knows nothing of water as long as it is surrounded by it, but the moment it is pulled out into the air, it develops an intense interest in the water and nostalgia for it. Indeed, it could be said that the fish discovers the water only the moment it is removed from it.
Viewed in this way, the collective emotions identity quality depend on reveal themselves to be deeply modern emotions associated with the sense of loss experienced in situations of rapid change. Ethnic nationalism, minority movements and politicized religion offer a larger share of the cake as well as a positive sense of self, and like it or not, these movements will remain influential in most parts of the world until something better comes along.

1. ^ a b Al-Rodhan, R.F. Nayef and Gérard Stoudmann. (2006). Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition.
2. ^ a b Albrow, Martin and Elizabeth King (eds.) (1990). Globalization, Knowledge and Society London: Sage. ISBN 978-0803983243 p. 8. “…all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society.”
3. ^ Stever, H. Guyford (1972). “Science, Systems, and Society.” Journal of Cybernetics, 2(3):1–3. doi:10.1080/01969727208542909
4. ^ a b Frank, Andre Gunder. (1998). ReOrient: Global economy in the Asian age. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520214743
5. ^ “Globalization and Global History (p.127)”. Retrieved 3 July 2012.


Latin America is a subregion of the Americas where Romance languages (i.e., those derived from Latin) or a subset of the Romance language family – always including Spanish and Portuguese, and sometimes including French – are primarily spoken. Latin America has an area of approximately 19,197,000 km2 (7,412,000 sq mi), almost 3.7% of the Earth’s surface or 12.9% of its land surface area. As of 2010, its population was estimated at more than 590 million and it’s combined GDP at 5.16 trillion United States dollars (6.27 trillion at PPP)
Latin America is made of 3 regions, South America, Caribbean, and Middle America (Mexico, Central America and the West Indies are together sometimes called Middle America). Latin America lies in the Western Hemisphere. According to Phelan (1968, p. 296), the term “Latin America” was first used in 1861 in La revue des races Latines, a magazine “dedicated to the cause of Pan-Latinism.
Bolivia officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in central South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina to the south, Chile to the southwest, and Peru to the west. Bolivia is a democratic republic that is divided into nine departments. Its geography is varied from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country, with a Medium Human Development Index score, and a poverty level of 53%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin.
The Bolivian population, estimated at 10 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although the Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages are also common, and all four, as well as 34 other indigenous languages, are official. The large number of different cultures within Bolivia has contributed greatly to a wide diversity in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.
The geography of the country exhibits a great variety of terrains and climates. Bolivia has a high level of biodiversity, considered one of the greatest in the world, as well as several ecoregions with ecological sub-units such as the Altiplano, tropical rainforests (including Amazon rainforest), dry valleys, and the Chiquitania, which is a tropical savanna. These areas feature enormous variations in altitude, from an elevation of 6,542 metres (21,463 ft) above sea level in Nevado Sajama to nearly 70 metres (230 ft) along the Paraguay River. Although a country of great geographic diversity, Bolivia has remained a landlocked country since the War of the Pacific.

1. Bolivia boasts over 200,000 species of seeds, including over 1,200 species of fern, 1,500 species of marchantiophyta and moss, and at least 800 species of fungus. In addition, there are more than 3,000 species of medicinal plants. So most medicinal herbs are from Latin America.
2.Bolivia is considered the place of origin for such species as peppers and chili peppers, peanuts, the common beans, yucca, and several species of palm. Bolivia also naturally produces over 4,000 kinds of potatoes.
3.Bolivia has more than 2,900 animal species, including 398 mammals, over 1,400 birds (70% of birds known in the world, being the sixth most diverse country in terms of bird species) 204 amphibians, 277 reptiles, and 635 fish, all fresh water fish as Bolivia is a landlocked country.
4. Bolivia has gained global attention for its ‘Law of the Rights of Mother Earth’, which accords nature the same rights as humans.
5. Bolivia has since sought to play a significant role in international forums, pursuing its aims for greater social justice, national sovereignty and democracy in global affairs.
6.Bolivian leaders have played a strong role in the process of the UN Climate Change negotiations fighting for a better deal for developing countries and in 2010 Bolivia hosted the World People’s Conference on Climate Change and Mother Earth Rights which sought to galvanise global civil society to pressure for an ambitious, justice based agreement in the international negotiations.
7. Bolivia is a member of a number of regional blocs and organisations – as well as being a member of the Andean Community of Nations trade bloc, Bolivia is also a member of ALBA – the Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra America – along with other left-leaning governments including Venezuela, Cuba, Nicaragua, Ecuador and several Caribbean states. Thereby promoting peace and unity in the region and the world at large.
8. Bolivia is an important gas exporting nation in the region as it account for over 98% of the region gas supply, thus playing a major role in the energy sector of the region.
9. Bolivia has the highest indigenous population in the region which has help in giving indigenous people in the region a sense of belonging in their respective countries in Latin America.
10. Bolivia is one of the largest contributors of aid material and military assistance after Brazil in the region, which has contributed in maintaining regional peace.

Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a leader in the Spanish American wars of independence. The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either keep Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia) under the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from the Viceroyalty of Peru that had dominated most of the region. Sucre opted to create a new nation and, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar.

1. “Moneda de 10 Centavos” [10 Cent Coins] (in Spanish). Central Bank of Bolivia. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
2. Constitute Assembly of Bolivia 2007, p. 2
3. “South America :: Bolivia”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
4. “Report for Selected Countries and Subjects”. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
5. “Bolivia (Plurinational State of)”. United Nations. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
6. “Bolivia (Plurinational State of)”. Who.int. 11 May 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.


Christianity a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning “the anointed one” together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas) is a monotheistic religion based on the life and oral teachings of Jesus as presented in the New Testament. Christianity is the world’s largest religion, with approximately 2.2 billion adherents, known as Christians. Most Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human, and the saviour of humanity whose coming was prophesied in the Old Testament. Consequently, Christians refer to Jesus as “Christ” or the Messiah.
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East, it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few centuries, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, and adherents were gained in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization.[14][15][16] Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.
Christians share a certain set of beliefs that they hold as essential to their faith, though there are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible on which Christianity is based.
Christianity played a significant role in the development of my community in ogoni, rivers state and the effects are visible until today. This is what we would like to show you by giving you some examples including important characters, institutions and events.
Wherever the Christian community is there, they do a lot of charitable service for the uplift of the down-trodden. They do a lot of social activities to help the poor and needy. My community can never forget the contribution of Christians in the fields of education and public health.
Even in the cultural field the contribution of Christian community cannot be ignored. The growth and development of the Ogoni language is heavily indebted to the contribution of missionaries like Herman Gundart and Nidhirickal Mani kathanar. Nasrani Deepika who all have a hand in the first daily News paper in Lagos.
Though the Christian population is meager in almost all my community, the very few people in these locations do a lot of service to the weaker section of the society. Among the Ogonis, Gokana is having the maximum Christian population and the Christian community here send a good number of priests and nuns to the different states in Nigeria for mission work. These Priests and nuns do their service in the remote villages of many Nigeria states. They start schools, Colleges, Hospitals and poor homes for the uplift of the downtrodden section of people in these villages.
These poor people were exploited by the Landlords in these areas for the last many years. They were working like slaves, in the Agricultural fields of these Landlords. When they got educated, they began to question these social injustices. That is why these fuedel Lords are threating the priests and nuns who work for the uplift of these poor people.
Ours is the largest democracy in the Africa. Democracy will be successful only in a country where people are educated. But the curse of our country is the high percentage of illiteracy. The Christian missionaries who have migrated to different parts of Nigeria are conscious about this and they start educational institutions in places. Where they work. Almost all the reasonable people of this county appreciate the work done by the Christian missionaries in different parts of India. The contribution of the Missionaries in the educational field is really praiseworthy. Almost all the famous colleges and schools in different states of Nigeria belong to the missionary order. Nobody can disagree with the fact that though minority communities, Christians are doing yeoman service to the Nation

1. The term “Christian” (Greek Χριστιανός) was first used in reference to Jesus’ disciples in the city of Antioch[Acts 11:26] about 44 AD, meaning “followers of Christ”. The name was given by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch, probably in derision, to the disciples of Jesus. In the New Testament the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were “brethren”, “the faithful”, “elect”, “saints”, “believers”. The earliest recorded use of the term “Christianity” (Greek Χριστιανισμός) was by Ignatius of Antioch, around 100 AD. See Elwell/Comfort. Tyndale Bible Dictionary, pp. 266, 828.
2. Christianity’s status as monotheistic is affirmed in, among other sources, the Catholic Encyclopedia (article “Monotheism”); William F. Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity; H. Richard Niebuhr; About.com, Monotheistic Religion resources; Kirsch, God Against the Gods; Woodhead, An Introduction to Christianity; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Monotheism; The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, monotheism; New Dictionary of Theology, Paul, pp. 496–99; Meconi. “Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity”. p. 111f.
3. Hinnells, The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion, p. 441.
4. Zoll, Rachel (December 19, 2011). “Study: Christian population shifts from Europe”. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 February 2012.


Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a very densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a major producer of palm oil. The area was the British Oil Rivers Protectorate from 1885 until 1893, when it was expanded and became the Niger Coast Protectorate.
The Niger Delta, as now defined officially by the Nigerian government, extends over about 70,000 km² and makes up 7.5% of Nigeria’s land mass. Historically and cartographically, it consists of present day Bayelsa, Delta, and Rivers States. In 2000, however, Obansanjo’s regime included Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Cross River State, Edo, Imo and Ondo States in the region. Some 31 million peopleof more than 40 ethnic groups including the Bini, Efik, Ibibio, Annang, Oron, Ijaw, Itsekiri, Isoko, Urhobo, Ukwuani, and Kalabari, are among the inhabitants in the Niger Delta, speaking about 250 different dialects.
The Niger Delta, and the “South South Zone”, which includes Akwa Ibom State, Bayelsa State, Cross River State, Delta State, Edo State and Rivers State are two different entities. While the Niger Delta is the oil producing region the South South Zone is a geo-political zone.
The delta is an oil-rich region, and has been the centre of international controversy over devastating pollution and ecocide, kleptocracy (notably by the Abacha regime), and human rights violations in which Royal Dutch Shell has been implicated
EcoJustice is seen as an approach that analyzes the increasing destruction of the world’s diverse ecosystems, languages and cultures by the globalizing and ethnocentric forces of Western consumer. EcoJustice perspectives understand social justice to be inseparable from and even imbedded in questions regarding ecological well-being. A made up term used mostly by environmental activists to justify their suspiciously socialistic outlook when making laws which put tighter binds on economic progress. Also used by eco-terrorists to justify bombing other people’s property, placing potentially deadly metal bits in trees marked for felling and other less than sociable activity. In their uses it appears to assume that the earth is a living being capable of feeling pain and they are (usually by arrogant assumption and lack of fact-checking) through their actions somehow righting the wrongs caused to the earth by human existance.
Ecojustice as a movement encolded as the niger delta struggle and resource control believes all Niger deltans and indeed all Nigeria have a fundamental right to enjoy air, land and water that is clean, healthy and safe. Ecojustice represents environmental groups and concerned citizens who feel these rights have been infringed upon by government decisions at any level, or by industries or corporations.
Ecojustice aims to set legal precedents that will ensure a strong and thriving environment for humans and wildlife alike, both for present generations and generations to come. The organization takes on cases at any level, from lower courts to the Supreme Court of Nigeria
While Ecojustice fights battles at municipal and grassroots levels, the organization also plays a role in the strategic development of new environmental laws, often in cooperation with other environmental or conservation groups. Ecojustice works hard at seeing that laws are always an accurate reflection of how the world has developed and changed, and it sees to it that those laws are enshrined and respected within the Nigerian legal system.
Ecological responsibility in linkage with social justice is what the world needs now. Healthy earth community requires advocacy and action on urgent environmental issues in ways that connect with struggles for social and economic justice. Eco-justice envisions and values ecology and justice together, since there will be little environmental health without socio-economic justice, and vice versa. (Some discussions of “sustainability,” a prominent concept in environmental studies and political discourse, have parallel ethical meaning, to the extent that they encompass social justice principles. See Cobb, 1992.)

Today, there is growing appreciation for and “construction of what is often called an ‘eco-justice’ ethic…that holds together concerns for the natural world and for human life, that recognizes that devastation of the environment and economic injustice go hand in hand, and that affirms that environmental and human rights are indivisible” (Pedersen, 1998). The vision and values of eco-justice ethics express a spiritually grounded moral posture of respect and fairness toward all creation, human and nonhuman. E-J ethics are shaped by religious insights and scientific knowledge, interwoven with social, economic and political experience.
How the Term Emerged
After the first Earth Day, “eco-justice” became the theme of a group of North American, ecumenically-engaged Christian ethicists (including this author). In a seminal article on “Ecological Responsibility and Economic Justice,” Episcopal priest Norman Faramelli of the Boston industrial Mission emphasized that “choosing [to work for] ecology instead of [against] poverty, or vice versa, is to make a bad choice;” the way ahead is to choose both (Faramelli, 1970). That posture was not characteristic of the emerging environmental movement, which even today too often lacks passion for, or adequate principles of, social justice. Conversely, many social justice and peace activists viewed environmentalism as a distraction (and even today can remain rather disinterested in sustainability). To foster converging commitments to ecology and justice, American Baptist leaders Richard Jones and Owen Owens introduced the term eco-justice.

By 1973, a strategy to advance integrative ethics of ecology and justice became the focus of an ecumenical campus ministry initiative at Cornell University called the Eco-Justice Project and Network (EJPN), initiated and then coordinated for two decades by Presbyterian social ethicist William E. Gibson. He defined eco-justice as:

the well-being of humankind on a thriving earth,…an earth productive of sufficient food, with water fit for all to drink, air fit to breathe, forests kept replenished, renewable resources continuously renewed, nonrenewable resources used as sparingly as possible so that they will be available [to future generations] for their most important uses…On a thriving earth, providing sustainable sufficiency for all, human well-being is nurtured not only by the provision of these material necessities but also by a way of living within the natural order that is fitting: respectful of the integrity of natural systems and of the worth of nonhuman creatures, appreciative of the beauty and mystery of the world of nature. (Gibson, 1985, 25)

In addition to authoring several substantive essays on the subject, Gibson solicited short articles by engaged scholars on a range of eco-justice topics and published them in a quarterly journal he edited called The Egg, selections from which were recently republished under one cover (Gibson, 2004, Parts I & II). Within two decades, a significant body of writings emerged that emphasize respect for everykind and show intersecting concern for ecology, justice and faith (See diagram in Bakken et al., l995).
Norms of Eco-Justice Ethics
The basic norms of eco-justice ethics can be summarized as follows:

* solidarity with other people and creatures – companions, victims, and allies – in earth community, reflecting deep respect for diverse creation;
* ecological sustainability – environmentally fitting habits of living and working that enable life to flourish, and utilize ecologically and socially appropriate technology;
* sufficiency as a standard of organized sharing, which requires basic floors and definite ceilings for equitable or “fair” consumption;
* socially just participation in decisions about how to obtain sustenance and to manage community life for the good in common and the good of the commons.

The solidarity norm comprehends the full dimensions of earth community and of inter-human obligation. Sustainability gives high visibility to ecological integrity and wise behavior throughout the resource-use cycle. The third and fourth norms highlight the distributive and participatory dimensions of basic social justice. These norms illumine an overarching imperative: to pursue right relations in reinforcing ways that are both ecologically fitting and socially just. (Hessel, 1996 offers a more detailed discussion).

Each norm is ends-oriented and means-clarifying, illumining both where we want to go and how to get there. The observance of each ethical norm reinforces and qualifies the others in contextual decision-making oriented to just and sustainable community. All four are core values or criteria to guide personal practice, issue analysis, and policy advocacy. An ethic of eco-justice applies comprehensively to ominous environmental threats intersecting with major societal problems.

Bakken, Peter, Joan Gibb Engel and J. Ronald Engel. 1995. Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith: A Critical Guide to the Literature. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, Preface, xvii.
Birch, Charles. 1975. “Creation, Technology, and Human Survival,” taped recording, reels 1 & 2 at the World Council of Churches Assembly, Nairobi, Kenya.
Cobb, John B., Jr. 1992. Sustainability: Economics, Ecology, and Justice. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Engel, J. Ronald. 2007. “The Earth Charter as a New Covenant for Democracy,” Religion and Culture Web Forum of the Martin Marty Center, University of Chicago. This posted essay expands on Engel’s article, “A Covenant Model of Global Ethics,” in Worldviews, 8, 1, 2004.

Faramelli, Norman. 1970. “Ecological Responsibility and Economic Justice,” in the Andover Newton Quarterly, Vol. 11, November.
Gibson, William E. 1985. “Eco-Justice: New Perspective for a Time of Turning,” in D. T. Hessel, ed., For Creation’s Sake: Preaching, Ecology, and Justice. Philadelphia: Geneva Press, 15-31.
________. 2004. Eco-Justice—the Unfinished Journey. Albany: Sate University of New York Press.


An attitude is an expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object). Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport once described attitudes “the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology.”. Attitude can be formed from a person’s past and present. Attitude is also measurable and changeable as well as influencing the person’s emotion and behavior.
In lay language, attitude may refer to the distinct concept of mood, or be especially synonymous with teenage rebellion.
This definition of attitude allows for one’s evaluation of the religion to vary from extremely negative to extremely positive, but also admits that people can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object meaning that they might at different times express both positive and negative attitude toward the same object. This has led to some discussion of whether individual can hold multiple attitudes toward the same object.
Whether attitudes are explicit (i.e., deliberately formed) versus implicit (i.e., subconscious) has been a topic of considerable research. Research on implicit attitudes, which are generally unacknowledged or outside of awareness, uses sophisticated methods involving people’s response times to stimuli to show that implicit attitudes exist (perhaps in tandem with explicit attitudes of the same object). Implicit and explicit attitudes seem to affect people’s behavior, though in different ways. They tend not to be strongly associated with each other, although in some cases they are. The relationship between them is poorly understood.
Religion is an organized collection of belief systems, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the Universe. From their ideas about the cosmos and human nature, they tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred lifestyle. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world.
According to the World Christian Encyclopedia, there are approximately 1 billion Muslims, over 650 million Hindus, over 300 million Buddhists, over 200 million followers of Chinese folk religion, in addition to the world’s 1.6 billion nominal Christians. What is important for us to understand is that these figures are more than statistics in a book or almanac. They represent real people; people who are born, live, and die every day.
In carrying out my research,what brings this reality home even more, however, is the fact that an increasing number of followers of non-Christian religions are living in our cities, in our communities, and in our neighborhoods. Islamic mosques and Buddhist and Hindu worship centers can be found in every metropolitan area of the United States.
As followers of Jesus Christ, what should our attitude be toward non-Christian religions and toward those who embrace them? Among those who are seeking to respond to this question, three distinct answers can be heard today. Some are saying that we must acknowledge that all religions are equally (or nearly equally) valid as ways to approach God. Though there may be superficial differences among the world’s religions, at heart they are fundamentally the same. Often the analogy is used of people taking different paths up the same mountain, but all arriving at the same summit. This is the viewpoint known as religious pluralism.
Others, more anxious to preserve some sense of uniqueness for the Christian faith, yet equally desirous of projecting an attitude of tolerance and acceptance, are committed to the viewpoint known as Christian inclusivism. In their opinion, though people of another religious conviction may be ignorant of Christ–or possibly even have rejected Him–yet because of their positive response to what they know about God, or even due to their efforts to follow the dictates of their conscience, they are unknowingly included in the number of those who are recipients of Christ’s salvation. The analogy is sometimes used of a person who receives a gift, but is unaware of who the ultimate giver of the gift may be.
A third viewpoint is known as Christian exclusivism. This is the viewpoint traditionally held by the majority of those who accept the Bible as their authority in spiritual matters. It is the view that though there are indeed truths and values in many other religions, there is only one saving truth, namely the gospel of Jesus Christ. This view is most naturally deduced from Jesus’ well known statement: “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except by me” (John 14:6).
What should the Christian’s attitude be toward non-Christian religions and their followers? This is a question becoming more difficult to ignore. To answer this question accurately and fairly we must look into the way non-Christian religions began.
In the course of this text, we have examined the attitude of religious pluralism, as well as that of Christian inclusivism. The former holds that all religions are equally valid. The latter holds that Christ is the unique savior, but that His salvation can extend to followers of other religions. In both cases, we concluded that the evidence in support of these views is inadequate.
The only remaining option is the attitude of Christian exclusivism–the view that biblical Christianity is true, and that other religious systems are false. This is more than implied in numerous biblical statements, such as in Acts 4:12: “And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men, by which we must be saved.”
This is not to say, however, that there are no truths at all in non-Christian religions. There are certainly moral and ethical truths, for instance, in Buddhism. In Buddha’s Eightfold Path, he appealed to his followers to pursue honesty, charity, and service, and to abstain from murder and lust. We should certainly affirm these ethical truths.
Likewise, there are theological truths in other religions–truths about God that we could equally affirm. These may be more scarce in religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism. But Orthodox Judaism and Islam certainly share our belief in a personal Creator–God, though Christianity is unique in the monotheistic tradition with regard to the doctrine of the Trinity. There are even truths about Jesus that we share in common with Muslims–that He was a prophet of God, and the Messiah, and that He worked many miracles, though they deny that He was the Son of God, or that He died for the sins of the world.
We can, and should affirm these moral and theological truths that we share in common with followers of other religions. We must acknowledge, however, that in no other religion is any saving truth to be found. And as mentioned earlier, there is no other religion that presents the human dilemma, or solution to that dilemma, in quite the same way as does the Christian faith. In Christianity, the problem is not ignorance of our divine nature–as in Hinduism–nor simply our desire–as in Buddhism. The problem is our alienation from God and His blessing due to our failure to live according to His will–what the Bible calls sin. And the solution is neither in self-discipline, nor in revised thinking, nor even in moral effort. The solution lies in the grace of God, expressed in His provision of His Son, Jesus Christ, as a sacrifice for our sin. Salvation is not something we achieve; it is something we receive.
It is clear, then, that though there are superficial similarities among the world’s religions, there are fundamental differences. And the most important difference is the person and work of Christ.

What should our attitude be toward followers of other religions? It is important for us to distinguish our attitude toward non-Christian religions from our attitude toward followers of those religions. Though we are to reject the religion, we are not to reject them by mistakenly perceiving them to be “the enemy.” The biblical injunction is to love our neighbors as much as we love ourselves no matter what their religion. Rather than viewing them as “the enemy,” we should see them as “the victims” of the enemy who are in need of the same grace that has freed us from spiritual slavery–in need of the gospel of Jesus Christ.
In light of this, it is clear that our attitude toward other religions ought to be to accept and honor whatever is good in them—as judged against the full Revelation of God in Jesus Christ—while identifying what is evil or erroneous and seeking out of love to bring their adherents into the full light of the Gospel.

That attitude includes three major points, which are quoted below, again verbatim:
1. All men form but one community. This is so because all stem from the one stock which God created to people the entire earth (cf. Acts 17:26), and also because all share a common destiny, namely God…. Men look to their different religions for an answer to the unsolved riddles of human existence…. The Catholic Church rejects nothing of what is true and holy in these religions. (#1-2)
2. Yet she proclaims and is in duty bound to proclaim without fail, Christ who is the way, the truth and the life (Jn. 1:6). In him, in whom God reconciled all things to himself (2 Cor. 5:18-19), men find the fullness of their religious life. (#2)
3. Accordingly, following the footsteps of the holy apostles Peter and Paul, the sacred Council earnestly begs the Christian faithful to “conduct themselves well among the Gentiles” (1 Pet. 2:12) and if possible, as far as depends on them, to be at peace with all men (cf. Rom 12:18 ) and in that way to be true sons of the Father who is in heaven (cf. Mt. 5:45). (#5)
While we must keep all of this in mind when we deal with the problems and opportunities posed by other religions, we cannot do everything at once. Therefore, we may commend what is good in another religion in some contexts while focusing on what is deficient or even evil in other contexts.

1. Allport, Gordon. (1935). “Attitudes,” in A Handbook of Social Psychology, ed. C. Murchison. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press, 789–844.
2. Allport, Gordon. (1935). “Attitudes,” in A Handbook of Social Psychology, ed. C. Murchison. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press, 789–844.
3. https://www.catholicculture.org/commentary/articles.cfm?id=577