A manometer could also refer to a pressure measuring instrument, usually limited to measuring pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is often used to refer specifically to liquid column hydrostatic instruments. Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure pressure are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges.

A Manometer is a device which can be used to measure pressure of fluids(i.e liquids and Gases).
PRINCIPLE: Manometers are those pressure measuring devices which are based on the principle of balancing the column of liquid(whose pressure is to be found) by the same or another column of liquid. They are of two types
1. simple manometers
2.Differential manometers
simple manometers are those which measure pressure at a point in a fluid containing in the pipe or a vessel. On the other hand Differential manometers measure the difference of pressure between any two points in a fluid contained in a pipe or vessel.


A manometer is design to measure the pressure in a vacuum—which is further divided into two subcategories, high and low vacuum (and sometimes ultra-high vacuum). The applicable pressure range of many of the techniques used to design vacuums have an overlap. Hence, by combining several different types of gauge, it is possible to measure system pressure continuously from 10 mbar down to 10−11 mbar.

In practice, a flattened thin-wall, closed-end tube is connected at the hollow end to a fixed pipe containing the fluid pressure to be measured. As the pressure increases, the closed end moves in an arc, and this motion is converted into the rotation of a (segment of a) gear by a connecting link that is usually adjustable. A small-diameter pinion gear is on the pointer shaft, so the motion is magnified further by the gear ratio. The positioning of the indicator card behind the pointer, the initial pointer shaft position, the linkage length and initial position, all provide means to calibrate the pointer to indicate the desired range of pressure for variations in the behaviour of the Bourdon tube itself. Differential pressure can be measured by gauges containing two different Bourdon tubes, with connecting linkages.


Industrial applications:
Pressure guages are used for a variety of industrial and application specific pressure monitering applications. visual monitering of air and gas pressure for compressors,Vaccum equipment and speciality tank applications such as medical gas cylinders, fire extinguishers,


• ^ “Glass Online: The History of Glass”. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
• ^ Douglas, R. W. (1972). A history of glassmaking. Henley-on-Thames: G T Foulis & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-85429-117-2.
• ^ M. I. Ojovan (2004). “Glass Formation in Amorphous SiO2 as a Percolation Phase Transition in a System of Network Defects”. JETP Letters 79 (12): 632–634. Bibcode 2004JETPL..79..632O. doi:10.1134/1.1790021.
• ^ NIST
• ^ Methods for the Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes, Part 1. Orifice Plates, Nozzles and Venturi Tubes. British Standards Institute. 1964. p. 36.
• ^ [Was: “”. At 1/2010 that took me to bad link. Types of fluid Manometers]
• ^ Techniques of high vacuum
• ^ Beckwith, Thomas G.; Roy D. Marangoni and John H. Lienhard V (1993). “Measurement of Low Pressures”. Mechanical Measurements (Fifth ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 591–595. ISBN 0-201-56947-7.
• ^ The Engine Indicator Canadian Museum of Making


China officially the People’s Republic of China (PRC), is the world’s most populous country, with a population of over 1.3 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres, the East Asian state is the world’s second-largest country by land area,[14] and the third- or fourth-largest in total area, depending on the definition of total area.[15]
The People’s Republic of China is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China.[16] It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau).[17] Its capital city is Beijing.[18] The PRC also claims Taiwan—which is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity—as its 23rd province, a claim controversial due to the complex political status of Taiwan and the unresolved Chinese Civil War. The PRC government denies the legitimacy of the ROC.
China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world. There is evidence that a form of association football was played in China around 1000 AD.[383] Today, some of the most popular sports in the country include martial arts, basketball, football, table tennis, badminton, swimming and snooker. Board games such as go (known as weiqi in China), xiangqi, and more recently chess, are also played at a professional level.[384]
Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture. Morning exercises are a common activity, with elderly citizens encouraged to practice qigong and t’ai chi ch’uan.[385] Young people in China are also keen on basketball, especially in urban centers with limited space and grass areas. The American National Basketball Association has a huge following among Chinese youths, with ethnic Chinese players such as Yao Ming being held in high esteem.[386] Commercial gyms and fitness clubs are rapidly gaining popularity in China, with over 3,000 such establishments serving around 3 million active subscribers in China’s major cities in 2010.[387]
Many more traditional sports are also played in China. Dragon boat racing occurs during the annual nationwide Dragon Boat Festival, and has since gained popularity abroad. In Inner Mongolia, sports such as Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are popular. In Tibet, archery and equestrianism are a part of traditional festivals.[388]
China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has only participated as the PRC since 1952. China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals – the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.[389] China will host the 2013 East Asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing.
1. ^ Chan, Kam Wing (2007). “Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China’s Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications”. Eurasian Geography and Economics 48 (4): 383–412. doi:10.2747/1538-7216.48.4.383. Retrieved 7 August 2011. p. 395
2. ^ “What are China’s largest and richest cities?” University of Southern California – US-China Institute, 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
3. ^ a b “Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)”. Retrieved 27 April 2010. “For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua (a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect) and the standardized Chinese characters.”


Crime is an economically important activity which according to Becker (1968) is almost totally neglected by economist. This neglect makes economics of crime a relatively new filed for economic investigation that has been aided by the fact that in the last four decades, there has been an outstanding increase in criminal activities as some reports and studies have conferred in Nigeria (CLEEN, 2006: Motor, 2009 among others).
Factors affecting crime and determinants is closely related to poverty, social exclusion, income inequality, cultural and family background, religion, unemployment, education, age, gender, race, urbanization and a host of other economic and socio-demographic factors that influence the mind and behaviour of the individual in making decision (Buonanno and montolio, 2008: Gumus 2004; Motor, 2009; and Rustepeli and Ond, 2006). As such, criminal activities are not restricted to economic systems or to leadership styles. In addition, crimes are also not peculiar to level of economic growth and development. This is not to say however, that criminal activities are similar or same across countries. In Nigeria society, there are “the weaks” as well as “the strong” The physical social political and economically weak” and vice versa. As is the case in human nature, one group wants to feed and grow on the other. As a result this, there are social ills such as crimes these may include thuggery, armed robbery, airson, murder, rape, burglary, assault and other various forms of crimes all over the place.
People find it difficult to obey the law, hence traffic rules are fragrantly disobeyed, leading to high accident rates, which results in lost of lives and properties. The afore-discussed, underscored the need for a body responsible for the protection and enforcement of law and order in the land.
Iwarimie – Jaja (2000-28) has defined crime in a legal sense as an intentional act or omission in violation of prescribed defense or justification and prescribed by the state Antonomy as a felony, Misdemeanor or simple offense.
Other victims of the armed robbers and assassinations included Dr. Obi Wali, Kudirate Abiola, Alfred Rewane, Madam Esther Tejuosho, Toyin Onagunruwa etc. Ekpenyoung (999:25) agree with his when he writes: New to the scene and Imo State violence in Nigeria is the rising tide of assassination, which have left the citizens in fear. These brutal Killings cut across every stratum of the society. An exhaustive list of the case of assassination in the past five years would be difficult, it not impossible to prepare since most of them go Unreported in the dailies.
These criminals and assassins carrying out their nefariour deeds in gangs against innocent people and they are frequently hired to kill and inflict injuries and to commit other types of criminal acts. This appears to have declared war on the nation and have succeeded in instilling anxiety fear, insecurity and helplessness on the Imo State population. According Mohamed Akran delivered on July 8.1999:13at a National Seminar on Sharia and the problem of indiscipline in Niger quoting a Paris-based interpol’s international criminal statistics said that: In 1987 about 19, 153 cases of aggravated robberies were reported. The number fumbed to 150, 187 in 1990. By this same year about 216 criminals were killed. As at today, the number of criminals killed has sky rocked beyond human Understanding National Concord Newspaper, September 8, 1999.
As state earlier, the statistical analysis of factors affecting crimes. These factors are treated as explanatory variable in the specification of the model. Factors that affects crime is income variable. There exists several ways of capturing the income variables in economics of crime.
These problem are so serious that the police finds it difficult to do their duties, more so, that it is longer news to hear that the police social agitations, etc. in this country. Almost everyday, our media house report increase in the rate of violent crime e.g robbery, car-Snatvls nbot as if the police lack the ability, the print is that there is extremely poor and inadequate, communication process and network couple with statistical performance.
It takes two or more days for information of a crime incident to circulate within an ordinary division, not to mention Imo State or the country as a whole. It is apparent the equipment such as radio sets, telephone in all station, Walkier-talkie and vehicles, just to mention a few, are in short supply. Vehicles in terms if carrying personnel from one point to another, carrying message from one division to another, for anti-crime patrol, etc aimed at checking the crime rate.
The statistical communications problem does not rest on internal and crime performance only. The link between the police and the public is just not effective. There is no adequate information no what the police is just not effective. There is not adequate information on what the police are doing. Thus, inturn affect their image. This has reached to Imo State whereby the Nigeria police finds it difficult to relate crime will with the public. They are not considered credible by the public. This led to a situation whereby Akhagbicha, G. (1886) in its “police and the society” Committed thus; a…but when a policeman refuses to show mercy and understand on the society that shelters, cloth and feed him, the society, then se the every language or means to condemn him, hence the general contempt for police in our society” still the mean of the force seem not to understand not like themselves. All these out together, weight down the overall statistical analysis of crime factors affecting in Imo State? And to what extend does this phenomenon affect police in crime detection and prevention?.
The purpose of this is to identify the various statistical analysis of factors affecting crime in Imo State and its possible set backs and how it rendered Nigeria police to determined crimes of its principal functions or duties of crime prevention and detection ineffective, taking Imo State police Commanda s a study post. It is also intended to find out how and to what extend statistical analysis is crime management performance has assisted the Nigeria police in Imo State in bringing the Crime wave of the State to the workable solution or method of detecting and preventing crime in this country as a whole by the entire Nigeria police force in Imo State.

It is the intention of the research to verify the following hypothesis.
H01: That a greater percentage of the factors affecting statistical management positions in the
H02: That lack of sufficient equipment apart from Communities equipment negatively affect the attitude of policemen detecting Crime.
The significance of this study lies on fact that: finding of this research will serve as feedback to statistical Analysis factors affecting crime in Imo State both at federal. This study will also provided need information which as a reference, will assist both crime and government in policy formation.
The social factors used in the analysis are education and deterreve or clearance rate. Education and deterreve do not significance explain total crime and property crime.
Moreover, the study will serve as a source of information for researchers and the reading public as a whole may find need to know about the crime and how. Factors affecting the performance has adverse effects on managing their resources and it will enable them to appreciate the difficulties faced by them- the crime.
This study intends to address the following question;
(1) What are the factors affecting statistical Analysis performance on the overall performance of the crime detection?
(2) What are the consequences of police present level of factors, on their acceptability by the members of the public?
(3) What negative influence does the present level of police performance on detection of crime.

1. Uzuakpuurdu, Nduka (1990) Police, National Concord Tuesday 17 March 1987, page:3

2. The Sunday Mail Newspaper (1986)
The Police and the Society, Editorial Colum Sunday October 5, 1986 Vol.1 N0.7 page:6.

3. Jaja, A.N (1988) Managing the police Organization in Nigeria. An unpublished MBA Thesis, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

4. The Police Act Section 3

5. The 1979 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Section 195

6. Member C.F (1982) Nigeria Police and Law Enforcement Standard Police Studies Manual Vol.1 Koda publishers., Port Harcourt.

2.0 Definition of Crime
The concept of “Crime” is very relative, crime is a term widely used by law-persons to identify such act as embezzlement, forced sex, murder and robbery. However, in the concise Oxford Dictionary, Crime is referred to as acts punishable by Law” as a Major societal problem, many scholars have attempted its definition. Haralambo views crime as those activities that break the law of the Land and are subject to official punishment haralambo, 1980”406. Along this line of thought, Pail suggests that behaviour can only be considered a crime if it is contrary to any formal laws of society (Pail 1977:328) cited in Jwarimie Jaja (2000), Thus, in societies where there is existence of laws against such behaviour as prostitution, homosexualism, alcoholism, stealing, embezzlement, suicide, homicide and arson, person whose behaviour go contrary to the rules of law are most likely to prosecuted, and if found guilty, they are convicted for a period stipulated by such law, cited Jwarimie Jaja (200).
This chapter will highlight the statistical analysis of factors affecting crime in Imo State. This chapter will provide a framework of the model that analyses the factor which affect crime. Crime which constitute the decision variables are its expenditure on police, courts and the size and forms of punishment, Criminal subculture. Analysis of the theories socio-economic environment of crime.
There are several definition of the crime of violence as there are many criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, philosophers etc while some scholars hold the view that the state is the only body which has the moral right to embark on any act of violence Webber, 1947, Welter, 1964; Anifowose 1982), others are of the opinion that violence serves different purposes.
Kpwalski (1990) contended that fear of crime in rural /urban areas is pretended in Larger farmer than Smaller Ones and highest among tracts of land that are not contiguous.
Iwarimie Jaja (2003:327) posited that there has always been a debate among criminologists on the issues of poverty as a course of crime in society. He emphasized that many criminologists agree that poverty is related to poor condition of existence they posit that crime is a direct result of economic deprivation or indirect of the outcome from the mobility of some individuals achieve the economic and educational requirement for legitimate earnings from work

The effects of crime in our society in recent years and in several parts of Nigeria, particularly Imo State is perceived as a social problems demanding solution. In Imo State Crime poses an immediate threat to may people as everyone is aware of the harm done by crime. There are, for instance, the physical abuses on persons as result of armed robbery activates, the consumer who swindled, the householder who comes home to find his/her house looted and the businesses executive whose profit is diminished by the thievery of his employees and the regular robbing of banks.
In line with this, Charles Swanson et al (1988) Categorized the effect of crime on society in three negative ways. According to them, when individual commit crimes and escape prosecution, future illegal acts or crimes are encouraged. An escalating crime rate requires that resources which could be devoted to other social problems will be diverted to the crime control effect, resulting in the further entrenchment of such ills as poverty, substandard housing and inadequate medical care.
As the crime rate increases, our system of government faces the real possibility of crises of confidence in its ability to maintain public welfare, finally, crimes tear the fabric of social relations and living patterns. People become fearful of stranger and being on the streets during dark hours, homes and become fortresses and families move to new location in search of a secure life. A terrible reality is that until significant inroads are made in controlling crime, the overall quality of life is lower than it could be.

This study was carried out in Imo State, which estimated results for total crimes, property crime and crime against individuals for each, for annual sets observation were used, namely 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 and appropriates ample would be drawn from there.
All crimes from the twenty-two Local Government Area in Imo State. The crime variable is positive and statistically significant in explaining contemporary crime in the analysis.
Population of this study describe effective polices is to among other things support policy players in implementry appropriate and adequate policies. If such policy objectives is targeted at reducing crimes. The questionnaires are uniform in nature because it will enable us get accurate and comprehensive result.
1. The data for this research was derived from two sources, Primary and Secondary. These are described as follows;
The Primary Sources
(i) Questionnaire:- Questionnaires are used to enable us reveal certain underly information which may not naturally be revealed through personal interviews. Moreso, the question were answered by the respondents at his/her own pace. We honour distributed lightly questionnaires, which are designed which both structured and semi-structured questions.
(ii) Oral Interviews:- The oral interview were used to collect data from those who could not fill the questionnaire owing to time constraint, the answers so received were synchronized with the questionnaires and those outside the framework of the questionnaire noted by the researchers.
(iii) Observation:- The researcher will be particularly involved in the crime so that the crimes attitude can be observed clearly. This method of participant observation made it possible for us to observe crime and its affects very critically without their knowing.

We made very extensive use of secondary source of data. Libraries, academic journals, textbooks, newspapers magazines and other relevant information.
A portion of the population selected for study as a representation of the entire population is called sampling therefore, simple randomization was administer questionnaires, and obtain their responses on the subject matter. This type of method is used because of inadequate fund with which to enable researcher to cover the state adequately and also, it is intended to limit the area to a manageable size. As a result of this only state police headquarter was randomly selected to serve the purpose.
4.0 Results, Summary of Major Findings
4.1 Summary of Findings
This study strived to identify the statistical analysis of factors affecting crime in Imo State. The poor performance of the police on this aspect of her functions has generated cost of controversies and the level of relationship between the police and public has been such that nobody known what is actually going on; so that there has been lost of misconceptions about the true nature of things in the statistical analysis of factors affecting crime.
The foregoing may then explain why the finding of this research will help to provide answers to a number of questions which the society of Nigerians may be interested to know.
Therefore, this study has been able to record the following findings.
i. The absence of good and effective communication equipment and network factors affecting crime detection; and also hindrance to the management of the Nigeria police force and this inadequacy.
ii. A larger number of statistics department / officers (staff) do not posses higher education background, and initial statistical training..
iii. The specific communication problems the Nigeria crime force is facing include;
(a) Inadequate vehicles
(b) Lack of Communication equipment (for example, radio sets / walkie talk and telephones) in their offices/ stations).
(c) Ineffective and hindered internal communication channel within.
iv. There is no adequate planning good staffing training and regular research work on methods of crime prevention/ detection and this had negatively affected their overall performance. This inadequacies was necessitated by government neglect on police and ignorance of these activates on the part of the police.

Table 4.01: Statistical Analysis of Data Member of Crime Detection
S.N0 Items Factors No. of Respondents Percentage Responses
1 Male 32 15 61
Female 16 5 39
Total 48 20 100
2 Age
18-28yrs 23 10 24
29-39yrs 10 6 50
40yrs & above 7 4 16
Total 48 20 100
3 Education Qualification
Standard 6/FSLC 6 10
Model 31/G.Iv – –
Diploma/NCE 8 20
Degree 10 30
Total 42 100
4 Bank
PCS/Insprs/Rank 30 70
File 18 30
Total 48 100
5 Total position Held
SPOS 4 5
CRO 10 20
TOP MGT 12 12
Others 10 8
Total 48 100
Any initial statistics
Mgt training
Yes 8 20
No 40 80
Total 48 100
6 Absence of good and effective communication is a major statistical Analysis hindrance in Crime prevention/Detection
Yes 44 96
No 4 4
Total 48 100
7 If Yes, how does this statistical Analysis affect you while on duty
Adversely 42 86
Not much 8 14
No effect –
Total 48 100

8 Type of communication Problem Faced
Lack of vehicle 13 10
Lack of radio/ walkie talkie 5 4
No Telephone _ _
Uneffective Communication channel _ _
All of the above 30 78
Total 48 100
9 What causes crime-public relationship
Absence of International forum 10 15
Public are difficult 5 8
Poor crime crisis 23 65
Others 10 12
Total 48 100
10 Absence of Adequate planning, Good staffing and Regular research negatively affects Statistical Analysis
Yes 46 96
No 2 4
Total 48 100
11 How do you feel when there is inadequate material to work with
Disappointment 29 61
Normal 1 1
Frustrated 12 30
Crime/Detection, I feel learning the job. 6 8
Total 48 100
12 Effects of such situation above
I will try to work 16 33
I refuse to work 10 21
I will work but not sufficiently 22 46
Total 48 100
13 Nature of salary scale in statistics Department / Crime detection
Very poor 46 96
Commensurate 2 –
Satisfactory – 4
Total 48 100
14 How regular do you have aimed at detecting / preventing crime
Weekly _
Monthly _
Only when found necessary CP 6 6
Not at all 42 94
Total 48 100
15 How many best system do you adopt in crime prevent / detection
Yes 40 73
N0 8 27
Total 48 100
16 Do you know any criminal
17 How often do you patrol these hide ours
18 Provision of effective communication Net /work wire improve performance
Yes 40 80
No 8 20
Total 48 100
19 What do you think should be done to improve crime detection
Increase salary and allowance 5 10
Provision for more communication and other equipment 5 10
More men and training 8 8
All of the above 30 72
Total 48 100
20 Daily Patrols of criminal hide outs is needed
Yes 40 90
No 8 10
Total 48 100

Beside the crime detection officer questionnaires are the members of the public which in itself is also important in this research. The respondents here were also randomly selected particularly where the statistics Analysis of factors affecting Crime in Imo State of the 30 (thirty) respondents that respondent to the questions 24, were competed and return which also represents 70%.
Table 4.02 : Analysis of Data members of public Questionnaires
Items/Factors No. of Response Percentage
1 Gender
Male 19 79
Female 5 21
Total 24 100
2 Occupation
Civil servant 11 45
Students 9 37.5
Others 4 16.5
Total 24 100
3 What is your opinion about the overall performance of the Nigeria (Crime Detection)
Above average – 1
Average 4 25
Below average 20 75
Total 24 100
4 If you think the people have performed below average, what in your opinion is responsible
Poor communication 17 29
Inadequate personnel – –
Poor salary 6 25
Poor condition of service 1 4
All of the above 10 42
Total 24 100
5 Does the above problem hinder their crime patrol team
Yes 17 71
No 7 29
6 Beside the crime problems in question how do you know their difficulties
Lack of community and 7 29
Other equipment
Accommodation 3 13
Poor and irregular pay 1 4
All of the above 13 54
Total 24 100
7 Do you see the statistical department as having good management
Yes – –
Blank 24 100
Total 24 100
8 From the way you see the police in trying to detected prevent crime to the bearest minimum
What crime / problem(s) do you identify with them (state)
9 Do you think that there is adequate planning, staffing and regular research on crime prevent /detection
Yes _ _
No 24 100
Total 24 100
10 If no what do you think is responsible?
Government neglect 1 4
Government ignorance and lack of initiative 6 25
Both 1 & 2 above 10 42
Lack of co-operation from members of the public 7 29
Total 24 100
11 How do you assess police public relationship with crime?
Cordial 6 25
Not cordial 10 42
Average 7 29
Enemity 1 4
Blank – –
Total 24 100
12 Prevention /Detection of crime force
Yes _ _
No 24 100
Blank _ –
Total 24 100
13 Factors affecting police regular not detecting crime
Ineffective communication 6 25
Police high- handedness 1 4
Poor record of crime 7 29
All of the above 16 42
24 100
14 What in your opinion, will make for a better police /public relation(s) in Imo State crime detection.
15 State other specific ways /methods police should detect the hide out or adopt in preventing /detecting crime

5.0 This section will feature the discussion of the data analyzed in the previous section of this chapter. Based on the research assumptions and questions, formulated or raised at the beginning of the study. The questions shall be examined and discussed, of this study. The questions shall be examined and discussed; and conclusion shall be draw to check if these hypothesis have been proved or disapproved, and answer to these questions provided. The instrument of discussion will centre, not only on the questionnaires, but also on subjective reactions or responses derived from oral interview and personal investigations which served as supplement to the questionnaire in data gathering.
As questionnaires were randomly administered on policemen and members of the public selected top senior detecting officer of force were interviewed as well as few-informed members of the public.

From the foregoing, it is no more a hidden fact the Nigeria police could in Imo State. Could have not performed effectively in term of hinders its proper statistical management department. Principal in the catalogue of problem is communication on. This becomes essential in that it is a unifying factor as for as police duties is concerned. No work can be done or accomplished in the Nigeria. If information is not passed from one person to the other or from one place to another neither could be effectively done, if men/women, equipment and their logistic materials are not moved from one place to an area where they are most needed. If the interaction amongst members –officers and men between detecting crime I the organization, and other organization like members of the public is not effective and efficient crime detecting by the police force, problems of the organization as it relates to its communication need should be properly and articulately addressed.
There is no doubt that an improve security system will translate into improve economy, since investors will come in only when they are assured of the security of their lives and properties.
On the basic of the objectives of the study, the data collected and statistical analysis. The following recommendation will be useful in remedying the situation.
Firstly, the government should pay particular attention to the quality person employed. Since it is a specialized area they should employed those with a far if not good knowledge of statistics to man the section head of the section should be a statistians to check the various departments.
The government should equip, the section with modern equipment such as radio sets, walkie talkier, telephone, this will improve security system.
The government of Imo State should also invest in training and retraining of the personnel and keep enabling environment that will encourage or enable the staff of section to improve themselves through supplementary education.
Corruption, indiscipline, tribalism, financial mismanagement and inadequate training of men make the Nigeria detection crime force difficult to manage effectively.
Finally Government should make provision of good and effective communication and other related equipment, as well as increase in salary and allowances, better training and retraining of policeman to detect crime will improve the management performance of the Nigeria police crime detection.

Figure 1:
Police council
Police service commission
Departments -(AIGS)
Zonal Command -(AIGS)
State Command -(CPS)
Area Commands -(ACS)
Division -(DPOS)
Stations/Post S/Os
External organizational chart of the Nigeria police detecting crime force showing communication flow, command and control
Figure II: Composition of the Nigeria police detection crime.
Force zones.
S/N0 Composition State Headquarters
1 Kano, Kastina, Kaduna, Jigawa, Zamfara
2 Lagos, Ogun, Uyo, Ekiti Abeokuta
3 Yobe, Adamawa, Bornu, Bauchi, Nasarawa Yola
4 Ebnue, Plateau, Taraba, Enugu, Combe Markurdi
5 Edo, Delta, Anambra, Rivers And Bayelsa Benin
6 Cross- River, Imo, Akwa Ibon, Abia and Eboyi Calabar
7 FCT-Abuja, Kebi, Sokoto and Niger Abuja
8 Ondo, Kogi, Osun, Kwara Akure

Figure 2: Composition of the Nigeria police Detecting Crime Force Zones
S/N0 State Command Headquarters
1 Abia Umuahia
2 Adamawa Yola
3 Anambra Awka
4 Akwa- Ibom Uyo
5 Bauchi Bauchi
6 Bayelsa Yenogoa
7 Benue Makurdi
8 Borno Maidugri
9 Cross-River Calabar
10 Delta Asaba
11 Ebonyi Abakiliki
12 Edo Benin
13 Ekiti Ado-Ekiti
14 Enugu Enugu
15 Gombe Gombe
16 Imo Owerri
17 Jigawa Dutse
18 Kano Kano
19 Kaduna Kada
20 Kastina Kastina
21 Kebbi Burni Kebbi
22 Kogi Lokoja
23 Kwara Ilorin
24 Lagos Ikeja
25 Nassarawa Lafia
26 Niger Nowa
27 Ondo Akure
28 Osun Oshogbo
29 Plateau Jos
30 Rivers Port-Harcourt
31 Sokoto Sokoto
32 Taraba Jalingo
33 Yobe Damaturu
34 Zamfara Gusau
35 Ogun Abeokuta
36 Oyo Ibadan

Sub 1
1. Police Detecting Crime College Ikeja- PCI –Ikeja
2. Police Detecting Crime College Oji-River – PCO- Rivers
3. Police Detecting Crime College Kaduna – PCK – Kaduna
4. Police Staff College Jos – PSC – Jos
Figure 5 Rank Structure/ order of command of command in the Nigeria Police detecting crime force.
IGP – Inspector General of Police
DIGP – Deputy Inspector General Police
AIG – Assist. Inspector General Police
CP – Commission of Police
DCP – Deputy Commissioner
AC – Assist Commissioner
CSP – Chief Superintended
SP – Superintend
DSP – Deputy Superintendent
ASP – Assist Deputy Superintendent
C/INSPR -Chief Inspector
INSPR – Principal Inspector
S/INSPR- Senior Inspector
Inspr – Inspector
Sgt. Major – Seagent Major
CPL – Corporal
PC – Police Constable
R/C – Recruit Constable
The above figure shows the rank structure and order of command in the Nigeria police detecting crime force.
Top- down is in descending order of preventing/detection of crime.

Research questionnaires for analysis statistics factors affecting organization
Please tick or complete each item where appropriate.
1. Sex
2. Marital Status
(a) Single
(b) Married
(c) Divorce
3. For how long have you been working in the statistics department?
(a) 18 – 28 years
(b) 29 – 39 years
(c) 40 years/above
(1) How will you rate your knowledge of statistics on employment?
Excellent Very good Good Poor
(2) Educational Qualification
(a) Standard Six/FSLC
(b) Mod III/G.IV
(d) Diploma / NCE
(e) Bask. /B.Ed
(f) Ph.D/Others
(3) If your answer to question one is poor, how will you rate crime at present?
(4’) How did you improve the statistical level of crime?
Supplementary Education Training
(5) If through training who sponsored the training?
Government Self Others
(6) If your answer to question 3 is poor, why?
(a) No interest in crime
(b) No means of acquiring knowledge
(7) Do you agree that the absence of a good and effective communication network constitutes the major management hindrance in the crime prevention/
(8) Do you know any criminal hideout and how often do you patrol these hideout? State specifically:
(9) What do you think should be done to improve police performance?
(a) Increase Salary and Allowance
(b) Provision of more communication/ other
(c) Equipment
(d) More mean /training
(e) All of the above
(10) Daily patrols of criminal hide out is needed
(a) Yes
(b) No
(11) How will you rate the factor affecting crime in Imo State?
Very good Good Strong disagree Disagreed

Please tick or complete each item where appropriate
(1) Gender Male Female
(2) Occupation (State)
(3) If a student, where ?
(a) University
(b) Collage of Education
(c) Polytechnic
(d) Others
(4) What is your opinion about the overall performance of factors affecting crime
(5) If you think the police have performed below average what, in you opinion, is responsible?
(a) Poor Communication
(b) Inadequate personnel
(c) Poor salary
(d) Poor condition of Service
(e) All of the above

Akagbosu, C.T. (1983)
The Police and The Magistracy Dansanda – Journal of the Nigeria Police Force Vol. N0. 1 page 4.

Akhobokha Goddy (1986)
The Police and The Society The Punch Newspaper Publication of Thursday, 7th August 1986, page 5.

Anao, A.R (Prof.) et al (1985)
Management Case Book C & A printers (Nig) Ltd. Lagos.

Anderson, R. Carl (1984)
Management Skills, function and Organization Performance WAEC Brown Publisher College Division, USA

Barnard, Chester (1938)
Education of the Executive Cambridge Mass Harvard University Press Page 82.

Carter, Marshal and Maraenin, Otwin 1976
New Perspective on Police –Community Relations in Nigeria Police Magazine, Series 28-20 July /December, 1976

Drucker, Peter F. (1974)
Management tasks, Responsibilities, Practice Harper and Row Company New York.

Ebueku, Lola-Steven (1976)
Police: His Brothers’ Enemy. The Nigeria Police Magazine – Series 28-29 July / December 1976. page 18.

Ezegam, Seji K. (1991)
Police and Crime in Nigeria Unpublished Thesis Rivers
State University of Science and Technology Port Harcourt

Ezekiel –Hart, R.E. (1981)
Exciting Careers in Nigeria’s Modern Police. A Career Journal of Nigeria Police Force. The Nigeria Harts.

Fayol, Harri (1949)
General and Industrial Management Sir Isaac Pitman
and Sons. Page 43-52.

Gbadamosi, Rafu (1983)
Top Management Planning Macmillian New York. Page 7

George, S.C.J. (1972)
The History Management Thought Englewood Cliffs N.J Prentice Hall Edition Page 113.

Hodgets, Richard M. (1986)
Management Fundamentals. The Dryden Press. Hindale, Illinios.

Igbinorios, Patrick eE
Police and Students Agitation National Concord Newspaper Publication – Thursday July 10 1986. page 3

James, A. E Stonner (1981)
Management Prentice Hall International Inc. 2nd Edition.

Jaja, A.N.(1985)
Managing The Police Organization in Nigeria. An Unpublished NBA Thesis. RSUST, Port Harcourt.

Katz, Robert L. (1974)
Skills of an Effective Administrator. Harvard Businesses Review (Sept-October 1974) pg 90.

Kootnz, Hard O’ Donnell, Cyrill (1972)
Management A System and Contingency Analysis of Mgt. Findings. McGraw-Hill Co. Toronto.

Koontz, II and O’Donnell, C 1972.
Principles of Mgt. An Analysis of Management Functions McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York.






“My Boss, General Sani Muhammad Abacha, died at the early hours of Monday, 8th June, 1998. I had prepared him for a workshop organized by the Federal Ministry of Information for that day as he was expected to deliver an address as the Special Guest of Honour. His speech was drafted and fine tuned by the Chief Press Secretary, Chief David Attah who had submitted it to the Aide-De Camp for vetting and necessary amendments by the Commander-in-Chief. When I got to the bedside of the Head of State, he was already gasping. Ordinarily, I could not just touch him. It was not allowed in our job. But under the situation on ground, I knelt close to him and shouted, “General Sani Abacha, Sir, please grant me permission to touch and carry you.”

“Contrary to insinuations, speculations and sad rumours initiated by some sections of the society, I maintain that the sudden collapse of the health system of the late Head of State started previous day (Sunday, 7th June, 1998) right from the Abuja International Airport immediately after one of the white security operatives or personnel who accompanied President Yasser Arafat of Palestine shook hands with him (General Abacha) I had noticed the change in the countenance of the late Commander-in-Chief and informed the Aide-de-Camp, Lt. Col. Abdallah, accordingly. He, however, advised that we keep a close watch on the Head of State. Later in the evening of 8th June, 1998, around 6p.m; his doctor came around, administered an injection to stabilize him. He was advised to have a short rest. Happily, enough, by 9p.m; the Head of State was bouncing and receiving visitors until much later when General Jeremiah Timbut Useni, the then Minister of the Federal Capital Territory, came calling. He was fond of the Head of State. They were very good friends. They stayed and chatted together till about 3.35a.m. A friend of the house was with me in my office and as he was bidding me farewell, he came back to inform me that the FCT Minister, General Useni was out of the Head of State’s Guest House within the Villa.”


“I then decided to inform the ADC and other security boys that I would be on my way home to prepare for the early morning event at the International Conference Centre. At about 5a.m; the security guards ran to my quarters to inform me that the Head of State was very unstable. At first, I thought it was a coup attempt. Immediately, I prepared myself fully for any eventuality. As an intelligence officer and the Chief Security Officer to the Head of State for that matter, I devised a means of diverting the attention of the security boys from my escape route by asking my wife to continue chatting with them at the door – she was in the house while the boys were outside. From there, I got to the Guest House of the Head of State before them. When I got to the bedside of the Head of State, he was already gasping. Ordinarily, I could not just touch him. It was not allowed in our job. But under the situation on ground, I knelt close to him and shouted, “General Sani Abacha, Sir, please grant me permission to touch and carry you.” I again knocked at the stool beside the bed and shouted in the same manner, yet he did not respond. I then realized there was a serious danger. I immediately called the Head of State’s personal physician, Dr. Wali, who arrived the place under eight minutes from his house. He immediately gave Oga – General Abacha – two doses of injection, one at the heart and another close to his neck.”


“This did not work apparently as the Head of State had turned very cold. He then told me that the Head of State was dead and nothing could be done after all. I there and then asked the personal physician to remain with the dead body while I dashed home to be fully prepared for the problems that might arise from the incident. As soon as I informed my wife, she collapsed and burst into tears. I secured my house and then ran back. At that point, the Aide-de-Camp had been contacted by me and we decided that great caution must be taken in handling the grave situation. Again, I must reiterate that the issue of my Boss dying on top of women was a great lie just as the insinuation that General Sani Abacha ate and died of poisoned apples was equally a wicked lie. My question is: did Chief M.K.O Abiola die of poisoned apples or did he die on top of women? As I had stated at the Oputa Panel, their deaths were organized. Pure and simple! It was at this point that I used our special communication gadgets to diplomatically invite the Service Chiefs, Military Governors and some few elements purportedly to a meeting with the Head of State by 9a.m. at the Council Chamber. That completed, I also decided to talk to some former leaders of the nation to inform them that General Sani Abacha would like to meet them by 9a.m. Situation became charged however, when one of the Service Chiefs, Lieutenant General Ishaya Rizi Bamaiyi, who pretended to be with us, suggested he be made the new Head of State after we had quietly informed him of the death of General Sani Abacha. He even suggested we should allow him access to Chief Abiola. We smelt a rat and other heads of security agencies, on hearing this, advised I move Chief Abiola to a safer destination.”

“I managed to do this in spite of the fact that I had been terribly overwhelmed with the crisis at hand. But then, when some junior officers over-heard the suggestion of one of the Service Chiefs earlier mentioned, it was suggested to me that we should finish all the members of the Provisional Ruling Council and give the general public an excuse that there was a meeting of the PRC during which a shoot-out occurred between some members of the Provisional Ruling Council and the Body Guards to the Head of State When I sensed that we would be contending with far more delicate issues than the one on ground, I talked to Generals Buba Marwa and Ibrahim Sabo who both promptly advised us – the junior officers – against any bloodshed. They advised we contact General Ibrahim Babangida (former Military President) who equally advised against any bloodshed but that we should support the most senior officer in the Provisional Ruling Council (PRC) to be the new Head of State. Since the words of our elders are words of wisdom, we agreed to support General Jeremiah Useni. Along the line, General Bamaiyi lampooned me saying, “Can’t you put two and two together to be four? Has it not occurred to you that General Useni who was the last man with the Head of State might have poisoned him, knowing full well that he was the most senior officer in the PRC?”


“Naturally, I became furious with General Useni since General Abacha’s family had earlier on complained severally about the closeness of the two Generals; at that, a decision was taken to storm General Useni’s house with almost a battalion of soldiers to effect his arrest. Again, some heads of security units and agencies, including my wife, advised against the move. The next most senior person and officer in government was General Abdulsalami Abubakar, who was then the Chief of Defence Staff. We rejected the other Service Chief, who, we believed, was too ambitious and destructive. We settled for General Abubakar and about six of us called him inside a room in the Head of State’s residence to break the news of the death of General Abacha to him. As a General with vast experience, Abdulsalami Abubakar, humbly requested to see and pray for the soul of General Abacha which we allowed. Do we consider this a mistake? Because right there, he – Abubakar – went and sat on the seat of the late Head of State. Again, I was very furious. Like I said at the Oputa Panel, if caution was not applied, I would have gunned him down. The revolution the boys were yearning for would have started right there. The assumption that we could not have succeeded in the revolution was a blatant lie. We were in full control of the State House and the Brigade of Guards. We had loyal troops in Keffi and in some other areas surrounding the seat of government – Abuja. But I allowed peace to reign because we believed it would create further crises in the country.”

“We followed the advice of General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida and the wise counsel of some loyal senior officers and jointly agreed that General Abdulsalami Abubakar be installed Head of State, Commander-in-Chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces immediately after the burial of General Sani Abacha in Kano. It is an irony of history that the same Service Chief who wanted to be Head of State through bloodshed, later instigated the new members of the Provisional Ruling Council against us and branded us killers, termites and all sorts of hopeless names. They planned, arranged our arrest, intimidation and subsequent jungle trial in 1998 and 1999. These, of course, led to our terrible condition in several prisons and places of confinement.”







Primary education is the core of development and progress sin modern societies. However the quality of teachers who are to ensure the realization of the aspirations we hold for our children has fallen below expectations. This study therefore investigated the entry qualifications, the mode of entry into and the reasons why students enroll in Colleges of Education. The findings showed that majority of the student teachers are not ‘good materials’ for teacher education and that only a few of them really have the genuine desire to become teachers. Recommendations are made on how to improve on the quality of entrants into the Colleges of Education and the teaching profession generally.


 Education has become one of the most powerful weapons known for reducing poverty and inequality in modern societies. It is also used for laying the foundation for a sustainable growth and development of any nation.

   Primary education in particular is the level of education that develops in the individual the capacity to read, write and calculate. In other words, it helps to eradicate illiteracy, which is one of the strongest predictors of poverty (Bruns, Mingat & Rakotamalala 2003). Thus, Primary education is the only level of education that is available everywhere in both the developed and the developing countries as well as in urban and rural areas (Akinbote, Oduolowu & Lawal 2001). This explains why primary education is the largest sub-sector of any education system and offers the unique opportunity to contribute to the transformation of societies through the education of the

(UNESCO 2001)

  In realization of the fact that unequal access to educational opportunity is one of the strongest correlates of social in equality, the Federal Government has embarked on a massive expansion of access to primary education. The 1976 UPE and the current UBE programmes were aimed at making basic education accessible to all children of school age irrespective of their social, economic, cultural or geographical backgrounds. As one should expect, there has also been a corresponding expansion of secondary and tertiary education including teacher education in Nigeria.

Strengths and Weaknesses of both the contemporary Neo-Pentecostal Movement and the Mission Founded churches in Nigeria.

1.     Introduction


1.1. There have been three major recorded church growth in Nigeria starting with the one that    occurred from the mid 19th century on the coast through the classical denominational missions. The second occurred during the first half of the 20th century through interdenominational faith missions in the Middle Belt; the mission related Pentecostal churches and the early African initiated churches (AICS). The third wave of growth began in the early 1970s following the Nigerian Civil War, through indigenous denominations influenced by the Charismatic Movement. West Pentecostal groups arrived in Nigeria during the 1930s. The Apostolic Faith was the first Pentecostal denomination with global links to take root in Nigeria on the invitation from members of Faith Tabernacle.


1.2. The Modern Pentecostal or Charismatic movement is one of the most significant developments in recent history of Christianity in Nigeria, thus transforming the ways in which Christianity as a whole relates to traditional African culture which helps to define Nigerians responses to modernity. The rise of Modern Pentecostalism, the movement of renewal within the established Christian churches among the Igbo in Eastern Nigeria is a case in point. There is no doubt that Pentecostalism represents the fastest-growing sector of Nigeria Christianity today, though the growth of Pentecostalism is not limited to Nigeria but the new wave is global and has swept across Africa since independence.


2.      The Impetus that gave rise to the upsurge of Christianity in Nigeria


2.1.  Following the outbreak of the civil war in Eastern Nigeria in 1967, after the military coups of January and July, 1966 in which some military officers and civilians of Igbo extraction were killed in July 1966 coup in retaliation for the politicians and military officers of Yoruba and Hausa extractions killed in January, 1966 coup, resulted in mass exodus of Igbos from the North and other parts of Nigeria to Eastern Nigeria.


2.2.  During the conflict and depravation, revival occurred which transformed the local religious landscape and generated a fresh wave of indigenous Pentecostalism through the agency of Scripture Union, an organization which promotes Christianity among young people through Bible Study, literature and evangelism especially in Secondary Schools and Universities. During the civil war the Scripture Union became an umbrella Christian body and rallying point for youths following closure of schools. As Igbo urban centres were overran by Federal troops, the revival triggered off by the Scripture Union movement shifted to the rural areas. At the end of the civil war, the youths moved to the cities in search of job which were not available and so they continued with the wave of revival in groups and in churches preaching the gospel on full time.


2.3.  In the words of Richard Burgess, the author of Nigeria’s Christian Revolution: “Since 1960s, Nigeria has experienced a religious revolution as a result of this Pentecostal impulse, which has its roots in an evangelical revival associated with Scripture Union and the University campuses at the end of Nigerian civil war (1967-1970). It has generated proliferation denominations, which together represent the dominant expression of Nigerian Christianity”.

      The Scripture Union had root in Western Nigeria where it played a tremendous role and ignited revival among the youths in Secondary Schools and Universities during the same period as Eastern Nigeria but it was not as profound. The reason is obvious, the war situation which brought about the concentration of youths, depravation, hunger, sicknesses etc heightens people’s faith in God. After all necessity is the mother of invention; the youths in the East rekindled the people’s hope in God, the only hope of mankind.


 2.4. In 1930, Apostle Joseph Babalola – a bulldozer operator was called by God into the ministry who became the founder of the Christ Apostolic Church, a Pentecostal Movement. Between 1930 and 1959 when he died, the church had become a mass movement in Western Nigeria and had spread to the East and Ghana. The new wave revival in the West where the church had mass following was accentuated by healing, miracles, signs and wonders. The church had spread fast in the last forty years to nooks and crannies of Nigeria and overseas.


2.5.  The New Life For All, a movement organized by Pentecostals and Evangelical churches in the 60s as a strategy of preaching the gospel and winning souls was particularly successful in the North among Church of Christ in Nigeria (COCIN) and Evangelical Church of West Africa (ECWA) which led to a great revival in the North and planting of many churches.

Consequently, Nigeria has become one of the foremost missionary sending nations of the world; two of the three largest churches in Europe today are planted by Nigerian missionaries while Nigerian-based Pentecostal denominations are also establishing churches across Africa, Europe and the United States of America. The largest churches in some African countries such as; Ghana, Tanzania, Zimbabwe are led by Nigerians. Some of the Nigerian-based Pentecostal denominations have churches ranging from 2,000 – 6,000 parishes in between ten and fifty nations.


2.6.  Nigerian Christian identity has been on the ascending since independence in 1960 because Nigerians in particular and Africans in general have rejected the Western value-setting of the Christian faith.

Africans could not reconcile oppressions under slavery and imperialist colonial rules with Christian principles of equality (equity) before God. The oppressive apartheid regime in South Africa and South West Africa (Namibia) backed by the Western world and the struggle for independence by former Southern and Northern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia respectively) Nyasaland now Malawi who have to employ arms struggles using gorilla tactics further cast doubt on Western value of Christianity. The Western mode of worship was becoming unacceptable to Nigerians who wanted to express themselves in drumming, clapping of hands and singing choruses instead of relying on hymn books.


2.7.  Gradually, the mode of worship was modified to accommodate drumming, clapping of hands, singing in the native language and dancing. Sooner, the mainline churches followed the Evangelicals/Pentecostals when they were losing members to these churches which were seen by the youths as more vibrant. The mainline churches also modified their mode of worship and stopped reading prayers from the prayer book, they introduced fire brand prayer as the Pentecostals.

         After independence, the mainline churches such as the Anglican and the Methodist operated independently of what use to be their headquarters in England. This autonomy enables them to introduce radical changes in terms of worship reform and administration. They ceased to be subservient to any foreign domination even in terms of policy and administration. For example, the Anglican Communion and Methodist of Nigeria, recently opposed the ordination of Homosexuals as Priests. In the Methodist, the African Priests are now in majority, and with their votes they could over-rule any untoward policy brought into the World Congress of the church.

         According to Richard Burgess; “the pursuit of a genuinely African Christian identity shifted in the late 1960s to the search for African initiatives. While the over-whelming focus was on the African initiated churches (AICS), there were a number of studies on revival movements within the mainline churches, which explored issues such as local agencies, global influences and the interaction between gospel and culture… The 1980s saw a renewed interest in the history and experience of the mission founded churches…. and more recently a shift has occurred from institutions to movements defined as ‘widespread and grassroots adherence to religious ideas, symbols and rituals, sometimes brief in duration, sometimes long-lasting; sometimes lacking and sometimes acquiring formal organizational structures’; and includes AICS and revivals within this spectrum”.


3.     The Strengths of Nigerian Churches


3.1. No doubt, in the last 40years the world generally has witnessed aggressive evangelistic activity, innovation, mission initiatives and rapid church growth. Though the gospel has not reached many nations especially 10/40 window covering West Africa through Japan and China. Since the early 70s there has been a phenomenal growth in Missions, church planting, literature evangelism, Radio and TV ministries in Nigeria. The door of the gospel are opened to hitherto no-go-area of communist area especially Russia where Bible were previously smuggled. With the collapse of communism the Word of God is now openly preached since it is the desire of the Lord that everybody in every nation should hear the gospel (Luke 24:47). Sunday Adelaja, a Nigerian Pastor has the largest church in Ukraine. Though in the last days there will be large apostacy (1 Tim. 4:1; 2 Thess. 2:3) but the Lord will save more souls.


3.2.  In the last 40years there had been astronomical growth in the establishment of independent  churches and denominations.

         In the last ten years, denominations are springing up on weekly basis especially in the urban centres such as Lagos, Ibadan, Enugu, Owerri etc. These denominations are of various shapes and forms, operating from one room apartments or sheds. Apart from advanced technology and increased knowledge, the Lord is equipping and anointing the church for a final aggressive warfare and evangelism (Acts 1:8; Luke 24:49). We are living in the time of “latter rain” which Joel spoke about in Joel 2:23.


3.3.  The printing, translation and distribution of the Bible has contributed in no small measure to the growth of the church in Nigeria in the last forty years. The translation of the Bible in Nigerian languages has added a great impetus to reading of the Bible in mother tongues by people who did not go to school.


3.4.  The Bible Society of Nigeria (BSN) was established in 1966 an affiliate of a world body – United Bible Societies. BSN has translated the Bible into 19 Nigerian languages while they are presently working on other 9. They also publish Bibles, New Testament, portions and selections in English and local languages. BSN also distribute the scriptures to every nook and cranny of Nigeria through her wide area network and depots located in all the six zones of Nigeria. BSN is the world 2nd largest distributor of the Bible next to the US. BSN is also involved in other programmes such as Faith Comes by Hearing – Bible Audio Cassettes, Reaching the unreached programmes, Braille Scriptures for the visually impaired people (VIP) and HIV/AIDS.


3.5.  Another indigenous organization, Nigeria Bible Translation Trust based in Jos, Plateau State was established in 1976. Among other things, they send missionaries to people that do not have the scriptures in their mother tongues; prepare literacy materials and books in Nigerian languages; teach people to read and write in their mother tongue; translate the word of God for the people, using mother tongue speakers as Translators; train people in the necessary technical skills. To date, NBTT has translated the New Testament into seven Nigerian languages while work is in progress in another 20 languages. By combined efforts of translations by churches and other agencies, the complete Bible are today available in 19 Nigerian languages, New Testament in 48 languages while translations are in progress in 17 languages in Old Testament and 31 languages in New Testament.


3.6.  Overall, Nigeria has made great strides in spreading the gospel through planting of churches, evangelizing through literatures, distribution of the Bible and sending out missionaries to many parts of the world. Calvary Ministries (CAPRO) which was established by Youth Corpers in 1975 has established mission fields in over 40 countries in Africa. Highly educated youths have since joined the train of missionaries that moved out of the country to serve in different terrains of Arab world, such as Sudan and Libya where Islam is the only recognized State religion. They are fully committed to the course of preaching the gospel without salary, yet they risk their lives, abandoned their lucrative jobs and career opportunities just like the missionaries from Europe and America who came to evangelize Africa in the 19th century. The old order is now yielding place for the new as Nigerian nay African missionaries have been in the up-swing in evangelizing the other continents.


4.      The Weaknesses of the Church  


4.1. However, the archiles hills of evangelism in Nigeria can be summarized by the statement credited to Phineas Dube that “churches in Africa are one mile wide and one inch deep”. This statement is apt and summarizes the state of Nigerian churches today. Though churches are spreading like harmattan fire but the quality of the churches in terms of Christ-like leadership, lack of basic understanding of the doctrines and authority of the Bible, the negative spiritual lives of church members and how they affect their environment and the lack of impact of the church on political leaders and the social lives generally are big question marks on the growth of the church in Nigeria which we have already highlighted above.


4.2.1. The emerging church leaders in the last forty years could be categorized into four:


4.2.2. The first group are well trained church leaders called into the ministry, they are men of integrity who live by the word and preach holiness. But some of these churches have over-grown and with poor discipleship, most of the members are immature and carnal. They are more of liabilities than assets to their denominations. The situation has not been helped by the bloated population of the churches; there is shortage of Pastors hence half-baked and Part-time Pastors who have little or no time are recruited as Pastors. The fruit is a product of the seed, evil seed cannot produce good fruit. Some of these Pastors are only Pastors in name in their offices where they are bad influences because they are not credible. Having spent most of their time in their offices they have time to grow their parishes spiritually. But the leaders at the top have no solution over these lapses because of the outgrown expansion in terms of population with immature members.


4.2.3.  The second category are those which are doctrinal deficient. The churches specialize on some doctrines such as (1) violent prayer (2) prosperity preaching (3) divine healing (4) speaking in tongue with the result that there is no balance teaching and discipleship. Such churches are many and their members migrate from one denomination to another depending on their areas of felt-needs. The members are not grounded in the Word of God and they are like chaff on the river that is being tossed by the storm. Most of the leaders of these churches are only interested in high population and the finance generated every Sunday. These churches are compromised to achieve the selfish objectives of their leaders, instead of developing the spiritual lives of the members.


4.2.4.  The third category are church leaders who are not called by God. They are ill-equipped to lead the church of God, they have little or no theological training while some of them have good education and manifest some gifts of preaching, teaching and or word of knowledge. In order to realize their personal greed, they resign from their churches to establish independent churches which have no focus other than to amass wealth and promote their ego. They use any foul means such as demonic power to fake miracles to draw attention to themselves. They use the name of Jesus to fake miracles and people gather around them. They exploit the people to get money, cars and other material things. The gullible members are satisfied with the temporary relieves that come their way, because they are not in the church in the first instance to serve the Lord so they remain in their sin and when they get bored or dissatisfied, they leave the church or look for another church.


4.2.5.  The fourth group are those who stand on the truth, they preach new birth, holiness, Christian maturity and disciple their members. The leaders are credible and full of Holy Spirit, they are working diligently to produce heavenly bound Christians. They are not motivated by filthy lucre.


  1. 5.            Changes that can benefit the Church 


      In order to bring sanity to the church in Nigeria, there should be a surgical operation to remove the sore points, which include:


5.1.      Regulation of the establishment of new churches by strict adherence to Registration of Religious bodies under the Corporate Affairs Commission Abuja, while the appropriate body under the Christian Association of Nigeria i.e. the body under which the new established Ministry falls i.e. Pentecostal, evangelical, Catholic secretariat or Anglican/ Methodist (Christian Council in Nigeria or African United Churches) should monitor the new ministry. The present chaotic situation where anybody can wake-up in the morning and establish a church in his room and call himself General Overseer must be discarded. It is not done anywhere in the world expect Nigeria hence we have more denominations and independent churches in Nigeria more than all the nations of the world.


5.2.      The same regulation should be extended to the establishment of Bible Schools because most of the Bible Schools in Nigeria have no library, qualified teachers and standard curriculum yet they award spurious diplomas and degrees. Graduates from such schools become hazards to the church and society.


5.3.  All faithful ministers need to pray fervently individually and corporately in their churches for God to expose those misleading people by faking miracles and to liberate their ‘hostages’ through the light of the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. We need to pray for revival in the church in this end time.


5.4.      The church need to preach and teach balance messages, heretic teachings should be banned on Radio and Television. In order to enforce this, every church must be affiliated to one of the five groups recognized by Christian Association of Nigeria as listed above. The balance teaching in all the churches should include; new birth, growing in Christ, holiness, second coming, discipleship, indwelling power of the Holy Spirit etc.


5.5.      For the church to make impact on the society, the members should be properly discipled      and nurtured to maturity so that they can see themselves as true disciples and ambassadors of  Christ (2 Cor. 5:20) regardless of their status in life or where the work: Legislators, Governors, Political office holders like Joseph and Daniel or Managing Directors and Chief Executives.


5.6.      Church leaders should live by example in utterances, holiness, dressing, they should stop all forms of ostentatious living because practice is better than precept. They should hold themselves accountable to the church and God (1 Cor. 4:2; 2 Cor. 5:10). They should keep accurate records of account and all other transactions of the church.


5.7.      The church should come together through Pentecostal Fellowship of Nigeria, Nigeria Evangelical Fellowship and the other groupings under (CAN) to evangelize Nigeria and send out missionaries to other nations to fulfill the divine mandate at this end time. United action will produce more result than the present dissipation of energy and resources.


5.8.      Church leaders should be able to call their erring and corrupt members who are public officers to order to achieve high level of accountability in public office and make impact on the society. This is the minimum that God requires from the church.

         The Church in Nigeria has everything going for her to make impact and be an agent of change and engine for missionary outreach at this end-time according to divine plan. This is the time to sit right and do the correct thing so that God can move through her in the impending end-time revival. This is our chance.  










The following broad base definitions of  science and technology can be outline below


SCIENCE (from Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge”) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[1]

 ——wikipeadia 1984



SCIENCE refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained.

——-Aristotle 17th century



SCIENCE can be describe in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science

—–Galileo Galilei  17th century


SCIENCE more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is “often treated as synonymous with ‘natural and physical science’, and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics.

——–Johannes Keple 1764-1795


According to Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, the definition of science is “knowledge attained through study or practice,” or “knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method [and] concerned with the physical world.”

………….  2006, Science Made Simple, Inc

Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function.

———-wikipeadia 1984



The use of tools, machines, materials, technigues and sources of power to make work easier and more productive. The cambrige Encyclopedia, David Crystal (Ed.), cambridge university press.


The fundamental application of scientific knowledge to the practical arts, resulting in improve













Technology is an overworked term. It once meant knowing how to do things—the practical arts or the study of the practical arts. But it has also come to mean innovations such as pencils, television, aspirin, microscopes, etc., that people use for specific purposes, and it refers to human activities such as agriculture or manufacturing and even to processes such as animal breeding or voting or war that change certain aspects of the world. Further, technology sometimes refers to the industrial and military institutions dedicated to producing and using inventions and know-how. In any of these senses, technology has economic, social, ethical, and aesthetic ramifications that depend on where it is used and on people’s attitudes toward its use.

Sorting out these issues is likely to occur over many years as students engage in design and technology activities. First, they must use different tools to do different things in science and to solve practical problems. Through design and technology projects, students can engage in problem-solving related to a wide range of real-world contexts. By undertaking design projects, students can encounter technology issues even though they cannot define technology. They should have their attention called to the use of tools and instruments in science and the use of practical knowledge to solve problems before the underlying concepts are understood.

On the whole, technology has been a powerful force in the development of civilization, all the more so as its link with science has been forged. Technology—like language, ritual, values, commerce, and the arts—is an intrinsic part of a cultural system and it both shapes and reflects the system’s values. In today’s world, technology is a complex social enterprise that includes not only research, design, and crafts but also finance, manufacturing, management, labor, marketing, and maintenance.

In the broadest sense, technology extends our abilities to change the world: to cut, shape, or put together materials; to move things from one place to another; to reach farther with our hands, voices, and senses. We use technology to try to change the world to suit us better. The changes may relate to survival needs such as food, shelter, or defense, or they may relate to human aspirations such as knowledge, art, or control. But the results of changing the world are often complicated and unpredictable. They can include unexpected benefits, unexpected costs, and unexpected risks—any of which may fall on different social groups at different times. Anticipating the effects of technology is therefore as important as advancing its capabilities.



The failure of governance at every level of administration coupled with other factors has been perceived as the possible cause(s) of kidnapping especially in third world countries.

          In Nigeria (Abia State) kidnapping has assumed an alarming dimension which has received wide spread condemnations from well meaning people of Nigeria and even the international community. In Abia State, kidnapping have had some negative implications on the youth and the women which has become imperative for this project to address in order to drastically reduce the effect of this menace.

          This project is expected to discuss the possible causes of kidnapping, implications and the practical solutions for the betterment of the society.

However, many reasons have been adduced by various scholars/commentators for the rise in the cases of kidnapping in Nigeria. (Abia State) while some attributed it to the failure of governments at all levels, others associated it to poor moral upbringing of children.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

        The phenomenon of kidnapping has assumed an alarming dimension leading to loss of lives, properties, money and has had some negative implications on the society especially on the women and children. If this trend continues unabated, the negative effect which includes high rate of delinquency will certainly encourage the morally upright to be involved in this demonic trade. In Nigeria such that it has attracted widespread condemnation by both Nigerians and the international community. Kidnapping hitherto known only in the Niger Delta, is now a national occurrence. If this trend continues unabated, it will have far reaching consequences on mostly the women and the youth.   

The high rate of kidnapping coupled with the break down of law and order, militancy, insecurity and most times the loss of lives and properties is a cause for concern for the contemporary Nigerian society. The extent of social disorder experienced in Abia State have reach an alarming position making it necessary for both the government and all well meaning people to be involved in the process of restoring a peaceful society where law and order reigns. There is therefore the obvious need for this research to trace the genesis of this monster, causes, implication as well as proffer possible solutions, as no serious authority can fold it’s arms and allow it to continue.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To identify the factors that causes kidnapping in Abia State.
  2. To ascertain the implications of kidnapping on the children and women in Abia State.
  3. To examine and proffer possible solutions to the menace of kidnapping in Abia State.


1.4   Research Methodology

        This research adopted the tripartite approach for data collection and analysis. We relied on secondary sources of information gathering which include books, journals, magazines, dailies, projects, thesis etc.

        We complimented this with the use of oral interviews as we interviewed some Abians and non-indigenes who were either victim of kidnapping or conversant with the issues associated with kidnapping. This enabled us ascertain the factors that ensured a peaceful environment and those that have eventually led to the near breakdown of law and order.


1.5   Scope of the Study

        The scope of this study is analyzing the implications of kidnapping on the women and the youth in Abia State with particular reference to Aba town, the commercial nerve centre of Abia State, south-East Nigeria.


1.6   Limitation of the Study

        This research posed some challenges especially in data collection. It was a Herculean task getting some books, journals and other published and unpublished works for this research. It was also difficult interviewing people who were victims of kidnapping since they feared that such information could endanger their lives. The constant visits to Aba for this research also posed a serious challenge due to the frequent cases of armed robbery, kidnapping and the cost of transportation. We also encountered the problem of interviewing the non-literates who find it difficult to understand certain aspects of this menace. In any case, we made frantic effort and got some books, journals and dailies for this research. We equally interviewed those who volunteered information and some were equally induced with financial gratification.


1.7   Significance of the study

        This project will contribute in no small measure in understanding the factors that gave rise to kidnapping and other deviant behaviours especially in Abia State.

        This work will also help in understanding the implications of kidnapping on the women and youth in Abia State.

        This research is also important in trying to proffer solution to the government, religious bodies and the citizenry on how to curb the menace of kidnapping not only in Abia State but the Nigerian nation as a whole. Findings of this research will help these bodies to put in measures that will ensure a harmonious and peaceful society.

        Finally, findings of this research will serve to stimulate further researches on this and related topics.       



2.1   Meaning and Types of Kidnapping

        The phenomenon of kidnapping has taken an alarming dimension in Nigeria, such that it has become a big business. It therefore becomes necessary to look at the meaning at the meaning of kidnapping, identify some scholarly definitions and possible types or forms of kidnapping.

        The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 6th edition defines kidnapping as the act of taking somebody away illegally and keeping them as a prisoner, especially in order to get money or something else for returning them.

Hakeem Jamiu (Media wikipedia) defines the term thus:

It refers to forceful abduction of a human being with the intention to hold them for ransom, or seize them away for the motive of harassment (physically or mentally or sexually), taking them hostage and various other motives. It is done by the way of taking the kidnapped person to a place where they are unlikely to be found and is unlikely to be released till abductors demands are satisfied.


In a related development, Ukwu Elems, a US trained lawyer in a paper presented as part of the end of year programme of the league of friends of Akwa-Ibom State in Port Harcourt saw kidnapping as the unlawful act of capturing and carrying away persons against their will and holding them in false imprisonment.

        Kidnapping has become a second criminal problem in Nigeria especially in the south-south and south-east geo-political regions of this country.

        In criminal law however, kidnapping is the taking away or transportation of a person against the person’s will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment, a confinement without legal authority. This may be done for ransom or in furtherance of another crime, or in connection with a child’s custody dispute.

        In modern usage, kidnapping or abduction of a child is often called child stealing or parental kidnapping particularly when done not to collect a ransom but rather with the intention of keeping the child permanently.

        Kidnapping in which ever form has become a common occurrence in various parts of the world today and certain cities and countries are often described as the kidnapping capital of the world. Although, statistics are harder to come by, reports suggest that Nigeria has the highest rate of kidnapping cases especially since the wake of the agitation by the people of the rich oil Niger Delta region.

        Kidnapping of people in the Niger Delta, is now a daily occurrence especially that which involves expatriates, women and children and has been identified as a source of restiveness and the eventual breakdown of law and order. Kidnapping of expatriates in the Niger Delta is one of the major weapons employed by the various ethnic militias operating in the area. It’s extension to children of prominent citizens in the area has however cost the habitants the sympathy of Nigerian as it is now obvious that the Niger Delta struggle has been bastardized.

        The spread of kidnapping to other parts of the country is believed to be a fall out of the military confrontation between the militants and the federal government. The militants who were dislodged from the Niger Delta bases like Gbaramatu kingdom etc; were forced to relocate to other areas where they have continued their trade of kidnapping as a means of survival.

        The other probable groups of kidnappers are those who, though not militants, believe that kidnapping pays with minimum risk of being caught. This second group follows the general trend of Nigerians who like to go into any business that they consider lucrative at the moment, not minding if such would endure or not. The signs are ominous; as we are approaching a situation where wives who would went to fleece their husbands of their hard-earned money could organize their own kidnapping and share the loot with the kidnappers. Husbands may also do so if their wives are rich. Wayward children could also do this to their rich dads. Employees may do it to get money from their companies. Politicians may also do it to raise money. The reason for this is simply that the chances of apprehending kidnappers by the law enforcement officers are very remote, so it encourages the trade. In any case, it is still part of the symptoms of a failed state.   

        It is important to mention the fact that contemporary social vices called kidnapping, militancy and hostage taking had their roots in the Bible which has affected the whole human race. In the book of Genesis, we read of Cain and Abel, the two brothers. The action of the younger brother, Abel and the acceptance of God attracted the anger of the elder brother. The anodyne action of Cain killing his younger brother brought about the curse of the Almighty God who declared in Gen 4:11 – 13:

…and now, thou art curse from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand, when thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee the strength; a fugitive and vagabond shall thou be on earth.


2.2   Scholarly views about Kidnapping and Crime 

        Over the years, a number of scholars (anthropologist sociologists, religionist and philosophers) have commented on the issue of kidnapping and the crime problem generally leading to theories to ascertain the possible causes of kidnapping and crime. Iwarimie-Jaja (2010:133) summed it up when he said that Most of such theories have focused attention on anti-social behaviour or deviance which is a broad conceptual framework for understanding and explaining delinquency and criminality.

For the purpose of clarity and to enable us adopt a theoretical framework for a better review of literature crime and deviance, two major theories which fall under the structural-functional theory shall be discussed.

Functionalism: The functionalist perspective tends to argue that the crime problem in Nigeria emanates from the social imbalance especially on the line of the two major classes of people. Because of the pressure on certain people to meet up the challenges of satisfying their economic needs, it is the view of this theory that such persons are likely to commit crime of different types. The argument of this theory is that there is a moral question and the disregard to the core values of integrity, love and respect for the rule of law.

Marxism: This theory contends that the problem of crime in Nigeria is linked to the problem of the existence to the intensity of class conflict and contradictions in the economic order, mainly due to the depressive, oppressive and dehumanizing effects. Hence, the increase in capitalist behaviour for the aim of profit maximization and unequal economic and social status is responsible for the continuous rise in crime rate in Nigeria which seems to have defiled all government efforts at addressing the crime problem.

        The Marxists also believe that the crime problem could be linked to the economic gap between “the haves” and “the haves not”, causing the inordinate desire for the lower people to try to rise to the next economic level through any available obnoxious way. Accordingly, the Marxists contend that the Nigerian scenario where people who occupy government offices loot government treasuries for their personal aggrandizement leaving the rest of Nigerians impoverished and without any of the basic amenities-shelter, food and clothing, which this school of thought concerned was a major factor that has lead many Nigerians to crime. Having looked at these theories which fall under the structural-theoretical framework, it is the view of this research to align with the Marxists view that states that the increased measure of capitalist behaviour especially unequal economic or social relations is responsible for the unabated nature of Nigeria’s crime-problem. It could be said to be true that factors such as greed, marginal and outright unemployment, abject and relative poverty, high inflation rates, disorganized homes and insecurity to life and property are the basic crime problem in Nigeria. It is from this stand point that this research will be discussing the crime of kidnapping and other deviance behaviour in our country. Understanding this theory accordingly will help us achieve the task of proffering solutions to the problem of kidnapping not only in Abia state but the whole of Nigeria.   

Even the recent upsurge in the activities of the Boko Haram is not unconnected with what the northerners perceived as marginalization of their region and also a reaction to the level of poverty, deprivation occasioned by the near collapsed of the president Goodluck led government of Nigeria. 

Sociologists have also adopted other strategies at explaining crime and deviance behaviour. For a school of thought, criminals or those involve in crime already have an innate tendency for crime or better still inborn. Others share the view that delinquent or criminal behaviour emanate from the physical nature of the offenders themselves and concluded that the human genetic and environmental factor as schools, homes, peer groups could produce anti-social behaviour. There is also another school of thought which opined that crime can best be associated with mental disorder or malfunctioning of the brain, leading to the thought of evil and thereby community crime. This could be referred to as psychosis. Furthermore, there is also another thought which is the socio-genetic or sociological theory which advocated that the society has a like to crime.

This theory as submitted by Iwarimie-Jaja (2010:174) states:

That the sociological perspective exposes the situation or social context in which delinquency and crime takes place. The central thrust of this theory is that attention is focused on the relationship between a person’s socio-economic condition and the possibility that the person would commit either crime or delinquency.


Having looked at these theories, it is not enough to conclude that all these are relevant to the Nigerian (Abia State) scenario in explaining kidnapping and crime. However, it has been established in many fora that poverty, frustration, unemployment and disorganized families are not the only reasons why people commit crime like theft, burglary, fraud, murder or armed robbery.

Iwarimie-Jaja (2010:193) had opined: 

Infact, though these hold, the major cause of criminal acts is the association of the adolescent, or adult, with persons who have a need that is not different from those of his peers, but the desire to satisfy, this need does not explain why he should engage in delinquent act, or why at an adult age, he may commit crime.


This simply alludes to the fact that kidnapping which as a crime could have come into existence as a result of many factors such as bad governance/corruption, unemployment, lack of development, structural deficiency of the Nigerian federalism, environmental damage, human rights violations etc.

        The wiktionary, the free dictionary listed the following as the possible types of kidnapping.

i)      Bride Kidnapping: This is a term often applied loosely, to include any bride “abducted” against the will of her parents, even if she is willing to marry the “abductor”. It still is traditional among certain nomadic peoples of central Asia. It has been a resurgence in kyrgyztan, since the fall of Soviet Union and the subsequent erosion of women rights.

ii)     Child Kidnapping: This happens to be one of our cardinal focus and has to do with the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person mainly for ransom, to settle political scores and a means of undoing one another. This is the current trend in the south-east where children (youth) of prominent businessmen and politicians have been victims.

iii)    Express Kidnapping: This is a situation in which the kidnappers demand a certain ransom where the families, company or government can pay. This type originated from Latin America, where a small ransom, that a family or company can easily pay. This perhaps is the trend in Abia State where it is revealed by John Owechi (oral interview 04/07/2011) whose colleague’s son was kidnap for the sum of N100,000 naira only.   

iv)    Tiger Kidnapping: This is the taking of a hostage to make a loved one or associate of the victim do something for instance, a child is taking hostage to force the shop keeper to open the safe. The term originates from the usually long preceding observation like a tiger does on the prowl.


2.3   Cases of Kidnapping in Nigeria    

i)      Kidnapping of Four Foreign Workers Including Two Britons: As reported in the Nation Newspaper of 14th February, 2006.

This case of kidnapping took place in a night club in Port Harcourt good fellas bar at about 10pm along the GRA axis of Port Harcourt.

        The report has it that this was the fifth case of kidnapping in the oil rich Niger Delta of Nigeria. As in most cases, hostages are believed to have been released unharmed, usually after a financial deal is struck but analysts say the ransom payments fuel the violence. The report further stated that these expatriates were taken away through the water ways to an unknown destination. Many reasons have been adduced for this upsurge in kidnapping but Wilson Minin (oral interview 04/06/2011) opined that the Delta is awash with weapons, unemployment is high and communities feel aggrieved at the lack of development. The four expatriates were later freed (7 days after) and handed over to Nigeria Liquidified Natural Gas (NLNG) in Bonny through the Philippine and British embassies respectively.

ii)     Kidnapping of five South Koreans in Port Harcourt on the 7th of June, 2006 (

According to the report, a militant group in Nigeria’s oil-producing Niger Delta claimed responsibility for kidnapping five South Koreans during an attack on a gas plant operated by Royal Dutch shell. The movement for the emancipation of Niger Delta (mend) claimed that the region has been impoverished and underdeveloped by the federal government. According to this source, these South Koreans were released unharmed but not without emotional trauma due to the dehumanizing experience of these expatriates. They were release 6 days later unharmed.

iii)    Kidnapping of a three-year old British girl in Nigeria. July 6, 2007 in Aba, Abia State. This kidnapping case occurred on the above date while the girl was traveling to school by car to Port Harcourt, along the Aba-Port Harcourt express way. Margaret Hill, daughter of oil worker Mike Hill was snatched by unknown gun men who demanded ransom. It was not clear whether any ransom was paid at the time of this report. This particular case triggered a frantic diplomatic activity to obtain her release. The report also has it that she was unharmed at the time of her release.

iv)         Kidnapping of pa. Chinedu the Father of a Senior Accountant of Abia State on the 7th of October 2008, reported in the daily sun of 8th October, 2010.

According the sun report, the man was kidnapped in his home town by some unknown gunmen who demanded N20 million. The report continued that this elderly man was held hostage for over two weeks and eventually died in the custody of the kidnappers who dropped the corpse at the at a Bridge. It was indeed a sad news as it was the first case of the death of a victim in the custody of the kidnappers in Abia State.



















3.1   Origin of Kidnapping in Abia State

        It is difficult to determine exactly when kidnapping started in Abia State without taking a holistic view of it’s origin in the whole of the Niger Delta.

        Abia State has been under the siege of kidnappers who have in the last few years made life unbearable for the residents especially the wealthy and foreign nationals.

        The illicit trade, which began in the troubled oil rich Niger Delta started in the year 2006 in Bayelsa State south-south geographical zone. It was first experienced in the south east zone at the industrial town of Nnewi, Anambra State, where two Chinese nationals attached to a private auto manufacturing firm were taken hostage on March, 17, 2007. (Daily Champion 2nd June, 2008). The report hinted that one of the victims was released after the payment of ransom while the other was missing till date and he is believed to have been killed by his abductors.

The first reported case o kidnapping took place on September 27, 2008 at Aba involving the kidnap of 15 school children who were later released perhaps after the payment of ransom (Daily champion 02/06/2009). Since then, there have been cases of kidnapping involving women, children, the wealthy and foreigners. Different authorities and individuals have adduced various reasons for the high rate of kidnapping and crime in the area.

Iwarime-Jaja (2010:158) simply asserted that:

Infact, it is the harsh conditions experienced by people that motivate them to seek for extra-legal ways to come out of their deplorable state of survival. This explains why there is a chronic and recalcitrant crime situation that has a systematic occurrence and characterized as dangerous.


Oloruntimehin (1984) seems to agree with the above assertion when he wrote that:

Nigeria is besieged with normlessness. The country has replaced dignity and honor with disrespect and dishonor as a standard of behaviour. There is an overt display of immorality and power, violence and ill gotten money.


The fact is that, there is societal decadence. Nigeria has unwittingly provided the conducive and enabling environment for all sorts of crime which has engendered it’s crime-problem (Iwarimie-Jaja 2010:159).

        Today, Aba the commercial nerve centre of Abia State is a state of abject lawlessness, prompting residents to flee the town in droves, while schools, banks, markets and business premises have been shut down. No wonder president Goodluck Jonathan promptly ordered the inspector general of police Hafiz Ringim and heads of other security agencies to “take necessary steps to restore peace and order in Abia State.


3.2   Types/Strategies of Kidnapping in Abia State

        Some of the types of kidnapping in Abia State could be summarized under the following sub-headings.

i)      Kidnapping from Bushes: This is the type of kidnapping where the victims are normally abducted along the road leading to either a village or town and kept in the bush. This is the most used method as the bush provides a safe haven for the kidnappers who also perfect their mission in the bush. The victims could be any body depending on the target of the kidnappers. For instance, the kidnap of 15 pupils along the Aba-Port Harcourt expressway by one of the notorious kidnappers Osisikana and taken to unknown destination. The hoodlums where later apprehended and their captives released. (Daily Guardian 02/06/2008).

ii)     Kidnapping in the Sea: This happens when the victims are kidnapped in the sea while traveling in the Nigerian waterways. The victims were mostly taken to the bush for ransom. An example of this kind of kidnapping was one that took place at the Bonny Sea on the 14th of April 2009 at about 7:30pm involving a staff of NLNG. There were cases were the kidnappers board the boat of travelers in order to perfect their heinous crime.

iii)    Kidnapping from the Church: Sometimes, the kidnappers resort to the kidnapping of Church members especially the wealthy ones for the purpose of ransom. The kidnappers either pretend to be worshippers or hang around the Church premises to perpetrate their plan. In most cases, the victims are mostly children and women of wealthy Church members or the clergy perceived to be very rich (Guardian 02/06/2008).

iv)    Kidnapping from Houses: This is the most widely used method of kidnapping of victims from their houses or offices and taken to unknown destinations. The Sun Newspaper of 14th February, 2010 reported the kidnapping of a medical Doctor Sunday Uche along the Ugwuati and Ogwe area of Ukwa-West Local Government Area of Abia State. He was allegedly killed after his abductors had collected N20 million ransoms from his relatives. The police according to that report fingered the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra.


3.3   Government and Community Response to Kidnapping

        Government at all levels and the various communities in the area had made frantic efforts at eradicating the scourge of kidnapping. The government of Abia State led by Theodore Orji had intensified efforts through the instrumentality of local vigilante groups and the law enforcement agencies. We shall briefly look at the various ways the government and the communities of Abia State had responded to this menace.


1)     The Use of Government Security Agents

The Abia State Governor had intensified efforts at eradicating the scourge of kidnapping. They go by various names like operation sweeps, operation wipe and anti-kidnapping squad. They go by various names like operation sweeps operation wipe and anti-kidnapping squad. The police in Abia State have however taken up the gauntlet and recorded successes by bursting three major kidnap cases involving children and the women in Aba, Abia State. It is also on record that the police in Abia State paraded 32 pregnant inmates mostly teenagers arrested when they invaded clinic (Baby factory) known as the cross foundation. The Osisikama kidnappers were also arrested and crushed by a joint military taskforce. The police also foiled various attempts at kidnapping different people in Abia State.

2)     The use of Vigilantee Groups

The communities on their part have also resorted to the use of local vigilante for the purpose of curbing kidnapping. The various communities of Abia State had instituted different groups to curb the menace. For instance, the popular Bakassi boys in Aba have assisted the government to eradicate kidnapping.


3)     Media Sensitization

The government has also intensified efforts at the sensitization of the populace on the need to be watchful or the look out for kidnappers. This has assisted the people to be careful on how they travel especially at odd times. The media has a great task in this regard. It is important to continue sensitizing the people on the need to allow decency in governance and citizen’s responsibilities. The media also has a duty to investigate cases of kidnapping and other vices that are ingenious to the economic growth of the state.   

4)     Resort to Prayers

It is also of on record that the wife of the Governor of Abia State has on severed occasions called for prayer sessions to seek the face of God. The people on their part must compliment government’s action by ensuring accountability on the part of the state government who are the custodians of the revenue accruable to the states. The time to indulge in corruption by any State Governors under any guise should be over.


3.4   Effect of Kidnapping in Abia State

Kidnapping has had and still has some effect in Abia state.

i)      Kidnapping as a Source of Unemployment

At the wake of kidnapping especially when it concerns the kidnapping of foreign expatriates when the governments at the state and federal levels are calling for investors has affected Abia state negatively. Some companies have either folded or relocated to other parts of this country or outside the shores of Nigeria leading to unemployment occasional by loss of jobs. A social commentator Uche Onye once asked.

How will any reasonable investor come and invest in a country where several other international companies are winding up? (Punch 8th August, 2010).   


The resultant effect is that more people are lured into crime as the saying goes; an idle mind is the devils workshop.

ii)     Battered the Image of Abia State

Also of great concern is the negative picture the menace has created of the Nigerian society at international level. This has affected virtually all aspects of life of the people especially the tourism industry is adversely affected. The revenue expected from the tourism sector could not be realized in the midst of insecure environment. Most foreign governments on monthly basis post travel warnings on their websites, warning their citizens against traveling to the Niger Delta region, Abia State inclusive, owing to the growing insecurity in the region.

iii)    Loss of Revenue to the State Government

The menace of kidnapping has affected the revenue generation of Abia State. Some of the revenue accruable from the companies/businesses in Abia State has continued to diminish drastically. Government continues to spend huge sums of money to provide security making other sectors of the economy to suffer. The Abia State government is reported to have decried the loss of billions of naira to the fight against kidnapping and the reduction of the presence of companies in Abia State. In the midst of these, the Abia State economy is the ultimate victim.

iv)    General Insecurity

 There is general sense of insecurity leading to loss of lives and properties. The result is that many youth are now interested in the kidnapping business. The urge to be part of the money-spinning racket thus emboldened many desperate youths to defy the risk and embrace kidnapping as a pastime. Funny enough, kidnapping which could be likened to glorified armed robbery, has today graduated from fighting for the right of the region to include all forms of criminalities including killing and maiming.

This according to Iwarimie-Jaja (2010:172) lamented the security implications of kidnapping when he wrote:

Enforcers of law (the police, the immigration services, drug law enforcement agency, customs, and state security services) in attempt to reduce Nigeria’s crime-problem, have arrested children, young persons and adults, public-office holders and non-public office holders but their efforts have not stopped Nigeria’s crime problem from increasing astronomically.


Furthermore, the continuous confrontation between the military and the kidnappers has far reaching security implications on the people and residents of Abia State.









4.1   Children Kidnapping

        Kidnapping which started in the Niger Delta had as it’s target the foreign expatriates either as agitation for the control of the resources of the region and later for ransom. In Abia State, it degenerated to the issue of kidnapping women and children for reasons ranging from ransom taking to strategy to weaken political opponents. According to Ogechi Chinedu (oral information, 08/07/2011) the vicious syndicates which have various detention camps in different states of the region kidnap human beings principally to extract ransom from the helpless relatives. Sometimes, they rake in millions of naira from their wealthy victims and hundreds of thousands from the middle class.

        The kidnapping of 15 school children in Aba, Abia State on the 27th September, 2007 one of the reported cases of kidnapping in Abia State (Daily Sun 8th October, 2008). The paper further reported that these children were held hostage for 5 days and eventually released on the eve of the independence day. The incident once again alerted Nigerians, and particularly the people of Abia State, to the brutality of prowling kidnappers.

        There was another case of kidnapping of 20 pupils of Abayi International School, Osisioma in Aba. They were taken them to unknown destination. While demanding a N20 million ransom, the hoodlums later abandoned the kids following a military operation mounted to rescue them. As, the 20 pupils were released, another six students of the Federal Government College, Ikot Ekpene Akwa-Ibom State, were kidnapped in Abia State (Daily Sun 8th October, 2011).


4.2   Women Kidnapping

The Daily Champion of 2nd June, 2011 reported the kidnap of the wife of a Bishop of the Anglican Communion along the Aba – Port – Harcourt express way demanding a ransom of N15m. The Abia State police command on the 7th of July 2010 announced the arrest of Dr. Hyacinth Orikara accused of allegedly harboring pregnant women until they are delivered of their babies with a settlement of between N30,000 and N25,000. These babies were alleged to have been used for commercial purposes. It was reported that the act continued until the Abia State police command acting on a tip off stormed that hospital, made some arrest while Dr. Hycient was charged to court and imprisoned. Today, the target of the kidnappers is mainly women and children, especially those of the wealthy and influential in the society. The United Nation’s children’s fund called the incidents of women and children kidnapping a “craven kidnap”. UNICEF declared that “under no circumstances should children be the target of violence, and kidnapping children for financial gain is simply heinous”. (universal declaration of human rights,  article 3,4 and 5). The kidnappers often leave in their trail blood, tears and anguish.   


4.3   Implications of Women and Children Kidnapping in Abia State

        Kidnapping women and children could have certain implications socially, economically, culturally and religiously too. For the purpose of this research, we shall limit ourselves to the religious and cultural implications of women and children kidnapping in Abia State.

4.3.1        Religious Implications

        The incessant cases of kidnapping of both women and children have affected the worship of God (church activities) negatively due to the fear of children and women to be kidnapped.

Ugochukwu Asiegbu (oral information 07/07/2011) hinted why the people are always afraid of being kidnapped:

Not all those that were kidnapped were lucky enough to leave the kidnappers den alive. Some of them actually died either in the process of resistance or as a result of the trauma they went through. 


There was a report on the Thisday Newspaper of (11th January, 2009) on an attempt by a group of armed men to kidnap a pastor of The Redeemed Christian Church of God within Aba Metropolis. The effect according to the report was not only the death of some persons (Church members) who attempted to prevent the supposed kidnappers but a decline in the number of members for fear of another attack. There was even suspicion among members who felt that some of their “members” were informants to the kidnappers.

        Religiously too, money that could have been used to support the work of God was diverted to the payment of ransom to the kidnappers. Some Christians hide under the guise of being identified by the kidnappers to withhold their financial support for the church in Abia State.

For John Umegwali (Oral Information 07/07/2011) who was kidnapped and released after about six days had this to say:

When the kidnappers dropped me around 11pm, the question that comes to my mind was whether God existed at all or whether God hast not seen anything good in my relationship with him.



4.3.2        Cultural Implications

        There are negative cultural implications of women and children kidnapping. In the first place, kidnapping of children and other categories of people is a source of the violation of human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. In most cases of kidnapping, the right of association, freedom of movement and the right to life are normally violated. It is a crime against humanity and the rights of persons and nations as guaranteed by the universal declaration of human rights especially articles 3, 4, 5 as indicated herein. Article 3- every one has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 4- no one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article 5 – no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.  The African charter on human and peoples rights adopted June, 27, 1981 and entered into force October 21, 1986 also domesticated the principles and articles of the universal declaration of human rights to the effect that every person is entitled to freedom of movement, respect for his life, protection, and the right to liberty and security of his person.

        Kidnapping, no doubt negates all these rights as person are captured, detained against their wish, tortured and sometimes murdered.

        Secondly, kidnapping is a threat to the survival of the society or the governments as people are innocently embarrassed on daily basis. This according to Uzoma Nosike (oral information 08/07/2011) causes tension and disregard to laid down cultural norms of the society. This leads to increase in crime rate as kidnapping is infectious. This is because many unemployed graduates will be tempted to take to kidnapping (crime) for the purpose of making money to cater for their homes. This could be attributed to the fact that ransoms are paid before the release of victims. More and more people are tempted to constitute themselves into nuisance, leading to disobedience of the laws of the land, embezzlement of public funds and destruction of lives and properties. Activities of these kidnappers disrupt socio-cultural and recreational events in the society, especially in Aba and it’s environs. The daily sun of 12th March, 2010, reported how the Port Harcourt – Aba express way was behive of activities of these armed bandits who thrones the road users there causing mayhem.  If this trend is not check, even cultural activities like masquerades or festival will be affected. It will be suicidal for any community to engage in any gathering due to the fear of the unknown. Kidnapping according to Ogechi Chinedu (oral information 08/07/2011) has also affected the family institution. He maintained that:

There is the tendency of lives of wealthy persons to stage their husbands for the purpose of sharing the ransom to be paid and vice versa.

Children are made to imbibe some form of negative orientations and seem to believe that kidnapping is lucrative venture that ought to be embraced. Children were highly traumatized and tend to see a beclouded future of military, thurgery and killings.


















5.1   Summary

This project discusses the cultural and religious implications of women and children kidnapping in Aba-Abia State with emphasis on the need for the government and the people to rise to the occasion in order to stop this menace for the benefit of society.

        Chapter one is the introduction of the work with the following sub-headings -background of the study, Statement of the Problem, Purpose of the Study, Research Methodology, Scope of the Study, Limitations as well as Significance of the Study.

        Chapter two is the review of literature with two major sub-heading meaning and types of kidnapping in Nigeria and certain cases of kidnapping in Nigeria.

        Chapter three dealt with Abia State and patterns of kidnapping-types, history of origin, government and community response to kidnapping, strategies as well as effects of kidnapping in Abia State.

Chapter four dealt with the trend of women and children kidnapping, religious and cultural implications in Abia State.

        Chapter five is the summary, recommendations and conclusion.


5.2   Recommendations

        The need for the eradication of kidnapping and other social vices cannot be over emphasized. This research recommends the following.

        Government should tackle the problem of unemployment to reduce the rate at which the youth of today embrace kidnapping as a lucrative venture.

        Government at all levels should intensify efforts through a joint police and vigilante patrol to forestall wandering at odd times, thereby reducing the risk of kidnapping of especially in the night.

        The community members should teach their members especially the youth morals to discourage their indulgence in atrocious activities like kidnapping.

        The federal government should intensity the war against corruption which scholars seem to have agreed is the root of kidnapping in the country.

        The Niger Delta issues of deprivation, cheating and underdevelopment should be addressed in order to reduce the rate of agitation by the people, leading to kidnapping for ransom.

        There is need to apply traditional religious method of identifying and punishing kidnapper to serve as deterrents to others who could have resorted to such atrocious deeds.

It is important to mention the fact that people always have a way of dragging God into every man made problem in this country. The celebration that heralded the release of most victims is infectious that even the police have joined the alleluia chorus. What has the government done to address this menace? Is the police or better still the joint military task force done to address the situation especially in Aba-Abia State?

According to Lawrence – Hart 2009: 31:




Africans are religious people, so the aspect of crime detection and other social vices should not only be handled secularly but religiously too. The job of crime detection should not be handled by the police alone. The Dibias, Babalawos, the traditional priest etc. should be called upon to help out in cases where the police cannot succeed. These traditionalists have the spiritual abilities to fish out those who are responsible for social disorder in the society.


Lawrence-Hart (2009:31) continued this on the religious dimension of kidnapping in the Niger Delta region thus:

This is because in traditional African societies, peace is not an abstract poetic concept, but rather a down-to-earth and practical concept. It is a religious value in that the order, harmony and equilibrium in the universe and society is believed to be divinely established and the obligation to maintain them is religious. It is also a moral value since good conduct is required of human beings if the order, harmony and equilibrium are to be maintained.


The above discussed religious implications are application to the other religions practiced by those residing in Abia State including Islam.






5.3   Conclusion

As earlier stated in the background and part of the literature review which borders on the factors that necessitated crimes which kidnapping is not an exception, against the backdrop of popularly held theories that crime is associated with the gap between the “rich” and the “poor”, unequal economic conditions, unemployment, poverty etc.

        This study agrees with the Marxist theory that kidnapping is a reaction to this obvious socio-economic gap due to the obnoxious attitude of our political leadership in Nigeria. It is also safe to say that this study also align totally to the views of some scholars/commentators that the solution to this problem lies in government’s sincerity to addressing the identified problems of poverty greed, corruption and the failure of government at the different levels to providing the basic needs of the society.

The fact that kidnapping is a threat to the survival of the society and associated with the violation of the rights of the people as entrenched in the universal declaration of human rights and the African charter on the people’s rights which guarantees the right to life, dignity of human person etc.

On the part of the citizens, there is need for re-orientation to the effect that kidnapping is a crime against society and should be discouraged by all and sundry to ensure a peaceful, harmonious and crime free society.  

In any case, the dominant religions in Nigeria-Christianity and Islam should intensify efforts at propagating the core values of love, togetherness and unity.

However, the menace of kidnapping has assumed a dangerous proportion, if not check is capable of balkanizing the entire country. It is the considered opinion of this research that the root cause of kidnapping should be addressed by both the government and the community, at least to ensure a harmonious society devoid of rancour and acrimony. On the part of the citizens, there is need for re-orientation to the effect that kidnapping is devilish and that kidnappers are bound to suffer death penalty when caught.  












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Oral Interview





Home town

Date of interview

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Jeremiah Uchenna






Ugochukwu Asiegbu






John Umegwali






Ogechi Chinedu






Uzoma Nosike






Okoro Okoro






Johson Amara






Okeke Uche






Okonkwo Chidi






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