Ex-post facto research is a systematic empirical inquiry in which the scientist does not have direct control of independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or because they are inherently not manipulated. Inferences about relations among variables are made, without direct intervention, from co commitment variation of independent and dependent variables. This kind of research is based on a scientific and analytical examination of dependent and independent variables.
When translated literally, ex post facto means ‘from what is done afterwards’. In the context of social and educational research the phrase means ‘after the fact’ or ‘retrospectively’ and refers to those studies which investigate possible cause-and-effect relationships by observing an existing condition or state of affairs and searching back in time for plausible causal factors. In effect, researchers ask themselves what factors seem to be associated with certain occurrences, or conditions, or aspects of behaviour. Ex post facto research, then, is a method of teasing out possible antecedents of events that have happened and cannot, therefore, be engineered or manipulated by the investigator. The following example will illustrate the basic idea. Imagine a situation in which there has been a dramatic increase in the number of fatal road accidents in a particular locality. An expert is called in to investigate. Naturally, there is no way in which she can study the actual accidents because they have happened; nor can she turn to technology for a video replay of the incidents. What she can do, however, is attempt a reconstruction by studying the statistics, examining the accident spots, and taking note of the statements given by victims and witnesses. In this way the expert will be in a position to identify possible determinants of the accidents. These may include excessive speed, poor road conditions, careless driving, frustration, inefficient vehicles, the effects of drugs or alcohol and so on. On the basis of her examination, she can formulate hypotheses as to the likely causes and submit them to the appropriate authority in the form of recommendations. These may include improving road conditions, or lowering the speed limit, or increasing police surveillance, for instance. The point of interest to us is that in identifying the causes retrospectively, the expert adopts an ex post facto perspective.
Kerlinger (1970) has defined ex post facto research more formally as that in which the independent variable or variables have already occurred and in which the researcher starts with the observation of a dependent variable or variables. She then studies the independent variable or variables in retrospect for their possible relationship to, and effects on, the dependent variable or variables. The researcher is thus examining retrospectively the effects of a naturally occurring event on a subsequent outcome with a view to establishing a causal link between them. Interestingly, some instances of ex post facto designs correspond to experimental research in reverse, for instead of taking groups that are equivalent and subjecting them to different treatments so as to bring about differences in the dependent variables to be measured, an ex post facto experiment begins with groups that are already different in some respect and searches in retrospect for the factor that brought about the difference. Indeed Spector (1993:42) suggests that ex post facto research is a procedure that is intended to transform a non-experimental research design into a pseudo-experimental form. Two kinds of design may be identified in ex post facto research. the co-relational study and the criterion group study. The former is sometimes termed ‘causal research’ and the latter, ‘causal-comparative research’.
Independent variables are studied in retrospect for seeking possible and plausible relations and the likely effects that the changes in independent variables produce on a single or a set of dependent variables. A true experiment and ex post facto both are attempting to say: this independent variable is causing changes in a dependent variable. This is the basis of any experiment – one variable is hypothesized to be influencing another. This is done by having an experimental group and a control group. So if you’re testing a new type of medication, the experimental group gets the new medication, while the control group gets the old medication. This allows you to test the efficacy of the new medication.
Ex post facto designs are different from true experiments because ex post facto designs do not use random assignment. True experiments have random assignment because you’re looking at something else. In ex post facto, you are looking at a prior variable present in the participant.
In an ex post facto design, you are not randomly assigning people to an experimental group or control group. You are purposefully putting people in a particular group based on some prior thing they have. I say ‘thing’ because it could be ‘must have glasses,’ or ‘must be overweight.’ There is no limit to the ways you could divide up the population.

Ex post facto study or after-the-fact research is a category of research design in which the investigation starts after the fact has occurred without interference from the researcher. The majority of social research, in contexts in which it is not possible or acceptable to manipulate the characteristics of human participants, is based on ex post facto research designs. It is also often applied as a substitute for true experimental research to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships or in situations in which it is not practical or ethically acceptable to apply the full protocol of a true experimental design. Despite studying facts that have already occurred, ex post facto research shares with experimental research design some of its basic logic of inquiry. Ex post facto research design does not include any form of manipulation or measurement before the fact occurs, as is the case in true experimental designs.

• Empirical
• • http://www.underacademy.org/distinguishing-between-the-types-of-research-papers-and-their-components
• • http://archives.gadoe.org/DMGetDocument.aspx/Types.of.Research.Methods.SERVE%20Center.pdf?p=6CC6799F8C1371F6C790A38569315032FE8B3FDBE6A7D64BCE3B4886D72BD474&Type=D
• • https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/658/


Costs may be classified as product costs and period costs. This classification is usually used for financial accounting purposes. A brief explanation of product costs and period costs is given below:
A period cost is any cost that cannot be capitalized into prepaid expenses, inventory, or fixed assets. A period cost is more closely associated with the passage of time than with a transactional event. Since a period cost is essentially always charged to expense at once, it may more appropriately be called a period expense.
Product cost refers to the costs used to create a product. These costs include direct labor, direct materials, consumable production supplies, and factory overhead. Product cost can also be considered the cost of the labor required to deliver a service to a customer. In the latter case, product cost should include all costs related to a service, such as compensation, payroll taxes, and employee benefits.

PRODUCT AND PERIOD COSTS The concepts of product and period costs are similar to direct and indirect costs. Product costs are those that the firm’s accounting system associates directly with output and that are used to value inventory. Under a direct or variable cost accounting system, only direct or variable costs are charged to production. Indirect costs such as property taxes, insurance, depreciation on plant and equipment, and salaries of supervisors are considered period costs. Period costs are charged as expenses to the current period. Under direct costing, period costs are not viewed as costs of the products being manufactured, so they are not associated with valuing inventories.
If the firm uses a full cost accounting system, however, then all manufacturing costs—including fixed manufacturing overhead costs and variable costs—become product costs. They are considered part of the cost of manufacturing and are charged against inventory


1.The costs that are not included in product costs are known as period costs. Usually, these costs are not part of the manufacturing process and are therefore treated as expense for the period in which they arise.
1.Product costs (also known as inventoriable costs) are those costs that are incurred to acquire or manufacture a product. For a manufacturing company, theses costs usually consist of direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead.

2.Period costs are not attached to products and company does not need to wait for the sale of products to recognize them as expense. According to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), all marketing, selling and administration costs are treated as period costs. Examples of these costs include office rent, interest, depreciation of office building, sales commission and advertising expenses etc
2.Product costs are initially treated as inventory and do not appear on income statement until the product for which they are incurred is sold. When the product is sold, these costs are transferred to cost of goods sold account. For example, if a company manufactures 50 units of product X and sells only 30 units in 2013

3.Period costs are expenses that are easier to attribute to times and accounting periods than actual production processes or finished goods. Product costs, on the other hand, are expenses that are incurred to manufacture a good and can typically be traced back to a specific product. In other words, product costs are the expenses incurred to produce something.
4.Period costs are expensed on the income statement when they are incurred. Take advertising expenses for example. Product costs, on the other hand, are capitalized as inventory on the balance sheet. Raw materials are not expensed when they are purchased.
5.All costs not included in product costs are called period costs. Since these costs are not involved in the production process, they are not treated differently on an income statement following a sale. Costs incurred in the process of acquiring or manufacturing a product are considered product costs.
6.Period costs are basically all costs other than product costs. These are not incurred on the manufacturing process and therefore these cannot be assigned to cost goods manufactured. Period costs are thus expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
Product costs cling to the units of products purchased or manufactured. If a unit is unsold, the product costs will be reported as inventory, a current asset on the balance sheet.

7.The period costs are usually associated with the selling function of the business or its general administration. The product costs of direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead are also “inventoriable” costs, since these are the necessary costs of manufacturing the products.
8.A period cost is more closely associated with the passage of time than with a transactional event. Product cost can be recorded as an inventory asset if the product has not yet been sold. It is charged to the cost of goods sold as soon as the product is sold (see the Matching Principle), and appears as an expense on the income statement.
9. The period costs are usually associated with the selling function of the business or its general administration. Product cost is not a selling function
10. A period cost is more closely associated with the passage of time than with a transactional event. A product cost is more closely associated with a transactional event.
11. Period cost does not appear in the financial statements, since it does not includes the manufacturing overhead that is required by both GAAP and IFRS.
Product cost appears in the financial statements, since it includes the manufacturing overhead that is required by both GAAP and IFRS.

12. Period cost cannot be recorded as an inventory asset Product cost can be recorded as an inventory asset if the product has not yet been sold.
13. Period cost cannot be considered as the cost of the labor . Product cost can also be considered the cost of the labor required to deliver a service to a customer.
14. period cost is used in all areas of accounting Product cost is used in the manufacturing sector
15. period cost occurs during sales and inventory. Product cost will occur during the process of manufacturing the product as: direct material, direct labor, and/ or indirect overhead cost.


An article in the Journal of Family Psychology examined 94 different studies about family and religion, all conducted since 2013. The article found that as a general rule, religion had a small but distinct positive influence in helping couples avoid divorce. It also found that conservative Christian parents were slightly more likely to use corporal punishment when disciplining their children, but some of the studies cited also indicated that children from religious families may be better adjusted.
Religion is defined by Hanalanbos, et al 1980 in his book titled sociology. Themes and perspectives religion is the belief in the supernatural which have a governing effort on life. However Miglford S. Sprio adopts a similar definition when he stated that religion is based on “belief in supernatural beings and in their power to assist or harm man”.
Definition of Family: The family is most basic institution in the society because it is the primary agent of procreation and socialization. This means that it is the primary agent ensuring that new generation of members are reproduced cared for and trained in the society ways.
The family may be defined as a low social adults of opposite sex with or without children who and are in constitutionalized relationship it is made of man and woman who are unrelated by blood and children (if any) cualturalized relationship members of the family are co-residential, offer each other economic social and security assistance. Sexual behaviour are also regulated here.
The family originates from the coming together of a man a woman usually through marriage and continues through the human circle.
We have different types of family such as:
Nuclear Family: This type of marriage consists of a husband and wife and their children living together in a single dwelling. A nuclear family is made of fever generations who live together, and it most after includes husband a wife and their dependent children (if any).
Extended Family: This consist of several related person such as husband and wife and their children, at lest one of their set of parents, as well as aunts uncles and nephews all living together in a single dwelling.
Patriarchal Family: This is refers to family patterns in many societies where man and heads of the families and they are to dominate the family decision making.
Matriarchal Family: in this type of family patterns it is the right of woman in the society to dominate family decision-making, living with their husband not withstanding e.g tehamduli tribe.
Egalitandan Family: In this family which has developed in modern societies especially among working class spouses, responsibilities and power or decision making are shared equally between husband and wives.

There exists a connection or relationship between religion and the family, which I strongly agree to. Eberstadt (2014) studied the relationship between family and religious practice and describes their inter-dependence in her new book How the West Really Lost God. Eberstadt explains their relationship as “the double helix of society, each dependent on the strength of the other for successful reproduction.” Eberstadt’s research suggests that family strengthens religious practice, and likewise, religious practice strengthen the family. Marriages tend to be stronger when the spouses attend weekly service. Likewise, parents—especially fathers—are more involved in the lives of their children when they frequent religious services. As previous Heritage research has pointed out, religious practice contributes to the well-being of individuals, families, and the community.
However, Eberstadt also emphasizes that the opposite is true. Where there is a breakdown of the family—particularly as marriage rates decline and the welfare state grows to fill the void left by broken or never-formed families—religious observance likewise slumps
Traditionally, religious institutions have been educating people on family life. They emphasise the significance of family through life cycle rituals. Stages related to ‘hatching matching and dispatching’, that is, from birth of an infant to the wedding to funeral, are components in the life of a family as well as that of individuals.
These various periods have religious ceremonies associated with them. At the time of setting up family, religious institution provide a location for the wedding to happen. After the birth of a child, the religious institution gets involved. The next stages facilitating the child’s individuation process also witness religious rituals called rites de passage. Later, religious institutions facilitate mate selection and marriage of children, and provide support to parents when children leave home.
So, many family education programmes can be initiated in the arena of religion. Religion also preaches about duties, obligations and modes of behaviour among various members of the family-older and younger, between husband and wife, parents and children and intra-members of the extended family.
Religious institutions can propose programmes with themes on family life. For instance, in the West, the early 1960s saw the beginning of ‘marriage enrichment programmes’ With the support of Church. The participants in the programme were married couples who wanted to improve their own marriages and help others.
There were also programmes for those who had faced difficulty in family situations such as sexual harassment and domestic violence. At times, those who face such disturbing situations within the pristine sheltered environment of family find it difficult to let off. Along with the spiritual need to be able to forgive, there is a greater need to make the offenders realise their action and let them suffer. Parenting education is also receiving a lot of attention in various family life education programmes in religious settings. Programmes such as Systematic Training for Effective Parents (STEP) or Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) have begun. We know very well that religious doctrines influence family matters like marriage and child rearing, including eating habits. Guidelines related to abortion, birth control, role of women etc, give direction to people’s behaviour.
Therefore, education of sexuality can be organised in a religious setting. These programmes are meant for children and youth of various ages, and parents to discuss sexuality and other issues. Religious groups act as communities of care by strengthening bonds among people. The practice of counselling by the clergy, the purohits and the pundits continues despite there being ‘many mental health professionals.
Moreover, any moment of crisis acts as a ‘teachable moment’ during which religious institutions strengthen the bond they share with people. Such instances also prove to be the learning ground for others who might face similar situations in their lives. For instance, a family, which has a member addicted to substance abuse, can share with the community its own experience so that they can learn from it. Similarly, religious community can spread awareness on HIV and AIDS and its transmission and mobilise resources to support people suffering from HIV and AIDS.
Educators should look for religious leaders as resource persons who are able to support the goals of family life education. It is imperative to t take into account the religious concerns of people before designing any family life education programme. Also relevant dimensions from family life education must be incorporated in designing religious education programmes. Family life education has something to offer to religious education and vice versa. Thus, a mutual and integrated approach must be followed keeping in mind that religion and family life education share a symbiotic relationship.
While many studies have asserted that there is an increase in family cohesion among those with a religion, others have found conflicting results or challenged the qualities that hold these families together. Some studies have also asserted that for individual family members who fall outside the religious norms of the family, such as those who challenge the faith or who are homosexual, this rule of family cohesion no longer applies. Thus all religious groups and affiliations supports family relationships but the Christian sect supports it the most due to its teaching, practice and doctrinal views on family.

There is indeed a close ties between religion and family. When the issues of the connection between religion and the family are enlarged to include a historical perspective, even more caution is warranted in drawing conclusions. It is common to point to the Amish family (Olshan, 1988) as the example of a religious group that has successfully withstood change from the larger social order for centuries. But as Olshan argues in his chapter (1988), the Amish, according to what they write, are not that separate from the larger social order. Even the Amish exhibit a modern mentality in their daily struggle to live the Amish way. Hynes’s discussion (1988) of religious and familial change in mid-nineteenth-century Ireland is a sobering reminder of the necessity to take into account local conditions in order to better understand how both the church and family change when confronting a catastrophe of such enormous proportions as the Great Hunger of 1845–49. An increase in attendance at Mass from about 30 percent in 1830 to over 90 percent in 1870 is remarkable, but, as Hynes reminds us, that change was only brought about because of the way the stem family functioned. Likewise, the religion that flourished during the devotional revolution was Catholicism of a particular type—an extremely puritanical variety that meshed with the needs of the times.

Abrahamson, M., and W. P. Anderson. 1984. “People’s Commitments to Institutions.” Social Psychology Quarterly 47(4): 371–81.
Alexander, J. C. 1982. Theoretical Logic in Sociology (Vol. 1). Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Andrews, A. R. 1979. “Religion, Psychology, and Science: Steps Toward a Wider Psychology of Religion.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 7(l): 31–38.
John, C (2009), understanding African peoples and society. University of Port Harcourt, choba


In today’s financial markets, the distinction between stocks and shares has been somewhat blurred. Generally, these words are used interchangeably to refer to the pieces of paper that denote ownership in a particular company, called stock certificates. However, the difference between the two words comes from the context in which they are used. For example, “stock” is a general term used to describe the ownership certificates of any company, in general, and “shares” refers to a the ownership certificates of a particular company. So, if investors say they own stocks, they are generally referring to their overall ownership in one or more companies. Technically, if someone says that they own shares – the question then becomes – shares in what company? An index is a mathematical construct, so it may not be invested in directly. But many mutual funds and exchange-traded funds attempt to “track” an index (see index fund), and those funds that do not may be judged against those that do.

The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation constitutes the equity stake of its owners. It represents the residual assets of the company that would be due to stockholders after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt. Stockholders’ equity cannot be withdrawn from the company in a way that is intended to be detrimental to the company’s creditors.
Stock typically takes the form of shares of either common stock or preferred stock. As a unit of ownership, common stock typically carries voting rights that can be exercised in corporate decisions. Preferred stock differs from common stock in that it typically does not carry voting rights but is legally entitled to receive a certain level of dividend payments before any dividends can be issued to other shareholders. Convertible preferred stock is preferred stock that includes an option for the holder to convert the preferred shares into a fixed number of common shares, usually any time after a predetermined date. Shares of such stock are called “convertible preferred shares” (or “convertible preference shares” in the UK).
In financial markets, a share is a unit of account for various investments. It often means the stock of a corporation, but is also used for collective investments such as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts. A unit of ownership interest in a corporation or financial asset. While owning shares in a business does not mean that the shareholder has direct control over the business’s day-to-day operations, being a shareholder does entitle the possessor to an equal distribution in any profits, if any are declared in the form of dividends. The two main types of shares are common shares and preferred shares. While shares are often used to refer to the stock of a corporation, shares can also represent ownership of other classes of financial assets, such as mutual funds.
The term ‘share’ is defined by section 2(46) of the Companies Act 1956 as – “share means a share in the share capital of a company includes stock except where a distinction between stock and share is expressed or implied”.
Corporations issue shares which are offered for sale to raise share capital. The owner of shares in the corporation is a shareholder (or stockholder) of the corporation. A share is an indivisible unit of capital, expressing the ownership relationship between the company and the shareholder. The denominated value of a share is its face value, and the total of the face value of issued shares represent the capital of a company, which may not reflect the market value of those shares.
The income received from the ownership of shares is a dividend. The process of purchasing and selling shares often involves going through a stockbroker as a middle man.

1.The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation constitutes the equity stake of its owners.
1. share is a unit of account for various investments.
2.Its the company financial stake 2. It often means the stock of a corporation
3.stock means the total asset capital of a company 3. share means a share in the share capital of a company
4.The stock of a company is sold in units called shares. 4. A share is a unit of ownership, or equity, in a company or a corporation
5. “stock” is a general term used to describe the ownership certificates of any company, in general, 5. While “shares” refers to a the ownership certificates of a particular company

6.The stock of a corporation is partitioned into shares, the total of which are stated at the time of business formation. 6.Shares represent a fraction of ownership in a business.

The stock market typically takes the form of shares of either common stock or preferred stock. As a unit of ownership, common stock typically carries voting rights that can be exercised in corporate decisions. Preferred stock differs from common stock in that it typically does not carry voting rights but is legally entitled to receive a certain level of dividend payments before any dividends can be issued to other shareholders.[3][4][page needed] Convertible preferred stock is preferred stock that includes an option for the holder to convert the preferred shares into a fixed number of common shares, usually any time after a predetermined date. Shares of such stock are called “convertible preferred shares” (or “convertible preference shares” in the UK).
New equity issue may have specific legal clauses attached that differentiate them from previous issues of the issuer. Some shares of common stock may be issued without the typical voting rights, for instance, or some shares may have special rights unique to them and issued only to certain parties. Often, new issues that have not been registered with a securities governing body may be restricted from resale for certain periods of time.

• “Mark J Perry” (January 18, 2013). “World stock market capitalization closes year at $54.6 trillion”. http://www.aei.org. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
• • WFE 2012 Market Highlights
• • “Global Stock Rally: World Market Cap Reached Record High In March | Seeking Alpha”.
• • “IBM Investor relations – FAQ | On what stock exchanges is IBM listed ?”. IBM.
• • “What’s the difference between a Nasdaq market maker and a NYSE specialist?”. Investopedia.com. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
• Ortega, Edgar; Yalman, Onaran (December 4, 2006). “UBS, Goldman Threaten NYSE, Nasdaq With Rival Stock Markets”. Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2011-05-31


On June 22, 1980, members of First Baptist Church in Daingerfield, Texas, were singing “More About Jesus” in the morning worship service when a gunman entered and yelled, “This is war!” Then he opened fire, shooting fifteen people and killing five.
It was the first mass murder by shooting at an American church. Sadly, similar acts of violence have occurred at other churches in the years since. In both mass shootings and individual episodes of violence, people continue to die at the hands of violent intruders in houses of worship. Since 1999, when violent episodes at churches and other places of worship began to escalate with alarming frequency, 427 people have died in incidents involving deadly force at faith-based organizations in America, according to church security expert Carl Chinn. During that time, more deadly force incidents have occurred in Baptist churches (135) than in any other denomination
Our families are torn by violence. Our communities are destroyed by violence. Our faith is tested by violence. We have an obligation to respond. Violence — in our homes, our schools and streets, our nation and world — is destroying the lives, dignity and hopes of millions of our sisters and brothers. Fear of violence is paralyzing and polarizing our communities. The celebration of violence in much of our media, music and even video games is poisoning our children. Beyond the violence in our streets is the violence in our hearts. Hostility, hatred, despair and indifference are at the heart of a growing culture of violence. Verbal violence in our families, communications and talk shows contribute to this culture of violence. Pornography assaults the dignity of women and contributes to violence against them. Our social fabric is being torn apart by a culture of violence that leaves children dead on our streets and families afraid in our homes. Our society seems to be growing numb to human loss and suffering. A nation born in a commitment to “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” is haunted by death, imprisoned by fear and caught up in the elusive pursuit of protection rather than happiness. A world moving beyond the Cold War is caught up in bloody ethnic, tribal and political conflict. It doesn’t have to be this way. It wasn’t always this way. We can turn away from violence; we can build communities of greater peace. It begins with a clear conviction: respect for life. Respect for life is not just a slogan or a program; it is a fundamental moral principle flowing from our teaching on the dignity of the human person. It is an approach to life that values people over things. Respect for life must guide the choices we make as individuals and as a society: what we do and won’t do, what we value and consume, whom we admire and whose example we follow, what we support and what we oppose. Respect for human life is the starting point for confronting a culture of violence. The Church community cannot ignore the moral and human costs of so much violence in our midst. These brief reflections are a call to conversion and a framework for action. They propose neither a sweeping plan nor specific programs. They recognize the impressive efforts already underway in dioceses, parishes and schools. They offer a word of support and gratitude for those already engaged in these efforts. We believe the Catholic community brings strong convictions and vital experience which can enrich the national dialogue on how best to overcome the violence that is tearing our nation apart. We know these reflections are not enough. Words cannot stop weapons; statements will not contain hatred. Yet commitment and conversion can change us and together we can change our culture and communities. Person by person, family by family, neighborhood by neighborhood, we must take our communities back from the evil and fear that come with so much violence. We believe our faith in Jesus Christ gives us the values, vision and hope that can bring an important measure of peace to our hearts, our homes, and our streets.
In ordinary language, the term crime denotes an unlawful act punishable by a state. The term “crime” does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,[2] though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes. The most popular view is that crime is a category created by law; in other words, something is a crime if declared as such by the relevant and applicable law. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence (or criminal offence) is an act harmful not only to some individual or individuals but also to a community, society or the state (“a public wrong”). Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law
Christianity has holy texts and traditions that promote violence as well as love, and Christian institutions and individuals have acted violently as well as peacefully. The relationship between Christianity and violence is the subject of controversy because some of its teachings advocate peace, love, and compassion, whereas other teachings have been used to justify violence and hatred. The word “violence” can be defined to extend far beyond pain and shedding blood. It carries the meaning of physical force, violent language, fury and, more importantly, forcible interference.
Among common examples of violence in Christianity, J. Denny Weaver lists “(the) crusades, the multiple blessings of wars, warrior popes, support for capital punishment, corporal punishment under the guise of ‘spare the rod and spoil the child,’ justifications of slavery, world-wide colonialism in the name of conversion to Christianity, the systemic violence of women subjected to men”.In the view of many historians, the Constantinian shift turned Christianity from a persecuted into a persecuting religion.
Miroslav Volf has identified the intervention of a “new creation”, as in the Second Coming, as a particular aspect of Christianity that generates violence. Writing about the latter, Volf says: “Beginning at least with Constantine’s conversion, the followers of the Crucified have perpetrated gruesome acts of violence under the sign of the cross. Over the centuries, the seasons of Lent and Holy Week were, for the Jews, times of fear and trepidation; Christians have perpetrated some of the worst pogroms as they remembered the crucifixion of Christ, for which they blamed the Jews. Muslims also associate the cross with violence; crusaders’ rampages were undertaken under the sign of the cross.”
The statement attributed to Jesus “I come not to bring peace, but to bring a sword” has been interpreted by some as a call to arms for Christians.

Above all, we must come to understand that violence is unacceptable. We must learn again the lesson of Pope Paul VI, “If you want peace, work for justice.” We oppose lawlessness of every kind. Society cannot tolerate an ethic which uses violence to make a point, settle grievances or get what we want. But the path to a more peaceful future is found in a rediscovery of personal responsibility, respect for human life and human dignity, and a recommitment to social justice. The best antidote to violence is hope. People with a stake in society do not destroy communities. Both individuals and institutions should be held accountable for how they attack or enhance the common good. It is not only the “down and out” who must be held accountable, but also the “rich and famous.” Our society needs both more personal responsibility and broader social responsibility to overcome the plague of violence in our land and the lack of peace in our hearts. Finally, we must realize that peace is most fundamentally a gift from God. It is futile to suggest that we can end all violence and bring about full peace merely by our own efforts. This is why we urge the Church community to join all our anti-violence efforts with constant and heartfelt prayer to Almighty God through Jesus, the Prince of Peace. We close these reflections with a word of support and appreciation for those on the front lines — parents, pastors, parish leaders, youth workers, catechists and teachers, prison chaplains, men and women religious. At a time when heroes seem scarce, these people are real heroes and heroines, committing their lives to the service of others, standing against a tide of violence with values of peace and a commitment to justice. We commend peace officers who daily confront violence with fairness and courage and we support those who minister to them and their families. We also offer a word of encouragement to parents who daily confront the cultural messages that influence their children in a way that is so contradictory to basic values of decency, honesty, respect for life and justice. We believe silence and indifference are not options for a community of faith in the midst of such pain, but we recognize words cannot halt violence. We hope this message has helped to outline the moral challenge, affirm the efforts already underway, share the framework we have as Christains and call our community to both conversion and action. The nation has been transfixed by the terrible tragedy of the five year old dropped to his death by two children in Chicago because he wouldn’t steal candy. We must get beyond our fear and frustration, our indifference and ideological blinders, to hear to his Grandmother’s cry at his funeral: “We hope somebody, somewhere, somehow, will do something about the conditions which are causing our children to kill each other.”

• Bekkenkamp, Jonneke and Sherwood, Yvonne, ed. Sanctified Aggression Magazine. Legacies of Biblical and Postbiblical Vocabularies of Violence. London/New York: T. & T. Clark International, 2003.
• Collins, John J. Does the Bible Justify Violence? Minneapolis newswatch: Fortress, 2004.
• Hedges, Chris. 2007. American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America. Free Press.
• Lea, Henry Charles. 1961. The Inquisition of the Middle Ages. Abridged. New York times: Macmillan.
• MacMullen, Ramsay, 1989 “Christianizing the Roman Empire: AD 100-400”
• MacMullen, Ramsay, 1997, “Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries”
• Mason, Carol. 2002. Killing for Life: The Apocalyptic Narrative of Pro-Life Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
• McTernan, Oliver J. 2003. Violence in God’s name: religion in an age of conflict. Orbis Books.
• Thiery, Daniel E. Polluting the Sacred: Violence, Faith and the Civilizing of Parishioners in Late Medieval England. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Comparison Of Dependency Theory With Modernization Theory Politics Essay

Comparison Of Dependency Theory With Modernization Theory Politics Essay
Modernization is a theory that looks at the domestic factors of a country with the assumption that, with help underdeveloped countries can be brought to development in using the same methods that more developed countries used. Modernization theory focuses on the social elements which facilitate social progress and development of societies, and further aims to explain the process of social evolution. This theory not only stresses the process of change but also the results of that change. Furthermore, it looks at internal functions of a society while referring to social and cultural structures and the adaptation of new ways of living. This is because internal situations in societies greatly affect the processes of modernization. A country in which favorites are rewarded and governmental corruption is rampant hampers the state’s ability to effectively progress in terms of modernization. This negatively affects the state’s economic development and productivity and eventually results in the country’s money and resources to flow out to other countries with more favorable investment environments. Such mechanisms slow the process of modernization and as a result the country falls into internal conflicts so as to aid the process of modernization due to scarcity of resources. On the other hand Modernization has over the years been hastened by globalization- as the world has become integrated on many levels (political, economic, and social); modernization has been able to spread across borders through the fact that it has encouraged the development of a global economy that focuses greatly on better utilization of resources and means of production, technology- which is a major contributor to social change through the fact that the introduction of new technologies forces people to adopt to them thus promoting social change, secularization of societies- this contributes to modernization by the fact that people become less superstitious and are therefore more welcoming to change and usage of more modern resources available to them. Despite all the positive results of modernization, it also it negative side as it leads to higher pollution levels and over population especially in urban areas, increased crime, gaps in the social structures for example the rich and the poor(rich become rich, the emergence of a middle class and the poor seem to struggle even more due to higher cost of living), local cultures suffer and the economic markets are more favorable to the already developed countries as their products tend to be more competitive as they have been through the modernization process for a longer period than the developing
Modernization is therefore measured by the following factors:
Economic growth
Increased urbanization
Technological progress
On the other hand, the dependency theory focuses on the fact that resources flow from the poor and underdeveloped states to the already developed states while enriching the latter while the poorer states continue suffering. Poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched due to the power distribution in the international system. The key tenets of dependency theory are that: Poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, a place for obsolete technology, and markets for developed nations, without which the wealthier nations could not have the standard of living they enjoy. Furthermore, wealthy nations actively fuel a state of dependence by various means which varies from economics, media control, politics, banking and finance, education, culture, sport, and all aspects of human resource development .Finally that wealthy nations normally hamper attempts by dependent nations to fight their influences through economic sanctions and/or the use of military force. Dependency theory states that the poverty of the countries in the periphery is not because they are not part into the developed world system but because of the place they hold in the system.
The theory arose around 1970 as a reaction to some earlier theories of development like the modernization theory which said that all societies progress through similar stages of development, and that underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today’s developed areas at some time in the past, and that therefore the task in helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market.
First of all, it should be said that Dependency theory was developed in response to Modernization theory out of sheer criticism of the latter theory by the supporters of Dependency theory. Naturally, this fact determined the principal difference between these theories, but, nevertheless, there are still certain similarities between Modernization and Dependency theories.
Speaking about the similarities, it is primarily necessary to point out that both theories pay a lot of attention to the gap existing between developed countries and undeveloped ones belonging to the third world. To put it more precisely, Modernization and Dependency theory stand on the ground that Western countries are the world leaders due to their higher level of development, which affects practically all spheres of life, including economic, political, social, and even cultural life (Leys, 210). As a result, there exist a strong link between developed and developing countries.
Furthermore both theories state that the experience of developed countries is followed by developing and undeveloped countries, which basically develop in the same direction as developed countries but still they cannot catch the latter up and remain in the rearguard of the world development. In stark contrast, developed countries play the key role in the development of the entire world and the integration of all countries of the world in the global economy is one of the major ways of interaction between developed and developing countries and both theories agrees that this interaction constantly increases.
At the same time, both Modernization and Dependency theories underline that the relationships between developed and developing countries is unequal and there exist a kind of dependence of developing countries on developed ones, though the views on this dependence vary considerably. Nevertheless, both theories underline the dominant position of Western countries in the modern world and leave little room for the alternative ways of the development but the western one, which is viewed as the only way of the development of the future world in the context of the global economy.
It is worthy of mention that both theories are ethnocentric in a way because they practically ignore the possibility of the alternative development of developing countries but, instead they insist that the development of western countries will be the example developing countries, willingly or not, will follow, while, at the same time, they do not really admit the alternative ways of development of countries of the Third world (Preston, 137). However, it is worthy of mention the example of China which economy is progressing rapidly but its way of development differs considerably from the dominant western way, but this country does not meet to the basic assumptions of either of the theories.
In spite of existing similarities between Modernization theory and Dependency theory, differences between them are much more substantial and it is even possible to estimate that these theories are antagonistic in their views on the development of the world and international relationships, especially on the relationship between developed and developing countries. In fact, differences between Modernization theory and Dependency theory result from the origin of Dependency theory which, as it has been already mentioned above, was developed in response to Modernization theory. On analyzing existing differences between the two theories, first of all, it is necessary to underline that Modernization theory views the development of the world and relationships between developed and developing countries as the relationships of potentially equal countries which are just at a different stage of development at the moment. To put it more precisely, Modernization theory stands on the ground that western countries are well-developed and western way of development is viewed as the most successful and perspective while there is practically no other alternatives to this way of the development. This is why the supporters of this theory insist on the necessity to develop the cooperation between developed and developing countries in order to make the latter closer to the former. What is meant here is the fact that Modernization theory underlines the necessity of borrowing the experience of western countries by developing countries of the Third world (Scott 196). Basically, developing countries should follow blindly the example of more developed western countries and this will bring them economic, social, and cultural prosperity.
Naturally, to achieve this goal, developing countries should develop their cooperation in all spheres of life, including economy, politics, culture, education, and social relations, with western countries, while the latter, being more advanced compared to developing countries should help them achieve the highest level of development through education, technological assistance and consulting of countries of the Third world. In such a way, this theory views modernization of socio-economic and political life of developing countries on the basis of the example of western countries as the only possible solution of the problem of backwardness of poor countries since western way of development is, according to Modernization theory, is the only correct way to prosperity.
In stark contrast to Modernization theory, Dependency theory underlines that relationships between developing and developed countries are based not on the growing cooperation between them but rather on the dependence of developing countries on developed ones. To put it more precisely, supporters of Dependency theory stand on the ground that western countries are really more advanced than developing countries but the latter follow their example not just because they are willing to do so nor because they really believe that western way of development is really better but, in contrast, they are forced to choose the same way of development as western countries have already made in order to become a part of the world community and avoid the isolation of the country or, what is more, even the intervention of western countries in their policy. In this respect, it is necessary to underline that supporters of Dependency theory argue that western countries impose their politics and their rules to developing countries forcing them to accept western standards and norms, while any disobedience from the part of developing countries threatens by economic sanctions or even military intervention from the part of developed countries (Schelkle, 231).
In such a way, unlike Modernization theory, Dependency theory does not view the choice in favor of western way of development as the panacea from all problems or as a conscious choice that is really supported by the population and elite of developing countries but such westernization of developing countries is viewed as a violent interference of developed countries in the life of the Third world. Naturally, such a policy leads to the growing dependence of developing countries on developed ones and, therefore, makes the socio-economic breakthrough impossible. In contrast, Modernization theory believes in its possibility due to the modernization of socio-economic and political life of developing countries and their closer cooperation with developed countries, which is supposed to be a conscious and willing act of developing countries looking for ways to prosperity.
Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that Modernization theory and Dependency theory are similar in their views on the modern world. To put it more precisely, both theories admit the leadership of western countries and their currently dominant position in the modern world, while undeveloped countries are characterized by socio-economic and political backwardness. At the same time, the two theories agree that the cooperation between western countries and developing countries is constantly growing and leads to their integration. However, it is necessary to underline that Modernization theory views such cooperation and integration as a conscious and voluntary act from the part of developing countries, for which modernization in the western style is the only way to overcome the existing backwardness, while supporters of Dependency theory argue that such cooperation and integration is imposed to developing countries by more advanced western countries, which simply attempt to benefit from their cooperation with developing countries and their westernization becomes a way of the establishment of control over and growing dependence of developing countries on developed ones.
Regardless, the existing differences, both theories still raise a very important problem of relationships between developed and developing countries and the dominance of western countries and western civilization in the modern world.


Between the 1870s and 1900, Africa faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization. At the same time, African societies put up various forms of resistance against the attempt to colonize their countries and impose foreign domination. By the early twentieth century, however, much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been colonized by European powers.
The European imperialist push into Africa was motivated by three main factors, economic, political, and social. It developed in the nineteenth century following the collapse of the profitability of the slave trade, its abolition and suppression, as well as the expansion of the European capitalist Industrial Revolution. The imperatives of capitalist industrialization—including the demand for assured sources of raw materials, the search for guaranteed markets and profitable investment outlets—spurred the European scramble and the partition and eventual conquest of Africa. Thus the primary motivation for European intrusion was economic.
Colonial Conquest in Africa
The 19th century in Europe was a time of industrialization. Factories in Europe required raw materials to be manufactured into marketable products. As a result, Europeans sought both a source of raw materials, as well as, a market for manufactured goods in Africa. This economic motivation played a large role in the colonization of Africa. In page 59 you will learn more about the economic reasons for colonial order and the economic practices introduced by colonial governments.
Politics in Europe also led to the colonization of Africa. African Politics will show how nationalism in Europe resulted in the formation of the nation-states in Europe that we are familiar with today. Nationalism-a strong of identification with and pride in one’s nation-resulted in competition between European nations. This competition often resulted in wars between nations. Competition over colonial expansion in Africa was another way that national competition between European nations was demonstrated in the late 19th century. One of the causes of the Scramble for Africa, (1885-1910) which resulted in the colonization of all of Africa in just twenty-five years, was the competition between European nations. No major nation wanted to be without colonies. The competition was particularly strong between Britain, France, and Germany, the strongest European nation-states in the late 19th century.
In addition, ideologies of racial hierarchy were prevalent in Europe in the 19th century. Many Europeans viewed themselves as the most advanced civilization in the world, and some saw it as their mission to “enlighten” and “civilize” people in the rest of the world. This feeling of racial superiority and “responsibility” was captured in a poem written in 1899, The White Man’s Burden by the British poet Rudyard Kipling (click on the title to read it). Many inaccurate and racialized stereotypes of African peoples, which existed at the time, were used to justify colonialism in Africa.
The colonization of Africa coincided with the expansion of Christian missionary activity in Africa. You will remember from the last module that parts of Africa, such as Ethiopia and Egypt, were home to Christians right from the beginning of Christianity as a region. However, Christianity was introduced to the rest of Africa only in the modern era. Christian missionary activity began in earnest in the 19th century during the same period of time that European countries were becoming more engaged in Africa. Historians do not all agree on what the relationship was between Christian missionary activity and colonialism. However, evidence suggests that while many missionaries opposed the harsher aspects of colonialism, they were supportive the colonization of African countries. Missionaries who supported colonialism believed that European control would provide a political environment that would facilitate missionary activity in Africa. This support for colonialism played an important role in legitimizing the colonial endeavor among the citizens of the colonizing powers in Europe.
The Scramble for Africa
But other factors played an important role in the process. The political impetus derived from the impact of inter-European power struggles and competition for preeminence. Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain were competing for power within European power politics. One way to demonstrate national preeminence was through the acquisition of territories around the world, including Africa. The social factor was the third major element. As a result of industrialization, major social problems grew in Europe: unemployment, poverty, homelessness, social displacement from rural areas, and so on. These social problems developed partly because not all people could be absorbed by the new capitalist industries. One way to resolve this problem was to acquire colonies and export this “surplus population.” This led to the establishment of settler-colonies in Algeria, Tunisia, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Mozambique, and central African areas like Zimbabwe and Zambia. Eventually the overriding economic factors led to the colonization of other parts of Africa.
Thus it was the interplay of these economic, political, and social factors and forces that led to the scramble for Africa and the frenzied attempts by European commercial, military, and political agents to declare and establish a stake in different parts of the continent through inter-imperialist commercial competition, the declaration of exclusive claims to particular territories for trade, the imposition of tariffs against other European traders, and claims to exclusive control of waterways and commercial routes in different parts of Africa.

In nearly all African countries today, the language used in government and media is a relic inherited from one of these waves of colonisation. The existence of a vast African diaspora is largely the legacy of the practice of transporting millions of African slaves out of the continent by these external colonisers. Modern scholars also blame the current under-development of Africa on the colonial era.


The relationship between religion, philosophy and science has been a subject of study since Classical antiquity, addressed by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others. Perspectives from different geographical regions, cultures and historical epochs are diverse, with some characterizing the relationship as one of conflict, others describing it as one of harmony, and others proposing little interaction.
Science acknowledges reason, empiricism, and evidence, while religions include revelation, faith and sacredness whilst also acknowledging Philosophical and Metaphysical explanations with regard to the study of the Universe. Both science and religion are not unchanging, timeless, or static because both are complex social and cultural endeavors that have changed through time across languages and cultures. Most scientific and technical innovations prior to the Scientific revolution were achieved by societies organized by religious traditions. Much of the scientific method was pioneered first by Islamic scholars, and later by Christians. Hinduism has historically embraced reason and empiricism, holding that science brings legitimate, but incomplete knowledge of the world. Confucian thought has held different views of science over time. Most Buddhists today view science as complementary to their beliefs.
Events in Europe such as the Galileo affair, associated with the Scientific revolution and the Age of Enlightenment, led scholars such as John William Draper to postulate a conflict thesis, holding that religion and science have been in conflict methodologically, factually and politically throughout history. This thesis is held by some contemporary scientists such as Richard Dawkins, Steven Weinberg and Carl Sagan, and some creationists. While the conflict thesis remains popular for the public, it has lost favor among most contemporary historians of science and the majority of scientists in elite universities in the US do not hold a conflict view.
Many scientists, philosophers, and theologians throughout history, such as Francisco Ayala, Kenneth R. Miller and Francis Collins, have seen compatibility or independence between religion and science. Biologist Stephen Jay Gould, other scientists, and some contemporary theologians hold that religion and science are non-overlapping magisteria, addressing fundamentally separate forms of knowledge and aspects of life. Some theologians or historians of science, including John Lennox, Thomas Berry, Brian Swimme and Ken Wilber propose an interconnection between science and religion, while others such as Ian Barbour believe there are even parallels.
Public acceptance of scientific facts may be influenced by religion; many in the United States reject the idea of evolution by natural selection, especially regarding human beings. Nevertheless, the American National Academy of Sciences has written that “the evidence for evolution can be fully compatible with religious faith,” a view officially endorsed by many religious denominations globally
Religion, philosophy and sciences cannot do without others as each is evolve from one another. Modern western empirical science has surely been the most impressive intellectual development since the 16th century. Religion, of course, has been around for much longer, and is presently flourishing, perhaps as never before. (True, there is the thesis of secularism, according to which science and technology, on the one hand, and religion, on the other, are inversely related: as the former waxes, the latter wanes. Recent resurgences of religion and religious belief in many parts of the world, however, cast considerable doubt on this thesis.) The relation between these three great cultural forces has been tumultuous, many-faceted, and confusing. This entry will concentrate on the relation between science and the theistic religions: Christianity, Judaism, Islam, where theism is the belief that there is an all-powerful, all-knowing perfectly good immaterial person who has created the world, has created human beings ‘in his own image,’ and to whom we owe worship, obedience and allegiance. Most of what follows will also apply to monotheistic and henotheistic varieties of Buddhism and Hinduism.


The ancient kingdom of Benin is now in Nigeria. This vast empire reached it peak in the 16th-19th century and was the first kingdom in ancient southern Nigeria to have a direct contact with the colonial master, being the Portuguese traders. At the eclipse of this dynasty, there was still no authentic heir to the throne, Owodo; the last of the Ogisos was desperate for a successor. His only heir, Ekaladerhan, being the son of an unfavoured queen (Arukho), had little or no prospect of succeeding his father as he was entrapped in a web of palace intrigues with the sole aim of depriving him succeed his father.
The Benin Empire was a pre-colonial empire located in what is now southern Nigeria. Its capital was Edo, now known as Benin City. It should not be confused with the modern-day country called Benin, formerly called Dahomey. The Benin Empire was “one of the oldest and most highly developed states in the coastal hinterland of West Africa, dating perhaps to the eleventh century CE”, until it was annexed by the British Empire in 1897.
The original people and founders of the Benin Empire, the Edo people, were initially ruled by the Ogiso (Kings of the Sky) dynasty who called their land Igodomigodo. The rulers or kings were commonly known as Ogiso. Igodo, the first Ogiso, wielded much influence and gained popularity as a good ruler. He died after a long reign and was succeeded by Ere, his eldest son. In the 12th century, a great palace intrigue and battle for power erupted between the warrior crown prince Ekaladerhan son of the last Ogiso and his young paternal uncle. In anger over an oracle, Prince Ekaladerhan left the royal court with his warriors. When his old father the Ogiso died, the Ogiso dynasty was ended as the people and royal kingmakers preferred their king’s son as natural next in line to rule.
The empire was ruled by a regent called the Oba. Today, the Oba of Benin is still very respected in Nigeria; he is the most revered traditional ruler in Nigeria though his powers are largely ceremonial and religious. The capital of the Benin Empire was Edo, now known as Benin City in what is now southwestern Nigeria. The system of government is a mixture of autocracy, democracy and gerontocracy. The Oba has absolute powers but there is an Iyase (Prime Minister) who heads the town chiefs who can argue or disagree with him on rare occasions. There are the palace chiefs and the Uzama ni Ihinron who are the King makers.
At the summit of precolonial society was the king (oba ), who was the focal point of all administrative, religious, commercial, and judicial concerns. He was the last resort in court matters, the recipient of taxes and tribute, the controller of trade, the theoretical owner of all the land in the kingdom, and the chief executive and legislator. As the divine king, he crystallized generalized ancestor worship in the worship of his own ancestors. It is in his office, then, that the various hierarchies met.
The members of the king’s family were automatically part of the nobility. His mother was a title holder (iyoba ) in one of the palace societies and maintained her own court near Benin City, and his younger brothers were sent to be hereditary chiefs of villages throughout the kingdom, thus constituting part of a limited, rural-based elite. Besides the king and his family, the political structure consisted of the holders of various chiefly titles, who were organized into three main orders of chiefs: the seven uzama, the palace chiefs, and the town chiefs. These various orders of chiefs formed the administrative bureaucracy of the kingdom, and their main concern was to augment the king’s civil and ritual authority. They constituted the state council, which had an important role in creating laws, regulating festivals, raising taxes, declaring war, and conducting rituals. The king controlled the granting of most of these chiefly titles and used this power to consolidate his control over governmental processes. Once granted, a title could not be rescinded unless treason could be proven.
The kingdom was formerly divided into a number of tribute units, which corresponded to local territorial groupings. Each was controlled by a title holder in Benin City, who acted as the intermediary between the villagers and the king and whose main duty was to collect taxes and tribute in the form of money (cowries) and goods (cattle, yams, etc.). The income the king received from these sources enabled him to carry on elaborate state rituals. The king could also call on villagers to supply labor for the upkeep of the royal palace.
Kings varied over time in their ability to control the political situation. At the end of the eighteenth century, for example, senior chiefs rebelled against the king, and a long civil war ensued, which the king finally won. According to oral traditions, several obas were in fact deposed.
In contemporary Nigeria, Edo State officials consult with the Benin king and chiefs. Since 1966, the federal level of government in Nigeria has vacillated between military and civilian rule, with the exact relationship between federal and traditional authority changing under each new circumstance. In 1993 the newly established military government dissolved all existing state bodies and prohibited political activity. Supreme executive and legislative power was vested in a military-based Provisional Ruling Council and an Executive Council, both headed by the commander-in-chief, who is also the head of state. Plans for a return to civilian rule have been announced.
The lineage is patrilineal as succession in the Benin kingdom is very unique. Succession is by primogeniture, hence there is no in fighting for the exalted position when the Oba transcends unlike in other communities. The heir apparent is usually conferred with the traditional title of Edaiken of Uselu. Aside from Benin City, the system of rule of the Oba in his kingdom, even through the golden age of the kingdom, was still loosely based after the Ogiso dynasty, which was military and royal protection in exchange of use of resources and implementation of taxes paid to the royal administrative centre. Language and culture was not enforced but remained heterogeneous and localized according to each group within the kingdom, though a local “Enogie” (duke) was often appointed by the Oba for specified ethnic areas.
Age Grades Level Stratiform of Benin Culture are age sets of squads in the age grades ceremonies.
There are about seven age squads as follows:- Oyaghiroba, kinna, Oboghironmwen, Ehonsi, Uzamete, Obokhae, Awanrhenkpen.
The Oba of Benin, or Omo N’Oba, is the traditional ruler of the Edo people and head of the historic Eweka dynasty of the Benin Empire – a West African empire centered around Benin City, in modern-day Nigeria. The ancient Benin homeland (not to be confused with the modern-day and unrelated Republic of Benin, which was then known as Dahomey) has been and continues to be mostly populated by the Edo (also known as the Bini or Benin ethnic group). The title of Oba was created by Oba Eweka I, Benin Empire’s first ‘Oba’, who is said to have ascended to power at some time between 1180 and 1300. The Oba of Benin was the Head of State (Emperor) of the Benin Empire until the Empire’s annexation by the British, in 1897.
In 1897, the British launched a Punitive Expedition, sacked Benin city and exiled then Oba Ovonramwen, taking control of the area in order to establish the British colony of Nigeria. The expedition was mounted to avenge the defeat by the Binis of a British invasion force that had violated Benin territory earlier in 1896. It consisted of both indigenous soldiers and British officers, and is still remembered by the Edos with horror today. To cover the cost of the expedition, the Benin royal art was auctioned off by the British. Ovonramwen died in 1914, his throne never having been restored to him. His son, grandson and now his great-grandson, however, all preserved their titles and statuses as traditional rulers in modern-day Nigeria. The present Oba, Erediauwa I, is the 39th Oba of the dynasty.
In the Benin society, the categorization of people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political) is a common phenomenon. The status differentiation in the kingdom is too complex. prominent attention is paid to the oba and the royal house then followed by high ranking chiefs and title holders in the kingdom. The basic organizing principle within both the village and the urban ward is the division of the population into age sets. Every three years, boys who reach the age of puberty are initiated into the iroghae grade, whose main duties within the village include such tasks as sweeping open spaces, clearing brush, and fetching water. After the age of 25 to 30, they pass into the ighele grade, which executes the decisions made by the senior age set, the edion. The elders are exempt from physical labor and constitute the executive and judicial council of the village, led by an elected senior elder (odionwere ).
Precolonial Benin society had a clearly demarcated class structure: a mostly urban elite, comprising the governmental, religious, and educational bureaucracies; a commoner group, consisting of lower-status urbanites, such as artisans; and the peasantry. Formerly, the king and chiefs had slaves, primarily acquired through warfare, who constituted an agricultural workforce for the elite. In contemporary society, factors such as the extent of one’s Western education and the nature of one’s employment—or lack thereof—play a role in determining one’s position in the multidimensional system of social stratification.

The kingdom of Benin was an interesting place. It was tucked into the forest region of Africa. It began in BCE times and was not conquered until the 1800s by the British. That’s a long time. The people developed some unique things as their civilization developed.
One of those unique things was their art. They wove cotton fabrics with stripes of color. Their carved wood masks are still world famous today. Their art was playful and fun. Art and fabric made by Benin artists were in high demand by other civilizations and tribes.
Benin did not allow foreign traders to visit their villages, but they did trade with other people. Trading was a highly respected profession in ancient Benin. They had a very interesting way of trading. Benin traders would meet with foreign traders at an appointed spot.

• Ben-Amos, Paula Girshick (1995). The Art of Benin Revised Edition. British Museum Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-7141-2520-2.
• • Robert W. Strayer, Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources, Bedford/St. Martin’s: 2012, pp. 695-696
• • http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Nigeria_native.html
• • Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Africa’s Glorious Legacy (1994) pp. 102–4
• • Chapter 77, A History of the World in 100 Objects
• • Osadolor, Osarhieme Benson (23 July 2001). “The military system of Benin Kingdom, c. 1440–1897 (D)” (PDF). University of Hamburg. pp. 4–264.
• • Robert Sydney Smith, Warfare & diplomacy in pre-colonial West Africa, University of Wisconsin Press: 1989, pp. 54–62
• • R.S. Smith, Warfare & diplomacy pp. 54–62
• Hernon, A. Britain’s Forgotton Wars, p.409 (2002)



Counsellors use tests generally for assessment, placements, and guidance and appraisals to as assist clients to increase their self-knowledge, practice decision making, and acquire new behaviours. They may be used in a variety of therapies e.g. individual, marital, group, and family and for either gathering of data on clients, assessing the level of some traits, such as stress and anxiety, or measuring clients’ personality types. The purpose of non-informational tests is to stimulate further or more in-depth interaction with the client. Although the published literature on testing has increased, proper test utilization remains a problematic area. The issue is not whether a counsellor uses tests in counselling practices, but when and to what end tests will be used (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 1984).
The following six main principles of appraisal techniques in counseling can be outline and explain below;

Steps involved in the process of using tests in counselling include the following: – selecting the test, administering test, scoring the test, interpreting results, communicating the results. Selecting: Having defined the purpose for testing, the counsellor looks to a variety of sources for information on available tests. Resources include review books, journals, test manuals, and textbooks on testing and measurement (Anastasi, 1988; Cronbach, 1979). The most complete source of information on a particular test is usually the test manual.

Test administration is usually standardize by the developers of the test. Manual instructions need to be followed in order to make a valid comparison of an individual’s score with the test’s norm group. Non – Standardization tests used in counselling are best given under controlled circumstances. This allows the counsellor’s experience with the test to become an internal norm. Issues of individual versus group administration need to be considered as well. The clients and the purpose for which they are being tested will contribute to decisions about group testing.

Scoring of tests follows the instructions provided in the test manual, the Counsellor is sometimes given the option of having test machine scored rather than hand scored. Both the positive and negative aspects of this choice need to be considered. It is usually believed that test scoring is best handled by a machine because it is free from bias.

The interpretation of test results is usually the area which allows for the greatest flexibility within the testing process. Depending upon the Counsellor’s theoretical point of view and the extent of the test manual guidelines, interpretation may be brief and superficial, or detailed and explicity theory based (Tinsley & Bradley, 1986). Because this area allows for the greatest flexibility, it is also the area with the greatest danger of misuse. Whereas scoring is best done by a bias-free machine, interpretation by machine is often too rigid. What is needed is the experience of a skilled test user to individualize the interpretation of results.

Feedback of test results to the client completes the formal process of testing. Here, the therapeutic skills of Counsellors come fully into play (Phelps, 1974). The Counsellor uses verbal and non verbal interaction skills to convey messages to clients and to assess their understanding of it.

The ethical and legal restrictions on what may be disclosed from counselling apply to the use of tests as much as to other private information shared between client and counsellor. The trust issue, which is inherent in confidentiality, is relevant to every aspect of testing. No information can be shared outside the relationship without the full consent of the client. Information is provided to someone outside the relationship only after the specifics to be used from the testing are fully disclosed to the client. These specifics include the when, what, and to whom of the disclosure. The purpose of disclosure is also shared with the client and what the information will be used for is clearly spelled out.

Issues of confidentiality are best discussed with the client before conducting any test administration. There should be no surprise when the counsellor asks, at a later time, for permission to share results. Clients who are fully informed, before testing takes place, about the issue of confidentiality in relation to testing are more active participants in the counselling process.

Confidentiality, counsellor preparation, computer testing and client involvement are all issues within the ethical realm. Ultimately, test use by counsellors must be seen as an adjunct to the entire counselling process. Test results provide descriptive and objective data which help the counsellor to assist clients better in making the choices that will positively affect their lives. In order to make the best use of available tests in a counselling relationship, the process of testing and the issues which surround the process must be well examined.

Anastasi, A. (1988). Psychological testing 96th Ed.) New York: Macmillan.

Corey, G. Corey, M.S. & Callanan, P. 91984). Issues & Ethics in the helping professions (2bd Ed.) Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

CRONBACH, l. j. (1979). Essentials of psychological testing (4th Ed.)New York: Harper & Row.

Goldman, L. (1971) Using tests in counselling (2nd Ed.) Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear Publishing.

Phelps, W. R. (1974). Communicating Test results: A training guide. Final Report. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service. (ED 134 853).