Information and Communication Technology (ICT) a Change Agent in Student Centered Learning in Higher Education

Information and communication technology (ICT) is a force that has changed many aspects of the way we live. The world is moving rapidly into digital media and information and Communication Technology (ICT) have truly become common place entities in all aspects of life. Over the years, the application of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have a presence though the impact has not been extensive as in other fields. Education is a very socially oriented activity and quality education has traditionally been associated with strong/qualified teachers having high degrees of personal contact with learners. The use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centered learning settings, often times, this creates some tension for some teachers and students but with the rapid digital media and information movement, the role of ICT in education is becoming more and more important and this importance will continue to grow and develop in this millennium. This paper aims at highlighting the various impacts of ICT on contemporary higher education. It explores potential future developments. The paper argues the role ICT plays as a change agent in transforming, teaching and learning and seeks to explore how this will impact on the way program will be offered and delivered in the universities and colleges both now and in the future.

Key words: ICT, change agent, student centered learning, higher education.

There are few aspects of life in this present days which are unaffected by ICT. In the office, factory or at home, visiting a bank, supermarket or garage and in many other places. ICT provides information, carry out transactions, record data, make decisions and perform an ever increasing range of tasks (terry Lucey 2005). He further stated that traditionally, the basis of all information systems was a manual one. Data were recorded on paper, stored in filling cabinets and processed manually using simple procedures and office equipment such as typewriters, calculators multi-pat form, duplicating machines and so on. In recent years, the position systems even in small organizations are now almost entirely computer based.
The Concept of ICT
Information Communication Technology are versatile and powerful technologies that have assisted individuals, groups and organizations in many different ways.
Different people have different views on what ICT is all about. Onyegeme- Okerenta in Asodike, Ebong, Oluwuo and Abraham (2013) views ICT as an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing, radio, television, cellular phone, computer and network hardware and software, satellite system, etc, as well as the various services and applications associating and distant learning.
Similarly, Ajayi in Ain (2003) in Asodike et al (2013) view ICT as an electronic based system of information, transmission, reception, processing and retrieval. Abifarm (2003) in Asodike et al defines ICT as the application of computers, telecommunication, equipment to process, store, retrieve and send information to all kinds in whatever form. From the above ICT can be viewed or defined as electronic and communication devices used in transmitting, processing, receiving storing and retrieving information. They assist humans to collect information.

The Concept of Change
Change can be seen as a process of making something different. It is a form of activity or event that takes place around us all the time. The world that we live in and all that around us witness constant change. These changes are experienced virtually in every aspect of life from when one is born even unto death. Change is a systematic paradigm shift. Shannon (1990) in Lu and Ortleib (2009) notes that from historical perspective on education, we are confronting many struggles just to survive, such as the concepts of teaching, approaches to literacy, school system reform, etc.
Change agents according to Lu and Ortlieb (2009) are those who fell unsafe, uncomfortable, dissatisfied with the current situation and plant to change it. They initiate change schedule the change and create the climate for the change. A change agent aims at communicating an innovation to an intended adopter (Ellsworth, 2000). This is accomplished using a change process, which establishes a channel through the change environment.

Concept of Student Centered Learning
Student- centred learning is used widely in teaching and learning. It is linked with such terms as flexible learning, experiential learning and self-directed learning. Student-centred learning focuses on the student learner rather than the teacher, driven by a need for change in the traditional environment which is known as the educational environment.
According to Slarin (2009), learning is much more than memory. For students to really understand and be able to apply knowledge, they must work to solve problems, and to discover things for themselves, to wrestle with ideas. He further stated that the task of education is not to pour out information into the students heads, but to engage students’ minds with powerful and useful concepts. This view is affirmed by Sharma (2007) as he posits that modern methods condemn rote memorization and promote the adoption of lively and effective methods like playway, learning by doing, learning by experience, etc and that these methods stimulate motivation, interest and attention.
The paradigm shift away from teaching to an emphasy of learning has moved power from the teacher to the student. In the past, the teacher focused on the transmission of information in the form of lecturing but now is paving way to a wide spread growth of student-centered learning. Student-centered learning involves the construction of knowledge by the student with the lecturer as the facilitator of learning rather than a presenter of information.
Student learning created room for the reliance on active learning rather than passive learning. It places emphasy on deep learning and unresponsibility and accountability leads to an increased sense of antonomy in the learner; and results in a reflexive approach to on the part of both teacher and learner.
Impact of ICT on Higher Education
Conventional teaching has emphasized content. Before now, courses have been written around textbooks, teachers have taught through lectures and presentations interspersed with tutorials and learning activities designed to consolidate and rehearse the content. According to Amaele (2007). The teacher has upper hand in the class, which the learner is restricted in the activity of the class and that strategies are mapped to make the class more convement to the teacher than to the learner; that learning activities are selected by the teacher. Presently, higher education fapours curricula that promote competency and performance where learners will begin to construct knowledge.
Slarin (2009) posits that students must construct knowledge in their own minds and that the teacher can facilitate this process by teaching in ways that make information meaningful and relevant to students, by giving students opportunities’ to discover and apply ideas and consciously use their own strategies for learning.
Anderson, Greeno, Reder, & Simon (2000); Waxman, Padrun, & Arnold (2001) state that learners must individually discover and transform complex information if they are to make it the own.
Hence curricula are beginning to emphasize capabilities and how information will be used than with what information is.
According to Bilte & Legacy (2008) ICT application in education could be applied in three ways; first teachers use ICT on their classroom teaching or plan instruction and present content to their classes. Second, students use ICT to explore practice ad prepare papers and presentations.
Finally teachers and administrators use ICT to accomplish administrative tasks associated with their profession, such as assessment record keeping, reporting and management tasks and the males teaching-learning experience an appealing one.
Just as technology is influencing and supporting what is being learned in schools and universities, so too is it supporting changes to the way students are learning. Mores from content-centered curricula to competency-based curricula are associated with moves away from teacher centered forms of delivery to student centered forms through technology-facilitated approaches, contemporary learning setting now encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning. In the past students have become very confortable to leering through transitive model. Students have been trained to let others present to them the information that forms the curriculum. The growing use of ICT as an instructional medium is changing and will likely continue to change many of the strategies employed by both teachers and students in the learning process. This (Hoeffler & Leutner 2006; Reed, 2006) concludes when they said that technology is used on the increase to combine text and visual content and that this multimedia approach enhance students’ learning as long as the text and visuals directly support each other.
Chambers et al (2006) in Slavin (2009) in as study of first-grade reading found that adding video content on letter founds, sound blending, and vocabulary to teacher-led reading lessons significantly increased students’ learning.
The many technological tools available they say, make teachers’ lessons more dynamic and leering more exciting. The fears that computers might replace teachers are unfounded.
Technology has the capacity to promote and encourage the transformation of education from a very teacher directed enterprise to one which supports more student- centered models.
Evidence of this today is manifested in the proliferation of capability competency and outcomes focused curricula, moves towards problem-based learning and increased us of the web as an information source, untsnet users are able to choose the exports from whom they will learn Becker (2001) conclude this when he said that computers have replaced typewriter and encyclopedias and that students use technology for a wide variety of purposes in the following categories word processing ad publishing spreadsheets and databases computer-assisted.
Instruction, the internet multimedia, integrated learning system, and computer programming.
The use of ICT in educational settings by itself acts as a catalyst for change in this domain ICTs by their very nature are tools that aid, encourage and support independent learning students using ICTs for learning purposes become immersed in the process of learning and as more and more students use computer as information sources and cognitive tools the influence of the technology on supporting how students learn will continue to increase. This is the view of Bitter & Legacy et al (2008) in Slavin (2009) where they noted the three general types of technology applications in education and stated that first teachers use ICT in their classroom teaching to plan instruction and present content to their classes. Second students use ICT to explore, practice and prepare papers and presentations, finally teachers and administrators use ICT to accomplish administrative tasks associated with their profession such as assessment, record keeping, reporting and management tasks and these makes teaching-learning experience an appealing one.
Information communication technology has become indispensable of schools. Its application in all spheres of human activities has changed the face of the earth. The world is undergoing tremendous change as a result of advance in science and technology. The school needs such advancement. All Stakeholders in the education industry need to encourage a technological based environment for a better learning and quality output.
There is need to make people aware of the benefits derivable from the use of ICT as this will help to make the society a healthy one, enhance productivity and professional practice. Students should be interested in ICT and ensure they get connected
Anderson, J. R. Greeno, J.G. Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. (2000). Perspectives on learning, thinking, and activity. Educational Researcher, 29 (4)11-13.

Asodike, J. D, Ebong, J.M., Oluwuo, N.M., & Abraham, N. M., (2013). Contemporary Administrative and Teaching Issues in Nigerian Schools Owerri Alphabet Nigeria Publishers.

Becker, H.J. (2001). How are Teachers using computers in instruction? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle W.A.


The Old Testament is the Christian term for the Hebrew Bible, a collection of religious writings by ancient Israelites that form the first section of the Christian Bible, to which were added a second collection of writings referred to as the New Testament. The books included in the Old Testament (the Old Testament canon) varies markedly between Christian denominations; Protestants accept only the official Jewish Hebrew Bible canon as their ‘Old Testament’ but divide it into 39 books, while Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, Coptic and Ethiopian churches accept a considerably larger collection of writings in their ‘Old Testament’ canon.
The books can be broadly divided into several sections: 1) the Pentateuch (Torah), which to the Jewish people is the most important of all the books as it is believed to have been directly dictated by God to the Israelite people so he can tell humanity about himself, how he created all things, and to give the Laws he required to be followed by humans, and enumerates stories of the people God chose to be his chosen people; 2) the history books telling the history of the Israelites, from their conquest of Canaan to their defeat and exile in Babylon; 3) the poetic and “Wisdom” books dealing, in various forms, with questions of good and evil in the world; 4) and the books of the biblical prophets, warning of the consequences of turning away from God.
For the Israelites, who were the authors and followers of these writings, the writings told of the Jews’ unique relationship with God and their relationship with proselytes, but the overarching messianic nature of Christianity has led Christians from the very beginning of the faith to see the Old Testament as a preparation for the New Covenant and New Testament.
God is consistently depicted as the one who created or put into order the world and guides its history. Although he is not consistently presented as the only god who exists, he is always depicted as the only god whom Israel is to worship, and both Jews and Christians have always interpreted the bible as an affirmation of the oneness of God.
The Old Testament stresses the special relationship between God and his chosen people, Israel, but includes instructions for proselytes as well. This relationship is expressed in the biblical covenant (contract) between the two, received by Moses. The law codes in books such as Exodus and especially Deuteronomy are the terms of the contract: Israel swears faithfulness to Yahweh, and God swears to be Israel’s special protector and supporter.[13]
Further themes in the Old Testament include salvation, redemption, judgment, obedience and disobedience, faith and faithfulness, among others. Throughout there is a strong emphasis on ethics and ritual purity, both of which God demands, although some of the prophets and wisdom writers seem to question this, arguing that God demands social justice above purity, and perhaps does not even care about purity at all. The Old Testament’s moral code enjoins fairness, intervention on behalf of the vulnerable, and the duty of those in power to administer justice righteously. It forbids murder, bribery and corruption, deceitful trading, and many sexual misdemeanors. All morality is traced back to God, who is the source of all goodness.
The problem of evil plays a large part in the Old Testament. The problem the Old Testament authors faced was that a good God must have had just reason for bringing disaster (meaning notably, but not only, the Babylonian exile) upon his people. The theme is played out, with many variations, in books as different as the histories of Kings and Chronicles, the prophets like Ezekiel and Jeremiah, and in the wisdom books like Job and Ecclesiastes.
The Old Testament contains 39 (Protestant) or 46 (Catholic) or more (Orthodox and other) books, divided, very broadly, into the Pentateuch (Torah), the historical books, the “wisdom” books and the prophets.
The first five books – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, book of Numbers and Deuteronomy – comprise the Torah, the story of Israel from the Genesis creation narrative to the death of Moses. Few scholars today doubt that it reached its present form in the Persian period (538–332 BC), and that its authors were the elite of exilic returnees who controlled the Temple at that time.
The books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings follow, forming a history of Israel from the Conquest of Canaan to the Siege of Jerusalem c. 587 BC. There is a broad consensus among scholars that these originated as a single work (the so-called “Deuteronomistic history”) during the Babylonian exile of the 6th century BC. The two Books of Chronicles cover much the same material as the Pentateuch and Deuteronomistic history and probably date from the 4th century BC.
Chronicles links with the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, which were probably finished during the 3rd century BC. Catholic and Orthodox Old Testaments contain two (Catholic Old Testament) to four (Orthodox) Books of Maccabees, written in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC.
The history books make up around half the total content of the Old Testament. Of the remainder, the books of the various prophets – Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and the twelve “minor prophets” – were written between the 8th and 6th centuries BC, with the exceptions of Jonah and Daniel, which were written much later. The “wisdom” and other books – Job, Proverbs and so on – date from between the 5th century BC and the 2nd or 1st BC, with the exception of some of the Psalms.

The name “Old Testament” reflects Christianity’s understanding of itself as the fulfillment of Jeremiah’s prophesy of a New Covenant (which is similar to “testament” and often conflated) to replace the existing covenant between God and Israel (Jeremiah 31:31). The emphasis, however, has shifted from Judaism’s understanding of the covenant as an eternal contract between God and Israel to one between God and those who are “in Christ”.

1. Jones 2001, p. 215.
2. Barton 2001, p. 3.
3. Boadt 1984, pp. 11, 15–16.
4. The Apocrypha, Bridge of the Testaments (PDF), Orthodox Anglican, “Two of the hymns used in the American Prayer Book office of Morning Prayer, the Benedictus es and Benedicite, are taken from the Apocrypha. One of the offertory sentences in Holy Communion comes from an apocryphal book (Tob. 4: 8–9). Lessons from the Apocrypha are regularly appointed to be read in the daily, Sunday, and special services of Morning and Evening Prayer. There are altogether 111 such lessons in the latest revised American Prayer Book Lectionary [Books used are: II Esdras, Tobit, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Three Holy Children, and I Maccabees.]”


Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country’s balance of payments. Today, tourism is major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases it is of vital importance. Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure, or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to another location within the same country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people “traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes”.
Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country’s balance of payments. Today, tourism is major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases it is of vital importance.

Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure, or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to another location within the same country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people “traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes
The tourism industry is divided into five different sectors:
• Accommodation
• Food and Beverage Services
• Recreation and Entertainment
• Transportation
• Travel Services
Tourism businesses the world over have a growing sense of environmental responsibility. Increasingly, customers and buyers want evidence of a tourism business’s environmental credentials. They want to be assured that the businesses they are dealing with are assessing their potential impact on the planet and are taking appropriate actions.
There are many ways tourism businesses can help the cause. Ensure your waste and recycling program is up to scratch, and assess your water and energy usage patterns and look for improvements. Stick to environmentally friendly products and services. Support a charity or event with an environmental focus, and educate your staff as to how we can all make a difference.

1. Provision of adequate infrastructure:
The provision of infrastructure should be a paramount importance to any area or people expecting visitors to come to their place for visits. it takes the government and people to ensure that these facilities are provided and put in place.
2. Adequate security and safety of all tourists must be of paramount importance to the government of the day:
Security and safety should be another key issue here in the sector as its inefficiency could drastically affect the sector and reduce the number of visitors in an area.
3. Accomodation and boarding facilities should be provided at all times:
Accommodation and boarding facilities should be provided for tourist all the time as this will go a long way to enhance their stay in the country.
4. Access to electronic transfer payment to ease payment problems:
There should be access to other means of money carrier, notably, the electronic transfer options. These gives tourist a better deal and access to pay for all products bought or sold.
5. Access to transportation:
Transportation should be provided for all tourist as this will go a long way to make their accessibility within the area easy.

The relevance of human resources, strength and communication are of great importance to the tourism sector. In order to attain success in the sector, all this ingredient should be put in place in order to enhance the suitability of the sector, nevertheless, Tourism is not only an economic activity of importance to National development, but also an important medium of cultural exchange among various nations of the world.

The relevance of Human resource to tourism lies in the role it play by providing the right context in which human performance occurs & the industry reaches its stated objectives. Therefore, enhancing international tourism with a similar large rise in domestic tourism demand will place excessive pressure on countries and operators capabilities to provide sufficient personnel – educated and trained to the appropriate standard – for the range of tourism, managerial and skilled occupations.
Relevance of strength to tourism lies in the area of infrastructural development. The provision of facilities that will entices and attracts tourist to an area. the strength of tourism falls on the type of policies put in place by the government of the area. Also its implementation also goes a long way to tell of the fact.
Communication is vital to the success of tourism businesses since it is only through the effective use of communication that tourism marketers can offer to customers tangible cues about those intangible experiences. Also, while communication is an essential component in the conduct of any service business, it has got an overarching role in tourism. Tourists are individuals who want to escape from the routines of the mundane world. They want to experience ‘the other’ aspect of their selves not allowed to be expressed in the ordinary life settings. Such a conceptualization of the tourism phenomenon gives us clues about the type of communication that will be appreciated by tourists. In the context of tourism business communication, purportedly objective third person narratives are increasingly giving way to patently subjective first person narratives: industry professionals consider it important to impress their persona to others rather than to keep the same insulated from their professional conduct.

The relevance of goal plan for success in the tourism sector as well as the relevance of human resources, strength and communication speak in one accord about the prospect and possibilities the tourism sector offers. This sector, if handle and manage properly could be a major exchange earner for a country, which will enhance it development prospect and image.
If we have a better tourism industry, international relations among nations will be improve and as a result, unemployment can be reduced and the fixed cost of infrastructure and institutional capacity can be spread over more consuming units.

1.Cooper, Chris; et al (2005). Tourism: Principles and Practice (3rd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-273-68406-X. OCLC 466952897.
2.Harper, Douglas. “tour (n.)”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
3.”Sustainable Tourism: Turning the Tide”. Towards Earth Summit 2002. Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future. August 2002. Retrieved 22 January 2012.


Lecture method is a teaching method which the presenter or an instructor teaches orally to a group of class participation. Lectures are used to convey critical information theories and equations. A. Lectures delivered by talented speakers can be highly stimulating
B. Seen as a as a quick, cheap and efficient way of introducing large numbers of students to a particular field of study.
C. Lectures methods represent a continuation of oral tradition in contrast to textual communication in books and other media. A. lecturing is mainly a one-way method of communication that does not involve significant audience participation.
B. lecturing is often contrasted to active learning.
C. Not effective to convey information to a large crowd.

Inquiry-based instruction is a student-centered and teacher-guided instructional approach that engages students in investigating real world questions that they choose within a broad thematic framework. A. Inquiry-based learning includes problem-based learning, and is generally used in small scale investigations
B. Used in research methods.
C. Inquiry learning emphasizes constructivist ideas of learning, where knowledge is built from experience and process. A. The process is often assisted by a facilitator.
B. Inquirers will identify and research issues and questions to develop their knowledge or solutions.
C. Inquiry-based learning is primarily a pedagogical method, and said to be outdated.

Small group instruction typically refers to a teacher working with a small group of students on a specific learning objective. These groups consists of 2-4 students and provide these students with a reduced student-teacher ratio. A. Small-group methods are founded upon a rationale which is more elaborate than those for most other teaching methods.
B. provides more exposure and more focus on research issues.
C. Increase understanding and grasp of course content. A. their flexibility and relative ease of administration can lead to the belief that the methods are foolproof.
B. the success of small-group techniques depends largely upon the care with which they are designed and used
C. small-group methods are effective for certain purposes when used alone.
The discovery method is a teaching technique that encourages students to take a more active role in their learning process by answering a series of questions or solving problems designed to introduce a general concept.

A. This teaching method is believed to increase retention of material because the student organizes the new information and integrates it with information that has already been stored
B. Discovery learning is a technique of inquiry-based instruction and is considered a constructivist based approach to education.
C. discovery learning allows the learner to generate ideas about a topic along the way and then having students explain their thinking (Marzano, 2011) A. Although this form of instruction has great popularity, there is some debate in the literature concerning its efficacy
B. discovery learning is less effective as an instructional strategy for novices.
C. unassisted discovery learning tasks do not help learners discover problem-solving rules, conservation strategies, or programming concepts
Brainstorming is a group or individual creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its member(s). A. This method of brainstorming works by the method of association. It may improve collaboration and increase the quantity of ideas, and is designed so that all attendees participate and no ideas are rejected.
Peer teaching can be defined either by the relationship between teacher and student or by the method of teaching that occurs. Generally one thinks of a peer as one who is equal in rank or experience. A. Enhance teacher-student relationship.
Demonstration involves showing by reason or proof, explaining or making clear by use of examples or experiments. Put more simply, demonstration means to clearly show.[1
A. Student learn faster from what they see.
B. Experiment aids student learning process.
C. Events are clearly showed. A. No proof no learning
B. Explanations involve experiment
C. If no show of activities, learning becomes impaired.
Dramatisation refers to the act of dramatizing. It is the construction or demonstration of events, novels and stories in a dramatic form. It also refers to works that have been adapted for dramatic presentation. A. Events are demonstrated for real.
B. Works are adopted for live occasions.
C. Students learn faster from the dramatization of the events. A. Some of the events are not always real.
B. Some of the students find it difficult to grasp the storyline
C. Cinemazation are always crowded.
A group excursion for the purpose of firsthand observation, as to a museum, the woods, or a historic place. A. Allows students to have to have first hand information.
B. Good for beginners
C. Help boast confidence in student A. Too expensive to orgainise
B. Demands real commitment
C. Safety measures are not adhere to.
This is an approach or teaching method which uses the principles of game design as a model for developing … As a foundation for understanding games A. Appropriate for blind student
B. Boast confidence in them
C. Ideal for developing beginners. A. Not suitable for all student
B. Does not encourage student-teacher relationship
C. Does not fulfil desired goals.


Morality (from the Latin moralitas “manner, character, proper behavior”) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are “good” (or right) and those that are “bad” (or wrong). The philosophy of morality is ethics. A moral code is a system of morality (according to a particular philosophy, religion, culture, etc.) and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code. Morality may also be specifically synonymous with “goodness” or “rightness.” Immorality is the active opposition to morality (i.e. opposition to that which is good or right), while amorality is variously defined as an unawareness of, indifference toward, or disbelief in any set of moral standards or principles. An example of a moral code is the Golden Rule which states that, “One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself.”
In religious belief, a deity is a supernatural being, who may be thought of as holy, divine, or sacred. Some religions have one supreme deity, others have multiple deities of various ranks.
C. Scott Littleton’s Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology defined a deity as “a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life.”
Deities are depicted in a variety of forms, but are also frequently expressed as having human form. Some faiths and traditions consider it blasphemous to imagine or depict the deity as having any concrete form. Deities are often thought to be immortal, and are commonly assumed to have personalities and to possess consciousness, intellects, desires, and emotions comparable but usually superior to those of humans. A male deity is a god, while a female deity is a goddess.
Historically, natural phenomena whose causes were not well understood, such as lightning and catastrophes such as earthquakes and floods, were attributed to them. They were thought to be able to work supernatural miracles and to be the authorities and controllers of various aspects of human life (such as birth or an afterlife). Some deities were asserted to be the directors of time and fate itself, the givers of human law and morality, the ultimate judges of human worth and behavior, or designers of the Universe, instead of being a natural result of the laws of physics.
Amadioha (Igbo literal meaning “free will of the people”) is the Alusi (god) of thunder and lightning of the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria. He is amongst the most popular of Igbo deities and in some parts of Igboland, he is referred to as Amadiora, Kamalu (which is short for Kalu Akanu), Kamanu,[ or Ofufe. Astrologically, his governing planet is the Sun.[4] His color is red, and his symbol is a white ram.[ Metaphysically, Amadioha represents the collective will of the people. He is often associated with Anyanwu, who is the Igbo god of the Sun. While Anyanwu is more prominent in northern Igboland, Amadioha is more prominent in the southern part. His day is Afo, which is the third market day of the Igbo four day week.
Shrines to Amadioha still exist in different parts of Igboland, but the main shrine is located at Ogboro Ama Ukwu or Ihiokpu as it is called in Ozuzu in Etche Local Government Area of present day Rivers State, Nigeria. Although it is located there, it is not the patron deity of the people of Ozuzu. In fact, it is said that Ozuzu is the town in which Amadioha “lives” and it serves as it earthly headquarters. It is from there that it spread to other parts of Igboland.[
God of justice
Amadioha is first and foremost known as a god of justice. He speaks through thunder, and he strikes with lightning. He creates thunder and lightning by casting “thunderstones” down to earth. Persons judged guilty by Amadioha are either killed by lightning (which leaves a black mark on the forehead) or attacked by a swarm of bees. The property of the victim is usually taken by the priests of Amadioha, and the body is left unburied and the victim unmourned, as the punishment is considered to be a righteous one from God. In some parts of Igboland, Amadioha is used as a curse word. Oaths are often sworn to him, which can carry deadly penalties when broken.
The ritual cleansing for Amadioha is very costly and tasking. The deity can only be appeased by transferring the curse to a live goat that is let loose outside of the walls of the community. The ram is a common offering for him. The priestly clan of Amadioha are known as Umuamadi, which translates to children of Amadioha.
God of love, peace and unity
Besides justice, Amadioha is also a god of love, peace and unity, and is prayed for increase of crops, children in the home, and benevolence. Aside the above manifestations of Amadioha, he represents, as different from most African religious world views, a messianic hope for those in critical situations.

Creator God
Amadioha is also considered to be a creator God. In some traditions, human beings were made by him when he sent a bolt of lightning down to strike a silk cotton tree, which split and revealed a man and a woman.
Consort to Ani
Amadioha is often shown as a husband to Ani, who is the Earth mother. In some Igbo traditions, the pair are said to be the first Alusi to have been created by Chukwu. The two are often honored with Mbari houses, which were made with mudbrick. Amadioha is typically depicted as a fair-skinned, titled gentleman of cool temper who is the patron of “light skinned Igbos” and “men of exalted rank.” While Ani is considered to be the lawmaker of Igbo society (which is known as Odinani), Amadioha is the enforcer and protector of the law.
God of Carvers
In the play, the Other Side of the Mask, the character Jamike refers to Amadioha as “the god of carvers” and identifies him further as “the god that sends lightning to kill the evil spirits who inhabit the trees from which carvers hew their wood.
Personal spirit
Amadioha as a personal shrine is a spirit of enterprise that brings wealth. It is also a representative of the head of the household.
In precolonial times, the village of Ozuzu turned Amadioha/Kamalu into an oracle called Kamalu Ozuzu.[4] People would travel all over Igboland to visit the oracle in order to settle disputes and for help with crucial decisions. Parties found guilty by the oracle could be sold into slavery.
Proverbs and prayers associated with Amadioha
“Amadioha magbukwa gi” (Amadioha will punish you)
“Chi m le kwee – O wuru si o wuni mere ihea, amadioha magbukwe m” (My god please see- If it is true that I did this thing, let Amadioha Kill me).

1. McCall, John. Dancing Histories: Heuristic Ethnography with the Ohafia Igbo. Page 123
2. Oriji, John. Sacred Authority in Igbo Society. Page 115
3. Diala, Isidore. Ritual and Mythological Recuperation in the Drama of Esiaba Irobi. Page 101
4. Uchendu, Victor C. The Igbo of Southeast Nigeria. Page 96
5. Diala, Isidore. Ritual and Mythological Recuperation in the Drama of Esiaba Irobi. Page 104
6. Handbook of African medicinal plants. Page 320.
7. Patrick, Iroegbu. Igbo-Okija Oracles and Shrines, Development and Cultural Justice
8. Onunwa, Udobata. A Handbook of African Religion and Culture. Pages 18-19
9. Abiaka, Blessing. The Naked Gods: Africa–The Land of Culture. Page 76
10. Iwu, Maurice. Handbook of African medicinal plants. Page 320.


The biological approach to psychology is an approach that looks at our genetics to build a reason as to why we act the way we do and why we develop abnormal behaviours. It is studied by biological psychologists who normally rely more on medication and medical procedures and try to relate behaviour to the functions of the brain and the nervous system. Some of the authors includes Charles Darwin, Jane Goodall, Edward Wilson, Harlow, Tooby & Cosmides.
The behavioural approach explains psychological phenomena such as disorders etc as being ‘learned’. It’s the study of behaviour and what mental/cognitive mechanisms cause and control behaviour and how that behaviour can be understood, manipulated, changed and controlled.
the behaviourist approach sees human behaviour as being determined by learning primarily acquired through interactions with the environment. the main processes by which learning occurs are seen to be through classical and operant conditioning. behaviourism was influenced by the functionalist school of psychology and empiricism; the key authors here are J.B.Watson, regarded as founder of behaviourism and B.F. Skinner.
The psychodynamic approach includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious, and between the different structures of the personality.the main author here is Sigmund Freud.
With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes an individual’s inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. The key author here is Carl Rogers.

As its name implies, the cognitive approach deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving. Cognitive approach is a field of psychology that focuses on mental processes, perception, and language as a mode of explaining and understanding human behaviour. Psychotherapy that is based on the cognitive approach tries to modify behaviour by attempting to alter the behaviour’s underlying cognition, or thought processes. The main authors are Tolman, George Miller and Norbert wiener.
The socialcultural perspective is based on the belief that our beliefs, attitudes and personalities are based on what we learn from others. It also states that it is not possible to fully understand a person without understanding his culture, gender identity and ethnic identity. Overall, socialcultural perspective implies that we are all shaped by our culture.
The socio-cultural approach is based on the idea that society and culture shape cognition. Some of the authors includes Natalia Keritsis, Lev Vygotsky.




ISO 9000:2008
Registered Company


We are one of the professionally managed organizations in the world, with our branch here in Rivers state Nigeria, we have been operating in the health care industry for almost 12 years. With zest to offer the most innovative and user friendly hospital equipment, we manufacture our range using the latest technology followed by intensive research and development. Our products occupy a large market across the Africa but are largely supplied in the states of South Africa, Ghana and Nigeria. The annual turnover of our company is N2 billion (PAT) and we plan to increase it in the coming years.
The marketability of hospital equipment materials in Rivers state discusses the business description, environmental analysis as well as the industrial background. Here also, the competitor’s analysis is outline and strategies to beat them are included.
Market analysis, marketing plans as well as operational plans are outline. Here, we included detail outlines to enable us meet specific targets and goals as regards the sales of the hospital equipment in Rivers state.
In the end, a management summary is given as well as a detail financial plan.
The business description is about marketing hospital equipment materials here in Rivers state. Its entails how the sales of hospital equipment in the state will yield much profit for us as a company as well as benefits our numerous customers. Some of our hospital equipment which we have for sale includes;

Basic beds O.T lamps Stretcher on trolley

Pediatric Bed Bed Side Trolley

Used to monitor rate of heart beats
Machines Vital Signs Monitors
Surgical Lights used in surgical rooms
Surgical Tables
Used to determine respiratory cases


Used to convey sick patients
Used to determine microscopic elements

Used for infant and pediatric treatments
Infant Care

Medical Warmers

Infusion Pumps


Medical Gas

Used to attend or treat sick patient
Medical Tables
Used in the theatre for surgical operations
Used to store medical tools and other accessories

The business environment analysis entails the area of interest where the sales of the hospital equipment will yield greater returns. In this aspect, it is presume that Port Harcourt metropolis and its Environs will be the idea place as much populations are there and ready to- do -dealers are around. We would also take our products and services to government owned hospitals as well as privately owned ones. Though, money returns may be our bed rock, but we at group 12 Shree Company cares about the satisfaction of our products supplier to our numerous customers.
SWOT Analysis is a simple but useful framework for analyzing your organization’s strengths and weaknesses, as well as the opportunities and threats you face.
We have been in the state for over two decades now and believe numerous opportunities abound everywhere. Our strength lies in the quality of products we supplier, the dedication and discipline of our staffs as well as our network base of customers. Our weaknesses, yes, like every formal organization we have but we are trying our best to revamp our lapses and be the best we can.
The industrial background of the marketability of hospital equipment in Rivers cut across all sector of the rivers state economy. The sales of hospital equipment will go along way to enhance the medical sector of the state as well as boast the treatment of some ailments. We are solely in the medical and health sector of rivers state, however private sector participation are always involve in our day to day dealings. We deal mainly on the sales and supply of medical and hospital equipment in Rivers state.
From our little research, our competitors analysis shows that we would encounter gray areas in trying to fight off other companies of Nigerian extraction who imported fake hospital equipment and sale at cheaper prices. we found out that most clinics and hospitals in Nigeria prefer to buy the cheap brands. however, our quality assurance stands out on all equipment we tend to market here in Rivers state. We have thus diversify a means to uphold our stand and stamp our authority in the sector here in Rivers state.
Some of our competitor’s strategy is
1. Prompt delivery of our product anywhere in the state.
2. Sales and supplier of quality hospital equipment, tested and proven to stand the test of time.
3. The pursuit of after sale services to enable our clients enjoy our products always.
4. We also provide technical support on all our products to our clients, in case there is a breakdown of any.
5. We have also reduced our prices to draw in more sales to our organization.

A market analysis studies the attractiveness and the dynamics of a special market within a special industry. It is part of the industry analysis and thus in turn of the global environmental analysis. In Group 12 Shree Company, we believe in quality products of high standards which attract our clients to mark a sale with us. The health sector is a dynamic market that requires the best of services always and our firm is ever ready to provide such services.
A marketing plan may be part of an overall business plan. Solid marketing strategy is the foundation of a well-written marketing plan. Our marketing plan at Group 12 Shree Company has our been market drive where we match our services with the best in the health sector. Our detail plans and strategies are all gear towards guaranteeing our customers satisfaction as well as profit orientation.
An Operational Plan is a detailed plan used to provide a clear picture of how a team, section or department will contribute to the achievement of the organization’s strategic goals. Our firm is divided into the following departments/sections;
– Production
– Marketing
– servicing/maintenance
– Transportation
All this departments are structure to function independently but pursue an organizational policy gear towards best management practices and generating sales and profit for the firm.
This comprises the entire detail summary about the marketing of the products and how income was gained or loss.
Our management summary entails how we supply our products to our numerous clients here in the state. We place a 20% discount on our products and services and tend to make profits on our sales.

In business, a financial plan can refer to the three primary financial statements (balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement) created within a business plan.
Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space. A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile.
Here at GROUP 4 SHREE HEALTH CARE COMPANY, our deep attachment lies with our numerous customers and clients. Over the years and in due course of time in our stay of operations here in Rivers we have enjoyed their support, loyalty and patronage and we pledge to satisfy their yearning all the time.
Lastly, our mile stone will continue to be a leading producer and supplier of healthcare/hospital equipment around and especially here in Rivers state.


The cultural mandate or creation mandate is the divine injunction found in Genesis 1:28, in which God, after having created the world and all in it, ascribes to humankind the tasks of filling, subduing, and ruling over the earth. ..
To be fruitful signifies to transmute and sublimate the sexual energy in order to grow spiritually. The word multiply refers to the procreation of the human species.
There are two types of children mentioned in the Bible: the children of God and the children of men. Children of God are those who are the outcome of Sexual Magic, when there is no spilling of semen. Children of men are those who are the outcome of passionate pleasure by the spilling of semen.
Genesis 1:28
God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.”
Genesis 9:1
Then God blessed Noah and his sons, saying to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth.

And God blessed them,…. The man and the woman he had made, with all the blessings of nature and Providence; with all the good things of life; with his presence, and with communion with himself in a natural way, through the creatures; and particularly with a power of procreating their species, as follows,

and God said unto them, be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth: if this is not an express command, as the Jews understand it, for marriage and procreation of children, it seems to be more than a bare permission; at least it is a direction and an advice to what was proper and convenient for the increase of mankind, and for the filling of the earth with inhabitants, which was the end of its being made, Isaiah 45:18. This shows that marriage is an ordinance of God, instituted in paradise, and is honourable; and that procreation is a natural action, and might have been, and may be performed without sin,

and subdue it; the earth; not that it was in the hands of others, who had no right to it, and to be conquered and taken out of their hands; but is to be understood of their taking possession, and making use of it; of their tilling the land, and making it subservient to their use:

and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the face of the earth; which was giving them an universal and unlimited dominion over all the creatures; of which see an enumeration in Psalm 8:6.
In the Judeo-Christian scripture called בראשית (Berashith) or Genesis is a statement that is often quoted but rarely understood.
This is how it has been studied in English for many centuries:
“And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
So God created man in his [own] image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply…” – Genesis 1
Since this verse was originally written in Hebrew, the meaning can be found in the Hebrew words and letters. Let us look at a more accurate translation that preserves several key Hebrew words.
First, however, it must be understood that the Hebrew scripture does not have the word “God,” as written in English. Instead, the entire first chapter of Genesis refers to אלהים Elohim. The Hebrew word Elohim is plural, and is derived from El (God) united with Eloah (Goddess), forming the plural Elohim, which means “God and Goddess” or “Gods and Goddesses.” Therefore, Genesis or creation is a work of Gods, male and female, which is only natural, since all other forms of creation are sexual, too.
“Then אלהים [Elohim] said, “Let Us [God and Goddess] make Adam in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let [Adam] rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” Elohim created Adam in their own image, in the image of Elohim [they] created Adam; male and female [in other words, androgynous] Elohim created [Adam]. And Elohim blessed them [the nephesh chaiah], and Elohim said unto them, ‘Be fruitful, and multiply [רבה]…'” – Genesis 1:28
The second important point here is that Adam is created in the image (tselem) of the Elohim: male-female, in other words, as an androgynous being. Only later is Adam divided into two sexes. Thus, the command given in this passage is not for those who are already divided into two sexes (such as you and me).
Finally, the English translations render רבה as “multiply,” but the word itself is actually “Rabbi.” Therefore, the command is correctly interpreted as an instruction given to the androgynous Adam—or those who have restored that level of spiritual development in themselves by returning to Eden and solving the mistake made by Adam and Eve—and that command is: “Be fruitful, be a Rabbi (a Master).”
Thus, you can see quite easily that the actual meaning of this scripture is vastly different from what is taught commonly.

Genesis Chapter 1 verse 28 states: “Be fruitful and multiply.”
To be fruitful signifies to transmute and sublimate the sexual energy in order to grow spiritually. The word multiply refers to the procreation of the human species.
There are two types of children mentioned in the Bible: the children of God and the children of men. Children of God are those who are the outcome of Sexual Magic, when there is no spilling of semen. Children of men are those who are the outcome of passionate pleasure by the spilling of semen.
We need to engender children of God and then struggle for their spiritual growth. – Samael Aun Weor, The Perfect Matrimony
In Gnosis we seek spiritual birth through the transmutation of the sexual energy, which Jesus spoke of in the Gospel (John 3). However, as Samael Aun Weor explains, even the engendering of physical children can be accomplished without resorting to fornication.
God said, “Be fruitful and multiply.” God did not say, “Be fruitful and fornicate.” Therefore, seminal ejaculation is a crime; seminal ejaculation is brutal fornication.
In ancient times, in paradise, reproduction was performed without seminal ejaculation, without the orgasm of man or woman.
The tenebrous lucifers of the ancient Earth-Moon taught the humans how to ejaculate the semen. This is how humans lost their powers. This is represented by Adam and Eve’s departure from Eden.
Therefore, Gnosis does not teach anything that goes against Nature. Not spilling the semen is what is natural, what is normal.
Hence, Gnosis does not teach sexual refinement, it teaches what is truly natural and normal. – Samael Aun Weor, The Yellow Book
The cultural mandate or creation mandate is the divine injunction found in Genesis 1:28, in which God (YHVH), after having created the world and all in it, ascribes to humankind the tasks of filling, subduing, and ruling over the earth.

• Gary North, Dominion & Common Grace: The Biblical Basis of Progress. Tyler, TX: Dominion Press., 1987
• Smith, Gary Scott, ed. God and Politics: Four Views on the Reformation of Civil Government — Theonomy, Principled Plurlaism, Christian America, National Confessionalism. Phillipsburg, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1989, ISBN 0-87552-448-6


Track and field is a sport comprising various competitive athletic contests based on running, jumping, and throwing. The name of the sport derives from the competition venue: a stadium with an oval running track around a grass field. The throwing and jumping events generally take place in the central enclosed area.
Track and field falls under the umbrella sport of athletics, which also includes road running, cross country running, and race walking. The two most prestigious international track and field competitions are held under the banner of athletics: the athletics competition at the Olympic Games and the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for track and field.
Track and field events are generally individual sports with athletes challenging each other to decide a single victor. The racing events are won by the athlete with the fastest time, while the jumping and throwing events are won by the athlete who has achieved the greatest distance or height in the contest. The running events are categorised as sprints, middle and long-distance events, relays, and hurdling. Regular jumping events include long jump, triple jump, high jump and pole vault, while the most common throwing events are shot put, javelin, discus and hammer. There are also “combined events”, such as heptathlon and decathlon, in which athletes compete in a number of the above events.
Runners must develop a full range of fundamental athletic skills in order to perform at their highest levels and avoid injury.

Sprints are short running events in athletics and track and field. Races over short distances are among the oldest running competitions. The first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event—the stadion race, which was a race from one end of the stadium to the other. There are three sprinting events which are currently held at the Summer Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the 100 metres, 200 metres, and 400 metres. These events have their roots in races of imperial measurements which were later altered to metric: the 100 m evolved from the 100 yard dash, the 200 m distances came from the furlong (or 1/8 of a mile), and the 400 m was the successor to the 440 yard dash or quarter-mile race.

The sprinter should be focus and train hard at all times.
Relay races are the only track and field event in which a team of runners directly compete against other teams. Typically, a team is made up of four runners of the same sex. Each runner completes their specified distance (referred to as a leg) before handing over a baton to a team mate, who then begins their leg upon receiving the baton. There is usually a designated area where athletes must exchange the baton. Teams may be disqualified if they fail to complete the change within the area, or if the baton is dropped during the race. A team may also be disqualified if its runners are deemed to have wilfully impeded other competitors.
The basic skill here for a relax sprint runners is to be fast, focuses and run against the wind. Also, baton exchange should be properly look into and the practice carried on ofenly.
By far the most common events are the 100 metres hurdles for women, 110 m hurdles for men and 400 m hurdles for both sexes. The men’s 110 m has been featured at every modern Summer Olympics while the men’s 400 m was introduced in the second edition of the Games. Women’s initially competed in the 80 metres hurdles event, which entered the Olympic programme in 1932. This was extended to the 100 m hurdles at the 1972 Olympics, but it was not until 1984 that a women’s 400 m hurdles event took place at the Olympics (having been introduced at the 1983 World Championships in Athletics the previous year). The basic skills here is to put the eyes up and straight, proper timing of when to take a leap over the hurdles and being able to maintain your strength and stamina.
The athletes would take a short run up and jump into an area of dug up earth, with the winner being the one who jumped furthest. Small weights (Halteres) were held in each hand during the jump then swung back and dropped near the end to gain extra momentum and distance. The modern long jump, standardized in England and the United States around 1860, bears resemblance to the ancient event although no weights are used. Athletes sprint along a length of track that leads to a jumping board and a sandpit. The athletes must jump before a marked line and their achieved distance is measured from the nearest point of sand disturbed by the athlete’s body. Some of the skills include One explosive movement Maximum controlled approach speed One must run TALL! One must run FAST! One must ATTACK the board with ACTIVE foot strikes LONG strides – until the last stride PROGRESSIVE AGGRESSION through the board.

Athletes have a short run up and then take off from one foot to jump over a horizontal bar and fall back onto a cushioned landing area. The men’s high jump was included in the 1896 Olympics and a women’s competition followed in 1928.
Jumping technique has played a significant part in the history of the event. High jumpers typically cleared the bar feet first in the late 19th century, using either the Scissors, Eastern cut-off or Western roll technique. The straddle technique became prominent in the mid-20th century, but Dick Fosbury overturned tradition by pioneering a backwards and head-first technique in the late 1960s – the Fosbury Flop – which won him the gold at the 1968 Olympics. This technique has become the overwhelming standard for the sport from the 1980s onwards. The standing high jump was contested at the Olympics from 1900 to 1912, but is now relatively uncommon outside of its use as an exercise drill.

The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as evidenced by the fifth-century-B.C. Myron statue, Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient pentathlon, which can be dated at least to 708 BC. To achieve maximum distance in the Discus the athlete will have to balance three components – speed, technique and strength.

1. Holding the discus
• Place discus in your throwing hand
• Spread fingers out with index finger inline with wrist
• Place fingers first knuckles over the disc
2. Release the discus
• When releasing the discus have your palm down
• Squeeze the discus out (bar of soap)
• The disc will come off the index finger
• The disc will spin in a clockwise direction for a right handed thrower
3. Drills used to teach the grip and release – excellent time for a competition
Arm swings – Use this drill to teach about centrifugal force
a) The thrower stands with feet shoulder width apart
b) Place the disc into throwing hand
c) Swing the disc level with the shoulders back and forth catching it in your left hand
d) The athlete should feel the discus pushing out on the hand

Shot Putters are generally the largest and most explosive athletes on a team. The shot put is a track and field event involving “throwing”/”putting” (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object —the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, and women’s competition began in 1948.
There are two basic methods for throwing the shot put. The “spin” or “rotational” technique is the more complex method. The “glide” technique is more commonly-used and, with its linear movement through the throwing circle, is easier for beginners to learn. The following guide offers the basic elements of the glide technique.

The shot put is a track and field event involving “throwing”/”putting” (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object —the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, and women’s competition began in 1948.
N.B Coaching points varies and depends on different individual sporting events.

1. Instone, Stephen (15 November 2009). The Olympics: Ancient versus Modern. BBC. Retrieved on 23 March 2010.
2. Ancient Olympic Events; Pentathlon. Perseus digital library. Retrieved on 3 August 2009.
3. Waldo E. Sweet, Erich Segal (1987). Sport and recreation in ancient Greece. Oxford University Press. p. 37. Retrieved on 3 August 2009.
4. Jean-Paul Thuillier, Le sport dans la Rome antique (French), Paris, Errance, 1996, pp. 115–116, ISBN 2-87772-114-0
5. The Olympic Games in Antiquity. The Olympic Museum. Retrieved on 25 March 2010.
6. History – Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 25 March 2010.
7. Robinson, Roger (December 1998). “On the Scent of History”. Running Times: 28.
8. “History of The Tucks”. Shrewsbury School. 2011.
9. “New film uncovers secrets of Shropshire’s Olympian heritage”. Shropshire County Council. 24 June 2011.


The Solar System is the Sun and the objects that orbit the Sun. These are a planetary system (of eight planets) and various secondary bodies: dwarf planets and other small objects that orbit the Sun directly, as well as satellites (moons) that orbit many planets and smaller objects. The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system’s mass is in the Sun, with most of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets, called the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are composed largely of substances with relatively high melting points (compared with hydrogen and helium), called ices, such as water, ammonia and methane, and are often referred to separately as “ice giants”. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic plane.
The Solar System also contains regions populated by smaller objects. The asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune’s orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, linked populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices. Within these populations are several dozen to more than ten thousand objects that may be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are referred to as dwarf planets. Identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to these two regions, various other small-body populations including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust freely travel between regions. Six of the planets, at least three of the dwarf planets, and many of the smaller bodies are orbited by natural satellites, usually termed “moons” after Earth’s Moon. Each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects.
The solar wind, a flow of plasma from the Sun, creates a bubble in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere, which extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is believed to be the source for long-period comets, may also exist at a distance roughly a thousand times further than the heliosphere. The heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of interstellar wind. The Solar System is located within one of the outer arms of the Milky Way, which contains about 200 billion stars.
Distances and scales
The distance from the Earth to the Sun is 1 astronomical unit (150,000,000 km). For comparison, the radius of the Sun is .0047 AU (700,000 km). Thus, the Sun occupies 0.00001% (10−5 %) of the volume of a sphere with a radius the size of the Earth’s orbit, while the Earth’s volume is roughly one million (106) times smaller than that of the Sun. Jupiter, the largest planet, is 5.2 astronomical units (780,000,000 km) from the Sun and has a radius of 71,000 km (0.00047 AU), while the most distant planet, Neptune, is 30 AU (4.5×109 km) from the Sun.
With a few exceptions, the farther a planet or belt is from the Sun, the larger the distance between its orbit and the orbit of the next nearer object to the Sun. For example, Venus is approximately 0.33 AU farther out from the Sun than Mercury, while Saturn is 4.3 AU out from Jupiter, and Neptune lies 10.5 AU out from Uranus. Attempts have been made to determine a relationship between these orbital distances (for example, the Titius–Bode law), but no such theory has been accepted. The images at the beginning of this section show the orbits of the various constituents of the Solar System on different scales.


Viewed from above the Solar System the five planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn and Jupiter, would appear in these relative positions on May 3 2002. To understand why the planets change their relative positions from night to night, think of them orbiting the Sun at different speeds. At present they are all on the far side of the Sun. In the evening, their orbits are carrying them upwards, while the Earth is moving downwards relative to the Sun. Mercury and Venus orbit faster than the Earth. As a result they make progress upwards in the evening sky. (After May 3 Mercury will reverse when it comes towards the near side of the Sun.) Mars, Jupiter and Saturn travel more slowly than Earth so the effect is to bring them down in the evening sky, until they eventually pass behind the Sun.

1. Mike Brown (August 23, 2011). “Free the dwarf planets!”. “Mike Brown’s Planets (self-published)”.
2. Sheppard, Scott S. “The Giant Planet Satellite and Moon Page”. Departament of Terrestrial Magnetism at Carniege Institution for science. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
3. Robert Johnston (2013-12-06). “Asteroids with Satellites”. Johnston’s Archive. Retrieved 2013-12-12.
4. “How Many Solar System Bodies”. NASA/JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 2013-12-12.
5. Mumma, M. J.; Disanti, M. A.; Dello Russo, N.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Gibb, E.; Novak, R. (2003). “Remote infrared observations of parent volatiles in comets: A window on the early solar system”. Advances in Space Research 31 (12): 2563. doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00578-7. edit
6. “The Final IAU Resolution on the definition of “planet” ready for voting”. IAU. 2006-08-24. Retrieved 2007-03-02.