The concept of atheism and deism has long being associated with the belief in deities. This has always had some contracting doctrines with that of Christianity. Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists, while  Deism is derived from the Latin word “deus” meaning “god“, is a theological/philosophical position that combines the rejection of revelation and authority as a source of religious knowledge with the conclusion that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator of the universe.


The term atheism originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning “without god(s)”, used as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope. The first individuals to identify themselves using the word atheist lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its “unprecedented atheism,” witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason.

Deism gained prominence among intellectuals during the Age of Enlightenment—especially in Britain, France, Germany and the United States—who, raised as Christians, believed in one God but became disenchanted with organized religion and notions such as the Trinity, Biblical inerrancy and the supernatural interpretation of events such as miracles.[8] Included in those influenced by its ideas were leaders of the American and French Revolutions.


In George H. Smith’s book ATHEISM – THE CASE AGAINST GOD, it is stated that rationality will not lead to God. That instead, God can only be brought about by rationalization. The book describes rationality as first finding evidence, then arriving at the idea, like Newton seeing the apple fall to the ground and then discovering the law of gravity. It then describes rationalization as first accepting an idea and then searching for evidence to support it, like someone inventing the idea of God and then saying God created the universe. Deism says it is rationality and reason that leads to God. To the Deist, the evidence is the creation and the idea of what brought about the evidence is the Creator. There is absolutely nothing known to man that created itself. For example, if someone shows us a computer, and tells us that all the individual parts that make up the computer just came about by chance, that they somehow just formed into a perfectly working computer system all by themselves, we would be foolish to believe that person. Reason, if we use it, won’t let us believe a statement like that. Likewise, if someone tells us the ever growing creation and its perfect order “happened” by pure chance, we are under no obligation to believe them. From our own experience we know everything created has a creator. Why then should the creation itself be different? There is, however, one quality the creation has that makes leaving its existence to chance even more remote. That quality is motion.

Turning again to Thomas Paine we find the following pertinent observation he made regarding atheism in a speech to the Society of Theophilanthropists in Paris, France, shortly after the French Revolution:

“In the first place, admitting matter to have properties, as we see it has, the question still remains, how came matter by those properties? To this they will answer, that matter possessed those properties eternally. This is not solution, but assertion; and to deny it is as impossible of proof as to assert it.

“It is then necessary to go further; and therefore I say – if there exist a circumstance that is not a property of matter, and without which the universe, or to speak in a limited degree, the solar system composed of planets and a sun, could not exist a moment, all the arguments of atheism, drawn from properties of matter, and applied to account for the universe, will be overthrown, and the existence of a superior cause, or that which man calls God, becomes discoverable, as is before said, by natural philosophy.

“I go now to show that such a circumstance exists, and what it is.

“The universe is composed of matter, and, as a system, is sustained by motion. Motion is not a property of matter, and without this motion, the solar system could not exist. Were motion a property of matter, that undiscovered and undiscoverable thing called perpetual motion would establish itself.

“It is because motion is not a property of matter, that perpetual motion is an impossibility in the hand of every being but that of the Creator of motion. When the pretenders to atheism can produce perpetual motion, and not till then, they may expect to be credited.

“The natural state of matter, as to place, is a state of rest. Motion, or change of place, is the effect of an external cause acting upon matter. As to that faculty of matter that is called gravitation, it is the influence which two or more bodies have reciprocally on each other to unite and be at rest. Everything which has hitherto been discovered, with respect to the motion of the planets in the system, relates only to the laws by which motion acts, and not to the cause of motion.

“Gravitation, so far from being the cause of motion to the planets that compose the solar system, would be the destruction of the solar system, were revolutionary motion to cease; for as the action of spinning upholds a top, the revolutionary motion upholds the planets in their orbits, and prevents them from gravitating and forming one mass with the sun. In one sense of the word, philosophy knows, and atheism says, that matter is in perpetual motion.

“But the motion here meant refers to the state of matter, and that only on the surface of the Earth. It is either decomposition, which is continually destroying the form of bodies of matter, or recomposition, which renews that matter in the same or another form, as the decomposition of animal or vegetable substances enters into the composition of other bodies.

“But the motion that upholds the solar system, is of an entirely different kind, and is not a property of matter. It operates also to an entirely different effect. It operates to perpetual preservation, and to prevent any change in the state of the system.

“Giving then to matter all the properties which philosophy knows it has, or all that atheism ascribes to it, and can prove, and even supposing matter to be eternal, it will not account for the system of the universe, or of the solar system, because it will not account for motion, and it is motion that preserves it.

“When, therefore, we discover a circumstance of such immense importance, that without it the universe could not exist, and for which neither matter, nor any nor all the properties can account, we are by necessity forced into the rational conformable belief of the existence of a cause superior to matter, and that cause man calls GOD.

“As to that which is called nature, it is no other than the laws by which motion and action of every kind, with respect to unintelligible matter, are regulated. And when we speak of looking through nature up to nature’s God, we speak philosophically the same rational language as when we speak of looking through human laws up to the power that ordained them.

“God is the power of first cause, nature is the law, and matter is the subject acted upon.”

In addition to motion acting as a perpetual preserver, it also acts as a continual source for the universe’s constant expansion. Every second the universe is expanding at the speed of light (186,282 miles per second). According to Astronomy Magazine, 2/14/92, page 49, “Astronomers presently believe there isn’t enough mass in the universe, even with dark matter, to stop its expansion.” This exciting realization should fill everyone with unlimited appreciation when we realize we are a part of this amazing and spectacular universe! The Creator is immeasurably generous!



Many things were not knowable in the past that are knowable today. At one time Europeans believed it was impossible to know what was on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean: but they were wrong. As we learn more about the sciences, we are learning more about the Power that put those principles in place. An eternal Being, as Thomas Paine said, “whose power is equal to His will.”

Deism is a theological theory concerning the relationship between the Creator and the natural world. Deistic viewpoints emerged during the scientific revolution of 17th Century Europe and came to exert a powerful influence during the 18th Century Enlightenment. Deism stood between the narrow dogmatism of the period and skepticismToday, deism is considered to exist in two principal forms: classical and modern where the classical view takes what is called a “cold” approach by asserting the non-intervention of deity in the natural behavior of the created universe, while the modern deist formulation can be either “warm” (citing an involved deity) or cold, non-interventionist creator. These lead to many subdivisions of modern deism which tends, therefore, to serve as an overall category of belief. Despite this classification of Deism today, classical Deists themselves rarely wrote or accepted that the Creator is a non-interventionist during the flowering of Deism in the 16th and 17th centuries; using straw man arguments, their theological critics attempted to force them into this position.



  • Armstrong, K. (1999). A History of God. London: Vintage. ISBN 0-09-927367-5
  • Berman, D. (1990). A History of Atheism in Britain: from Hobbes to Russell. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04727-7
  • Buckley, M. J. (1987). At the origins of modern atheism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Drachmann, A. B. (1922). Atheism in Pagan Antiquity. Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1977 (“an unchanged reprint of the 1922 edition”). ISBN 0-89005-201-8
  • McGrath, A. (2005). The Twilight of Atheism: The Rise and Fall of Disbelief in the Modern World. ISBN 0-385-50062-9
  • Thrower, James (1971). A Short History of Western Atheism. London: Pemberton. ISBN 1-57392-756-2
  •   US dict: dē′·ĭzm. R. E. Allen (ed) (1990). The Concise Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  •  “Deist – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary”. 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
  •   “Deism”. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2012. In general, Deism refers to what can be called natural religion, the acceptance of a certain body of religious knowledge that is inborn in every person or that can be acquired by the use of reason and the rejection of religious knowledge when it is acquired through either revelation or the teaching of any church.



Family is considered a basic cell of the society. All social and cultural practices find their connection with a notion of family, either supporting or distorting it.

Family plays a crucial role in Africa.  Mbiti says that “each person in African traditional life lives in or as a part of the family” (1975, p. 175). Kisembo asserts that “the family community was the fundamental element of the African, this basic sphere of action, through which he became integrated with the larger, human community… he always acted from within the sphere of the family” (1998, pp. 202-203).

In this work I will try to provide a description of the wider family and its functions in the traditional African society. After that, I will focus on some sociological changes taking place in the contemporary society in order to find out whether those changes affected the traditional meaning of wider family.

Traditional understanding of family

Shorter defines family as a “minimal effective group of relatives by blood and /or marriage and analogous groups” (1998, p. 83). By analogous groups he means those members who are not related by blood or marriage, e.g. adopted children.

Nuclear family would consist of parents and their own children. Shorter (1998, p. 83) sees such a family as autonomous and operating without reference to other relatives. Often their place of residence would be neolocal.

Extended/wider family comprises more people. Mbiti says that “for African people the family has a much wider circle of members than the word suggests in Europe or North America. In traditional society, the family includes children, parents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, brothers and sisters who may have their own children and other immediate relatives” (1969, p.106). The relationships within extended family would be based on kinship (biological or putative blood relationship) and affinity (relationship between blood relationships of one marriage partner and those of the other marriage partner). Such a family would include adopted and fostered children.

The behavioral sciences in African context are in a developing stage. This book claims to be the first offering a sociological introduction to the sub-Saharan African family. This book aims to “summarize what is known about African family life in terms of general sociology of the family framework.” (p. 1)


  • Importance of the larger kin group (extended family) beyond the nuclear family.
  • Dedication of the extended family to the raising and support of children.
  • Lack of public display of affection.
  • Care and respect for the elderly.
  • Marriage as a series of interrelated ceremonies.
  • Polygamy as a desired measure of social success or status; male access to younger women and female division of labor.
  • Less prominence of romance in courtship and marriage.
  • Constrained communication between parents and children.

Some aspects of the traditional family change fairly rapidly in transitional situations. Yet, the importance of the extended family and children, the restrained public display of affection, and care and respect for the elderly are sustained.


Some of the impact of modern forces of change in African traditional family can be state and discuss below;

Changes in the contemporary African society

African society has been undergoing a process of profound changes affecting all aspects of its traditional life (Kisembo, 1998, p. 208, Vahakangas, 2004, p.43, O’Donovan, 2000, p. 40). I would like to, generally, mention just few of them that in my view are most relevant to the topic. A lot of these changes directly affect the family which is “the logical outcome of marriage” (Ayisi, 1992, p. 15).

For various reasons, natural and human, the standard of life in Africa, in many cases and for most people, either did not improve since independence or actually reduced. Put together with an ever increasing cost of life, it contributes to the fact that many people live in poverty. It prevents them from fulfilling their traditional obligations (Timberlake, 1985; Wasah, 2008).

Christianity brought some challenges to traditional African practices such as polygamy by equating it with adultery and sin. It also promotes monogamy as the only morally accepted type of marriage. Monogamy, though present and practiced in traditional Africa, was not as widely spread as polygamy (Waruta, 2005, pp. 108-109).

Other changes referred to by various authors that affect directly or indirectly the concept of wider family are: westernization of the African society with its stress on individual success, competitiveness and financial gain, modern education that often promotes personal values at the expense of communal values, modernization of the society with an increased pace of life demanding more time to be dedicated to work, the process of globalization that increases the gap between the rich and the poor and the process of urbanization that encourages many people to move to cities in search of work and contributes to the phenomenon of slums (Timberlake, 1994, Kisembo, 1998, Vahakangas, 2004, Magoti, 2004, Waruta, 2005, Wasah, 2008).

Effects of the changes on the concept of wider family

The changes taking place in the society affect the concept of wider family. In rural areas the family is less affected – people live together, often in physical proximity, support each other and may often be relatively well off because they would have some livestock and farms. One could argue that the concept of wider family could be expanded to look at an ethnic group as a very wide family. It may be a source of support for the members of such a group. When it used exclusively and at the expense of other groups, it leads to favoritism in providing jobs and other opportunities. Lamb describes it in the following way: “to give a job to a fellow tribesman is not nepotism, it is an obligation. For politician or military leader to choose his closest advisers and his body guards form the ranks of his own tribe is not patronage, it is good common sense” (1985, p. 9).  He provides an example of Liberia at the time of Tolbert where a number of members of his family held crucial posts in the country.  Applied to the extreme, the concept of the tribe as a wide family  may largely contribute to such events like genocide in Rwanda in 1994, postelection violence in Kenya and the phenomenon of ‘negative etnicity’ (Koigi, 2008, pp. 95-99).

On the other hand, the wider family support system seems also very much alive. Those members of the family who are better off are expected to support the other members of the family. Those who are living in towns are expected to provide accommodation to those coming from villages to look for job in towns or studying there. Kayongo-Male (1984, p. 59) comments that “many Africans virtually live with relatives, either seeking job or getting education. Hence one enters marriage with a fleet of relatives, living with a spouse depending on whether accommodation is available”.
Eurocentricity And The Traditional African Family

Patrilineality, matrilineality, and the practice of polygyny are three of the major distinguishing variations of the African traditional extended family. The literature on the subject is truly as vast and reflects traditional patterns that are as diverse as the variations of the physical looks of the people found on the continent. What is significant about the various descriptions of the traditional African family is that they are from back in the period before the 1940s and in case of the Baganda from the late 1800s. Social change in Africa as everywhere else is ubiquitous. Such influences as end of intra and inter-tribal warfare with the coming of European colonialism, the Western money economy, industrialization, migration, and urbanization have certainly transformed the traditional African family from what it was 50 to 100 years ago. By 1935, for example, anthropologists like Mair and Richards and no doubt many others were already noticing change in marriage and family patterns.

The written descriptions and therefore perceptions of the traditional African family were also a victim of the European colonial cultural bias and Christian values. In a more obvious way, this Eurocentrism36 did not treat polygamy, the African marriages and the extended family and any others of its “eccentricities” (regarded as such because they were different from European customs) as social phenomena that was legitimate and workable in its own African social circumstances and environment. But rather as curiosities that were to succumb to the superior European monogamous marriage values legitimated by Christianity.

Some of the issues that were the products of the Eurocentrically biased judgements include the following two. First, the strengths, durability, and resilience of the African traditional family were never dwelt on explicitly and at length. For example, in the polygynous African family, like among the Baganda, and many others, your father’s wives and brothers were not just mothers and fathers just as mere kinship terms. These carried with them all the heavy social obligations demanded of a mother or father, daughter or son. There was never a distinction between the biological and non-biological kin as far as primary parental obligations were concerned. Other significant strengths are that the traditional African family increased group cohesion in an otherwise harsh physical and social environment.

Matrilineal Traditional African Family

During the period earlier than 1940s, marriages remained completely matrilocal during the couple’s entire life. But however, after a few years of contact with white civilization and subsequent social change, the custom has gradually changed. The husband could take his wife home if the marriage was thought stable especially after the couple has had two or more children.

The basic family unit among the Bemba was not the nuclear family. But rather the matrilocal extended family comprised of a man and his wife, their married daughters, son-in-laws, and their children. “The basic kinship unit of Bemba society is not the individual family, but a matrilocal extended family composed of a man and his wife, their married daughters, and the latter’s husbands and children.”24
Polygamy or polygyny, which is a distinguishing feature in many traditional African families especially is patrilineal and patriarchal societies, is uncommon among the matrilineal Bemba. Where as chiefs have a number of wives, it is very rare to find ordinary men who have more than one wife. “Polygamy is relatively speaking uncommon in this area and the institution is not an essential part of the Bemba family and economic life as it is among so many Bantu peoples.”

Perversity Of Polygamy

Scholars of the African traditional family agree that the one widely known aspect that distinguishes the African traditional family, say from the European one, is the perversity of polygamy3. Although polygamy is the act of an individual being married to more than one spouse at the same time, the more commonly practiced in Africa is polygyny “….the legal marriage of one man to two or more women concurrently – is permitted.” This author argues that because of its perversity, the presence and absence of polygyny was a significant determinant and indicator of the nature of virtually every African social group; whether tribe, clan, or extended family, whether matrilineality or patrilineality was practiced, bride price existed, and how children were raised.

Polygyny was widely practiced in Africa and it often formed the backbone of the traditional African family patterns. According to Mair, “….the polygynous joint family, consisting of a man, his wives, and their children, is the ideal for most Africans.” Studies conducted from the 1930s to 1950s indicate that polygyny was common virtually in all regions of Africa.  In spite of the perversity of polygyny, there was evidence that it was on the decline. The major reason cited is that with increasing modern influences, marrying more than one wife became an economic burden. Even traditionally, ordinary citizens could not achieve marrying more than one wife. Often only Kings, chiefs and men who had wealth could afford it. Polygyny though set the tone and often determined the strength of the society and pattern of social organization of the traditional African family.




The forces of change in African traditional family are increasingly faced with the challenge and pressure between traditional and modern family values and structure. There is the steady increase in the pace towards the abandonment of traditional practices for modern ones (western). However, the most popular trend is that of the prevalence of family patterns that are increasing merging traditional and modern marriage norms or practices(Kalu1981:2). This paper has presented a short description of the changes that are characterizing marriage and family size in contemporary sub Saharan Africa. There are other practices taking place such as non-marital childbearing, single parenthood, non-marital unions that were not discussed that are as well gradually gaining momentum in the region. It can be infer from the information provided in this paper that practices that depicted rural sub Saharan African societies are progressively being transformed, this is marked by the shift from polygamy marriages that dominated rural sub Saharan African communities to monogamous marriage and the movement from large household to small ones.











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Racial discrimination is when a person is treated less favourably than another person in a similar situation because of their race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin or immigrant status. While Under population is exactly the opposite of overpopulation. Under population means an excess amount of resources for the number of people living in the area, or a shortage of people for the amount of resources that are produced.


Racial discrimination is when a person is treated less favourably than another person in a similar situation because of their race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin or immigrant status. For example, it would be ‘direct discrimination’ if a real estate agent refuses to rent a house to a person because they are of a particular racial background or skin colour.

It is also racial discrimination when there is a rule or policy that is the same for everyone but has an unfair effect on people of a particular race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin or immigrant status.

This is called ‘indirect discrimination’. For example, it may be indirect racial discrimination if a company says that employees must not wear hats or other headwear at work, as this is likely to have an unfair effect on people from some racial/ethnic backgrounds

Sometimes known as depopulation, under population is the reduction over time in a region’s population. The decline can be caused by several factors including sub-replacement fertility (along with limited immigration), heavy emigration, disease, famine, and war. History is replete with examples of large-scale depopulations. Many wars, for example, have been accompanied by significant depopulations. Before the 20th century, underpopulation  was mostly observed due to disease, starvation and/or emigration. The Black Death in Europe, the arrival of Old World diseases to the Americas, the tsetse fly invasion of the Waterberg Massif in South Africa, and the Great Irish Famine all caused sizable population declines. In modern times, the AIDS epidemic caused declines in the population of some African countries. Less frequently, underpopulation are caused by genocide or mass execution; for example, in the 1970s, the population of Cambodia declined because of wide-scale executions by the Khmer Rouge.

Sometimes the term underpopulation is applied to a specific economic system. It does not refer to carrying capacity, and is not a term in opposition to overpopulation, which deals with the total possible population that can be sustained by available food, water, sanitation and other infrastructure. “Underpopulation” is usually defined as a state in which a country’s population has declined too much to support its current economic system. Thus the term has nothing to do with the biological aspects of carrying capacity, but is an economic term employed to imply that the transfer payment schemes of some developed countries might fail once the population declines to a certain point. An example would be if retirees were supported through a social security system which does not invest savings, and then a large emigration movement occurred. In this case, the younger generation may not be able to support the older generation.


Racial discrimination refers to the separation of people through a process of social division into categories not necessarily related to races for purposes of differential treatment. Racial segregation policies may formalize it, but it is also often exerted without being legalized. Researchers Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, at the University of Chicago and MIT found in a 2004 study that there was widespread racial discrimination in the workplace. In their study, candidates perceived as having “white-sounding names” were 50% more likely than those whose names were merely perceived as “sounding black” to receive callbacks for interviews. The researchers view these results as strong evidence of unconscious biases rooted in the United States’ long history of discrimination (e.g., Jim Crow laws, etc.)[60] Devah Pager, a sociologist at Princeton University, sent matched pairs of applicants to apply for jobs in Milwaukee and New York City, finding that black applicants received callbacks or job offers at half the rate of equally qualified whites.[61][62] In contrast, institutions and courts have upheld discrimination against whites when it is done to promote a diverse work or educational environment, even when it was shown to be to the detriment of qualified applicants.[63][64] More than 30 years of field experiment studies have found significant levels of discrimination against non-whites in labor, housing, and product markets in 10 different countries.[65] With regard to employment, multiple audit studies have found strong evidence of racial discrimination in the United States’ labor market, with magnitudes of employers’ preferences of white applicants found in these studies ranging from 50% to 240%. Other such studies have found significant evidence of discrimination in car sales, home insurance applications, provision of medical care, and hailing taxis

While Under population exists when a population is too small, therefore unable to fully utilise the available resource endowments. Under population is also characterised by a situation where the available resources are capable of supporting a much larger population with no reduction in living standards. The situation is found in regions of low technical development such as equatorial Congo, Amazon River basin or the rich Prairie region of North America.

Relative under population is more common than absolute under population. Indeed, absolute under population is rarely seen and may be found in completely secluded societies where, the degree of replacement of population is less than unity. Relative under population occurs due to insufficient resource development. In developed economies, rural under population is more visible, whereas in backward countries, under population is linked to high mortality rate.


Causes of racial discrimination and under population are numerous but the causes can be outline below for each subject matter.

Causes of Racial discrimination:

Some of the causes of racial discrimination can be outline below;

-thinking one’s own culture is superior to another

-hatred for another ethnic groups or tribes

-having no respect or dignity for equality

Causes of under – population:

  1. Sub – fertility rate (total fertility rate):  The fertility rate in many developed and developing countries has dropped to about two children per women due to factors like literacy, economic development or urbanization (increasing the cost or standard of living) making the idea of having big families impractical. Changed attitudes toward contraception and an improvement in the social role of females have also affected this demographic attribute.
  2. Emigration:  Emigration is the movement of individuals from one country to another with the intention of permanently settling in their destination. Many factors contribute to this type of movement. They can be divided into ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors. ‘Push’ factors would be the detrimental elements associated with the current region or nation the individuals reside in like lack of employment, oppressive political conditions, poor economies etc. Whereas ‘pull’ factors would be the favourable characteristics of the country the individuals want to move to (like better employment opportunities, political freedom and economic stability etc.) Either way this movement always has a negative effect on the population of the current host.
  3. Disease:  Disease and illness has always caused a decline in the population. The emergence of new diseases like HIV/AIDS which has decreased the population globally.
  4. Famine:  Famine is the scarcity of food caused due to factors like crop failure and disproportionate population. Being a ‘push’ factor, it has an adverse effect on the population of a region or country.
  5. War and conflicts: People have waged wars since the middle ages and continue to do so. Advanced technology has made modern warfare a huge factor or element in the decline of population. Individuals fighting over resources and space end up killing each other on a massive scale due to the introduction of nuclear and chemical warfare which has a negative effect on the overall population of an area or region.


Impact of under population

Some of the impacts of under population can be outline and explain below;

  1. Unstable Economy:  Under – population has an adverse effect on the economy causing deflation (decrease in the overall price levels of goods and services). A decline in the population leads to lack of demand.

B.Decrease in pollution and environmental problems:  The pressure on natural resources and the basic infrastructure of an area decreases. Levels of pollutions are cut down too.

C.Population ageing:  Due to decreased rates of procreation, there is an increase in the social and economic pressure on the youth who have to expand the per capita output in order to support the economy. This also leads to a poor quality of life for the youth.

  1. Labour shortage:  Declining populations could create labour shortages which could have both positive and negative effects.
  2. Labour – intensive sectors of the economy would be adversely affected by such conditions. However a shortage would inevitably increase the demand for labour and potentially reduce unemployment.


The potential solutions for racism primarily involve education for both those in the majority as well as minority groups. The proposed solutions to racism are varied and diverse in nature, although most involve education and open communication between racial leaders and citizens on all sides. While some propose that the solution would involve giving minorities greater opportunity, most agree that racial tensions cannot be solved until members of all racial groups acknowledge issues within their group and develop plans for better cross-cultural understanding.while in the case of underpopulation, the solution to it is to encourage immigration as well as increase birthrate by encouraging parents to have more children.







Racial discrimination involves treating someone (an applicant or employee) unfavorably because he/she is of a certain race or because of personal characteristics associated with race (such as hair texture, skin color, or certain facial features). Color discrimination involves treating someone unfavorably because of skin color complexion.

Discrimination can occur when the victim and the person who inflicted the discrimination are the same race or color. Under population is a situation where the population is too small relative to the available resources. While over population refers to a situation where the population exceeds the available resources of a country. As a result of overpopulation, people will compete for the available resources and there will be a general fall in standard of living of the people. These two factors greatly influence the economy of a state of Nation.

Under population is the type of population that is less than the available resources of a country. It then means that the size of the population is so small that when combined with the available resources of a country and given the level of existing technology, it will secure minimum returns per head. In summary, under population is a situation where the population is too small relative to the available resources. The standard of living of the area can be increased if the population is increased.


Newman, D. M. (2012). Sociology: exploring the architecture of

everyday life (9th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-4129-8729-5. racism: Belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior.


“International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination”. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for

Human Rights. Retrieved December 23, 2011.


Garner, Steve (2009). Racisms: An Introduction. Sage.


“race (n2)”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 February



“Racism”. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2013. Retrieved 21 February



“Framework decision on combating racism and xenophobia”.

Council Framework Decision 2008/913/JHA of 28 November 2008. European Union. Retrieved 3 February 2011.


“International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination”. UN Treaty Series. United Nations. Archived from

the original on 2011-08-26. Retrieved 3 February 2011.


Bamshad, Michael; Steve E. Olson (December 2003). “Does Race

Exist?”. Scientific American. 289: 78–85. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1203-78. If races are defined as genetically discrete groups, no. But researchers can use some genetic information to group individuals into clusters with medical relevance.


Patrinos, Ari (2004). “‘Race’ and the human genome”. Nature

Genetics. 36 (S1 – S2). doi:10.1038/ng2150.



Qualitative analysis is a securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on unquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations. Qualitative analysis contrasts with quantitative analysis, which focuses on numbers that can be found on reports such as balance sheets. The two techniques, however, will often be used together in order to examine a company’s operations and evaluate its potential as an investment opportunity.

While Quantitative analysis refers to economic, business or financial analysis that aims to understand or predict behavior or events through the use of mathematical measurements and calculations, statistical modeling and research. Quantitative analysts aim to represent a given reality in terms of a numerical value. Quantitative analysis is employed for a number of reasons, including measurement, performance evaluation or valuation of a financial instrument, and predicting real world events such as changes in a country’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate.

pH is a measure of how acidic/basic water is. The range goes from 0 – 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs of less than 7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base. pH is really a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water.

Reagents was founded in 1969 as a manufacturer of laboratory chemicals, chemical solutions, and custom solutions. A reagent /riˈeɪdʒənt/ is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to see if a reaction occurs.[1] The terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably—however, a reactant is more specifically a substance consumed in the course of a chemical reaction.[1] Solvents, though involved in the reaction, are usually not called reactants. Similarly, catalysts are not consumed by the reaction, so are not reactants. In biochemistry, especially in connection with enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the reactants are commonly called substrates.

In synthetic organic chemistry, reagents are compounds or mixtures—usually composed of inorganic or small organic molecules—that cause a desired transformation of an organic compound. Examples include the Collins reagent, Fenton’s reagent, and Grignard reagents. In analytical chemistry, a reagent is a compound or mixture used to confirm the presence or absence of another substance, e.g. by a color change. Examples include Fehling’s reagent, Millon’s reagent, and Tollens’ reagent.

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring

While Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.[1] The laws of valid inference are studied in the field of logic. Alternatively, inference is defined as the non-logical, but rational means, through observation of patterns of facts, to see new meanings and contexts for understanding indirectly.[citation needed] Of particular use to this application of inference are anomalies and symbols. Inference, in this sense, does not draw conclusions but opens new paths for inquiry. (See second set of examples.) In this definition of inference, there are two types of inference: inductive inference and deductive inference. Unlike the definition of inference in the first paragraph above, meaning of word meanings are not tested but meaningful relationships are articulated.

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.[1][2][3] The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the side-chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways.[4] They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups’ locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity, pH level, and side-chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.). In the form of proteins, amino acids comprise the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles, cells and other tissues.[5] Outside proteins, amino acids perform critical roles in processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis.

Examples of  amino acids includes Polar amino acids include serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, histidine and tyrosine. The hydrophobic amino acids include alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophane, cysteine and methionine.

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are “strong bonds” such as covalent or ionic bonds and “weak bonds” such as Dipole-dipole interaction, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding.

Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves. This phenomenon limits the distance between nuclei and atoms in a bond.

Volumetric analysis is used to determine the value of a substance by using the volume of a known substance within the compound. This process, also known as titrimetric analysis, is most commonly used by chemists to quantify unknown concentrations in chemical reactions.




What is myth? There is no one satisfactory definition, since myths serve many different purposes. The first purpose was to explain the inexplicable. Since the beginning of humankind’s existence, myths have functioned as rationalizations for the fundamental mysteries of life, questions such as: Who made the world? How will it end? Where do we come from? Who was the first human? What happens when we die? Why does the sun travel across the sky each day? Why does the moon wax and wane? Why do we have annual agricultural cycles and seasonal changes? Who controls our world, and how can we influence those beings so our lives are easier?

Myths are stories that explain why the world is the way it is. All cultures have them. Throughout history, artists have been inspired by myths and legends and have given them visual form. Sometimes these works of art are the only surviving record of what particular cultures believed and valued. But even where written records or oral traditions exist, art adds to our understanding of myths and legends. Human cultures usually include a cosmogonical or creation myth, concerning the origins of the world, or how the world came to exist. The active beings in myths are generally gods and goddesses, heroes and heroines, or animals and plants. Most myths are set in a timeless past before recorded time or beginning of the critical history. A myth can be a story involving symbols that are capable of multiple meanings.


The relationship between myths and arts are varied and so dynamics, while we see a myth is a sacred narrative because it holds religious or spiritual significance for those who tell it. Myths also contribute to and express a culture’s systems of thought and values. The arts represent an outlet of expression, that is usually influenced by culture and which in turn helps to change culture. As such, the arts are a physical manifestation of the internal creative impulse. Major constituents of the arts include literature – including poetry, novels and short stories, and epics; performing arts – among them music, dance, and theatre; culinary arts such as baking, chocolatiering, and winemaking; media arts like photography and cinematography, and visual arts – including drawing, painting, ceramics, and sculpting. Some art forms combine a visual element with performance (e.g. film) and the written word (e.g. comics).

From prehistoric cave paintings to modern day films, art serves as a vessel for storytelling and conveying humankind’s relationship with its environment.

Looking at the art produced by various cultures gives valuable insight as to what that culture valued, or even feared. The ancient Greeks made art a priority. In doing so, they captured and immortalized the values they held as a society. When scholars study the art of a culture, they can draw conclusions about how that society lived and what it valued. Many cultures shared values, and in turn the art of one culture may mimic that of another. For instance, the Greeks focused on depicting their gods and goddesses in their art, thus revealing their strong belief in how those deities represented man’s place in the universe. However, other cultures (even modern American culture) may also use the same content but in a different context. This may represent a resounding value or may indicate some other type of commentary. The Greeks were prolific in their artistic representations of the society, especially its gods and goddesses. Though many of the sculptures depicted gods, this did not detract in the slightest from their humanistic quality. The Greek deities existed for the benefit of man, so that in glorifying them he glorified himself. Certainly there was nothing mystical or otherworldly in the religious aspects of Greek art. Both architecture and sculpture embodied the ideals of balance, harmony, order, and moderation. Anarchy and excess were abhorrent to the minds of the Greek, but so was absolute repression.









We have provided a representative (and by no means exhaustive) sampling of influential definitions and interpretations that can be brought to bear on classical mythology. It should be remembered that no one theory suffices for a deep appreciation of the power and impact of all myths. Certainly the panorama of classical mythology requires an arsenal of critical approaches.\

Let us end with a definition of classical mythology that emphasizes its eternal qualities, which have assured a miraculous afterlife. It may be that a sensitive study of the subsequent art, literature, drama, music, dance, and film, inspired by Greek and Roman themes and created by genius, offers the most worthwhile interpretative insights of all.

A classical myth is a story that, through its classical form, has attained a kind of immortality because its inherent archetypal beauty, profundity, and power have inspired rewarding renewal and transformation by successive generations.



“The Myth of Io.”. The Walters Art Museum.


For more information on this panel, please see Zeri catalogue number 64, pp. 100-101


[1]“. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2016.


Kirk, p. 8; “myth”, Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 19 January 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)


Howells, Richard (1999). The Myth of the Titanic. Macmillan.


Eliade, Myths, Dreams and Mysteries, 1967, pp. 23, 162.



A myth is a traditional or legendary story, collection or study. It is derived from the Greek word mythos (μῦθος), which simply means “story”. Mythology can refer either to the study of myths, or to a body or collection of myths. A myth also can be a story to explain why something exists.

Human cultures usually include a cosmogonical or creation myth, concerning the origins of the world, or how the world came to exist. The active beings in myths are generally gods and goddesses, heroes and heroines, or animals and plants. Most myths are set in a timeless past before recorded time or beginning of the critical history. A myth can be a story involving symbols that are capable of multiple meanings.

A myth is a sacred narrative because it holds religious or spiritual significance for those who tell it. Myths also contribute to and express a culture’s systems of thought and values. Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences, which study the material universe; the social sciences, which study people and societies; and the formal sciences, such as mathematics. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science like engineering and medicine may also be considered to be applied sciences.


The relationship between myth and science is a subject as old as that of myth and science themselves. The position on the issue taken by modern theories of myth can be divided chronologically by the centuries. In the nineteenth century, myth and science were commonly taken to be incompatible. One could not consistently accept both. Because moderns were assumed to be scientific, the choice had already been made for them: they had to abandon myth. In the twentieth century, by contrast, myth and science were usually taken to be compatible, so that one could consistently accept both. Moderns were still assumed to be scientific, but myth was now re-characterized to accommodate science. Only recently, with the rise of postmodernism, has the deference to science assumed by both nineteenth- and twentieth-century theorists been challenged. This article concentrates on the varying positions on myth and science taken in both centuries by those for whom myth and science intersect rather than diverge. Whether, as the ‘mission’ of the twenty-first century, myth can be brought back to the world – the world explained by science – is finally considered with the case of Gaia.


Lately another, more subtle, expression of the idea that myth is primitive science has been appearing: some scholars have been suggesting that our current scientific concepts, such as the theory of the Big Bang, are myths. Even Campbell did so occasionally. The idea of this assertion is that our science shouldn’t be taken literally any more than earlier ideas, because someday we’ll outgrow it—which of course is true. But scientific concepts are not derived in the same way as mythic ones; they are products of rational thought, not mythopoeic thought. Are they metaphors? Yes, certainly they are. The eminent physicist David Bohm held that all scientific theories are metaphors, including his own. But to say that all myth is metaphor is not to say that all metaphor is myth! To make no distinction between rational thought and mythopoeic thought is to define myth so broadly that the term becomes useless.

This is not to say that concepts from current science don’t pass into Space Age mythology and become meaningful metaphors there in the mythic sense. They definitely do; this is particular significant in the case of science fiction. But these concepts as conceived by scientists bear little relationship to the popular, mythic images based on them. The theory of black holes is a complex scientific idea derived through rational analysis of evidence. The idea of a starship falling into one is something else entirely—it’s akin to the Greek tale of Scylla and Charybdis



The subject matter of myths and science is a wide one Because the older concept of myth as a primitive form of science pervaded material read by scholars in other fields at the time of their education, the relationship between science and mythology is very commonly misunderstood. For instance, you will find historians of science who try to recontruct the astronomical beliefs of, say, the ancient Egyptians or Mesopotamians in terms of their mythology, assuming that unless most of them had believed it literally, it wouldn’t have been such an important aspect of their culture. This is comparable to saying that because Biblical imagery has been and remains important in our culture, the Bible gives an accurate description of our astronomers’ premises—the only difference is that our technology and our libraries reveal so much about our science that no hypothetical archeologist of the future could make such a mistake.

Nevertheless, by non-mythologists myth is still often viewed as something that’s outgrown with increasing scientific knowledge. An element of truth underlies this view because as knowledge increases, subjects formerly dealt with only by mythology become accessible to science also. Mythology itself, however, is never outgrown, though the specific myths that a culture finds meaningful ultimately change.

Scientists in particular are prone to discount myth as silly or childish, to believe that even when science and mythology co-exist in a culture, the people to whom myths are meaningful must believe them literally and thus be less intelligent than scientifically-oriented people. This is not usually the case. What’s often called mythopoeic thought (another term for metaphorical thought) is indeed different from logical thought, and some people are indeed more inclined to one than the other, but confusion of myth with fact in the presence of evidence is not mythopoeic thought; it is simply a case of logical reasoning from false premises. Furthermore, both modes of thought occur in all cultures—the notion that one mode is “primitive” while the other is “modern” was demolished by anthropologist Paul Radin in his 1927 book Primitive Man as Philosopher. Most of us are capable of both. If we weren’t, we wouldn’t enjoy science fiction movies.









“The Myth of Io.”. The Walters Art Museum.


For more information on this panel, please see Zeri catalogue number 64, pp. 100-101


Kirk, p. 8; “myth”, Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 19 January 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)


Howells, Richard (1999). The Myth of the Titanic. Macmillan.


Eliade, Myths, Dreams and Mysteries, 1967, pp. 23, 162.



Morality refers to the social norms and values that guide both individuals and their interaction with their fellow human beings and communities, and with their environment. In all of these types of interaction there are important values at stake; rules and norms that are to protect these values; duties implied in social roles and positions that can foster these values and further these rules; and human virtues or capabilities that enable us to act accordingly. These moral factors are usually interwoven with religious practices and social power structures.

There is no consensus definition of social control among scholars as there are notable discrepancies in its conceptualization in literature. For instance, social control refers to the various ways employed by a society to bring its recalcitrant members back into line (Berger, 1963). Also it could mean an arrangement of behaviors, practices and attitudes in which members of the society based their daily lives. Social control from an institutional perspective is the ‘instrument for the conscious and planned management of socialized human activities’ (Lianos, 2003, p. 415). Social control is a set of mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals. Social control according to Schaefer (2002) refers to the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behaviors in any society. Social control formation is a reflection of strong social bonds/relationships with parents, teachers and other sources of conventional socialization who affects lives positively (Jensen, 2003). When these strong social relationships are absent, then the society would be ridden with social deviants and juvenile delinquents which are potential sources of vices and crimes. Scholars like Cohen when writing on the postindustrial social control, observed that it is the organized ways in which society responds to behavior and people it regards as deviant, problematic, threatening and worrying and undesirable in some ways (Cohen, 1985). Social control might become a self-desire to achieve a goal by a power bloc (International Council on Human Rights Policy, 2010).

It is well known that before the advent of colonialism, Africa had a system of justice and adjudication hinged on fear of deities which attracts instant sanctions and punishments. Hence, making the people conform to the ethos of the community, but the coming of the Europeans has altered/changed the peoples cognitive mapping of what constitutes social order and control through the introduction of new methods leading to the abandonment of the traditional social control patterns, systems and mechanisms that was instant, efficient and effective. This relegation of traditional social control mechanisms in favour of modern social mechanisms has done more harm than good in Nigeria. For instance, Transparency International ranked Nigeria as “one of the most corrupt nations in the world” (Ajayi, 2012: 1). In Nigeria, there have been cases of ritual killings: The Otokoto ritual killing saga (killing) at Imo State 1996 is an example of such killings.


Peaceful Co-existence

Morality describes the principles that govern our behavior without these principles in place; societies cannot survive or co-exist for long. Achieving peaceful co-existence is then the most importance project of our era and we must give ourselves to it wholly with our fullest capacities for knowledge and understanding with our truest intentions for truth and justice and with our bravest strengths in order to journey through the challenges and difficulties that the process entails.

Peaceful co-existence is a term derived from peace which is a state of harmony characterized by lack of violent conflict, commonly understood as the absence of hostility. Peace also suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships. Prosperity in matter of social or economic welfare, the establishment of equality and a working political order that serves the true interest of all. In international rations peace is not the absence of war or conflict, but also the presence of cultural and economic understanding. From Latin pax, meaning ‘freedom’ from civil disorder. The English word came in use in personal greetings from the thirteenth century as a translation of brew world shalom. Such a translation is however, imprecise as shalom, which is cognate with the Arabic, “Salaam”, has multiple other safety, wellbeing, prosperity, equity, good fortune and friendliness. At a personal level, peaceful behaviour are lastly considerate, respectful, dust and tolerant of others belief and behaviour, tending to manifest goodwill. This later understanding of peace can also pertain to an individual’s introspective sense of concept of his or herself as in being “at peace” in one’s own mind as found in European references from the twentieth century.

No two entities of any kind can co-exist without finding some common ground often the common ground necessary for peaceful co-existence between two people or groups is a high degree of tolerance in both sides. The actual difficulty of peaceful co-existence between two societies with different moral view is going to depend heavily on what about their moral view is different. For example, some people place more (or all) importance on an action; it does not matter if you meant to do good. If your actions end up causing something bad than you are still morally wrong. Others lace more importance on the intent tht it doesn’t matter the outcome, if you are at least meant to do good then you are morally right, if this were the only difference between two societies (morally speaking) I don’t see them having many difficulties co-existing.










Pre-colonial means of social and moral control in Africa

It is known that before the advent of colonialism, Africa had a system of justice and adjudication hence, making the people conform to the ethos of the community, but the coming of colonialism has changed the peoples cognitive mapping of what constitutes social order and moral control through the introduction of new methods leading to the abandonment of the traditional that was instant, efficient and effective.

Before the colonization Africa, Africans were conscious of their environment and were also intelligent and also moulding of characters. Africans were communally oriented people whose life depended on one another for meaningful existence and also eschatological view of life. They lived in town and villages based on blood relationship (kins and kits) and other international attitudes links, connection to foster solidarity, good neighbourness and shared responsibilities. What affects me affects the others and because of this people are always very conscious to relate well with others in the community. The main sources of morality remains customs, taboo, totems, rites and rituals, upon which the quality of life has been based on.

Moral Thinking in Traditional African Society

Africa is distinguished by its close-knit society. Traditions, customs and rules for regulating conduct and interpersonal relationships are varied and diverse. As with other societies of the world, in Africa, the rules are not always obeyed nor expectations all the time fulfilled. As a result, some sanctions are usually put in place to prevent social disorder and anarchy. In every African community, an elaborate system of guides and sanctions exist. These range from legal sanctions, social customs to moral rules. It is often said that moral and ethical considerations in traditional African societies are communitarian in nature, meaning that it is in submitting his or herself to the will of the community that the individual finds social security and peace. J.O. Awolalu argues, for example, that the basic moral values of which the elders are the guardians have to be maintained. According to Awolalu, it is the responsibility of the elders to see that all the social norms and ethics relating to the well-being of the community are maintained. The argument here is that the elders “are aware that they owe their positions to the author of these moral values and to the ancestors who are ever present and ever watching to see that a high moral standard is maintained.” Based on this idea of communitarianism, some scholars have argued that African traditional value systems lacked, in several respects, the characteristic feature of a true moral system. According to these scholars, moral institutions in pre-literate societies were mere devices through which men sought to establish a flourishing society. They were at best studied in functional terms, with the individual’s moral behaviour adjusted to meet society’s need and expectations.

Among early anthropologists the view was commonly held that in traditional cultures there were no such behavioural patterns which can be properly referred to as ‘moral’. The claim here is that behavioural patterns of the purely secular kind which exist in more complex societies are completely absent from traditional societies, such that the relationship between individuals and, the individual and all forms of social interactions were seen in religious perspectives only. To justify the foregoing assertions two types of arguments are usually proffered. The first is the claim that a truly moral system must be universalizable, and since African traditional codes of conduct discriminate between insiders and outsiders, they are said to have restricted applicability. The second argument claims that a truly moral system is typically characterized by critical reflections, with reason as a crucial tool for differentiating between right and wrong. Traditional African value systems, are not only dogmatic but have as their sources of reference authority of one kind or another.

In control of crimes in pre-colonial African society was an uphill task. Traditional taboo formed one of the mechanisms used to achieve peace and tranquility among the African societies.

Before the advent of modern civilization, the norms of the people encouraged a need to fight crime using taboo. This was one major instruments of keeping peace between leadership and their subject and between societies and their neighbours. According to Ayittery George followed four major principles in maintenance of peace and management of conflicts:

  1. Settlement of disputes by peaceful deliberation not force
  2. Correction of wrong doing through compensation and restitution not retribution
  3. Adjudication and assessment by a body of impartial elders
  4. Fairness (equity and justice)

Traditional methods were aimed at resolving conflict and not necessarily pronouncing judgment. Emphasis was not punishment but on reconciliation and restoration of social harmony among the parties in conflict.

According to Gluckman (1959) note that when conflicts or strife emerged in traditional Africa, there were institutions and people to resolve them based on certain moral or legal principles, ethical ideals and following established procedures and methods. Well known codes of morality conventions and rituals existed which though were not written but persisted for generations before the colonial invasion. All these methods were effective because there was reduction in conflict and misunderstanding that could result in the death of a kinsman.


Pre-colonial African societies were of a highly varied culture. They could be either stateless, state run or kingdoms but most were founded on the principles of communalism in that they were self-governing, autonomous entities and in that all members took part directly or indirectly in the daily running o the tribe. Land was held commonly and could not be bought or sold, although other things such as cattle, were owned individually. In these societies that were not stateless, the chief ran the daily affairs of the tribe together with one or more councils. These council simultaneously informed the chief, checked his powers and made policy by reaching unanimous decision. If unanimity was not reached, a village assembly would be called to debate the issues and majority ruling would now apply. The chief would listen silently to all queries during such meetings and every male adult was force to criticize him.









Albert, I.O., Awe,T., Herault, G.& Omitoogun, W.(1995). Informal

channels for conflict resolution in Ibadan. IFRA Nigeria.

Anyacho, E.,O., Ugal, D., B. (2010). Modernization and Traditional

Methods of Social Control in South-Eastern Nigeria (unpublished work).

Ajayi, A.T. & Buhari,L.O. (2014). Methods of conflict resolution in

African traditional society. African research review, 8(2):135-157.

Ajayi, B. (2012) Poor Governance and Corruption Begets Anarchy

and Lawlessness . Retrieved from

Cohen, S. (1985) .Visions Of Social Control: Crime, Punishment And

Classification. Cambridge; Policy Press.

Elechi , O. (2003). Extra Judicial Killings in Nigeria: The case study

of Afikpo Town. International conferences of the inter-nation society for the reform of criminal law. Hague Netherlands.

Ekwuru, G.E. (1999). The Pagan Of African Culture In Travail (The

Igbo world In Disarray). Owerri Totan Publishers.

Ezenwoko, A.E. & Osagie, J.I. (2014). Conflict and conflict

resolution in pre-colonial Igbo society of Nigeria. Journal of studies in social sciences, 9(1):135-158.







The Etche person as an ethnic group in Rivers State, Nigeria is a people rich in traditional culture. The people occupy the south-south part of Nigeria. The Etche ethnic nationality has a common border with the Ngor-Okpala of the South East of Nigeria and other numerous communities of Ikwerre in Rivers State. In Etche land, marriage is highly valued and it is deemed as an indispensable obligation. Etche people see a man or woman who is of age and is not married as irresponsible. People that are of age are expected to get married to raise a new family. From there “the virtues and values of the society are primarily learnt” (Ezeanya 2010:173).

The Etche society is mostly patriarchal and patriarchal societies usually emphasize the superiority of the male over the female. Men are the head of the families while women are under them. Men dominate social reality. This cuts across other social institutions. The challenges of social and cultural globalization have not affected the status quo. By implication, the Etche society is male dominated and as such male chauvinistic ideology is prevalent.

This ideology is of preference for male child; which has helped in reinforcing and sustaining the patriarchal ideological status quo. This practice as it relates to the protection and application of human rights of woman in Etche in Rivers State will be examined

Rivers State, also known simply as Rivers, is one of the 36 states of Nigeria. According to census data released in 2006, the state has a population of 5,185,400, making it the sixth-most populous state in the country.[3] Its capital, Port Harcourt is the largest city and is economically significant as the centre of Nigeria’s oil industry. Rivers State is bounded on the South by the Atlantic Ocean, to the North by Imo, Abia and Anambra States, to the East by Akwa Ibom State and to the West by Bayelsa and Delta states. It is home to many indigenous ethnic groups: Ikwerre, Ibani, Opobo, Eleme, Okrika, and Kalabari, Etche, Ogba, Ogoni, Engenni, Obolo and others. The people from Rivers State are known as “Riverians”


The culture of my people is so wide. we belief in a divine creator, choki and other lesser deities. The dominant ethnic groups are Ijwa, Ikwere, Etche, Ogoni, and Ogba/Egbema. Ijaw and Ikwerre are the most spoken languages although pidgin English (local English) is widely used in some of the radio and television broadcasts.

Male child preference is a phenomenon which is common among the Etche patrilineal communities of Rivers State. In Etche land, marriage is highly valued and the birth of a child is received with joy. Most times, the birth of a male child is particularly received with unprecedented joy and celebration than that of a female child. This is because; it is believed that through the male child/children, the family name is sustained while the girl child marries out to become part of another family. Though, she still belongs to the lineage of her father, she has no right of inheritance.

Family inheritance especially land and other property is from the father to the son(s). The daughters are thus disinherited. This has accorded a position of assertiveness and dominance to the males than females. In this paper, attempts will be made to explore how this practice impedes the implementation of human rights of woman in Etche in Rivers State, Nigeria. In carrying out this study, oral interview and in depth library research were used in collecting data. The paper brings to focus some of the human rights laws for the protection of the rights of women, which Nigeria is a signatory to. It further high lights the importance of implementing the laws as stipulated. It is believed that stringent enforcement of the existing women’s rights will bring a positive change to the   present situation of women and girl child in Rivers state, Nigeria.


Rivers State with a population of about three million people occupies an area of 21,850 sq. km. With two thirds of it in the Niger Delta geographical terrain. The dominant ethnic groups are Ijwa, Ikwere, Etche, Ogoni, and Ogba/Egbema. Ijaw and Ikwerre are the most spoken languages although pidgin English is widely used in radio and television broadcasts.


Rivers State is currently made up of 23 local government areas and my elele community falls under the Ikwerre LGA. These are Ogba/Egbema, Ndoni, Ahoada, Ikwerre, Etche, Andoni/Opobo, Bonny, Okrika, Iyigbo, Ehana, Gokana Tai/Eleme, Obio/Akpor, Emohua, Degema, Aseri Toru, Akuku, Abua/Odial, Omumma, Opobo/Nkoro, Ogu/ BolRo, Ahaoda West, Ahoada East and Eleme.




The various peer groups in my community in Etche exist to effectively coordinate developmental needs and prospects. We have the Etche youth forum which is the driving force in our community.


My society is so complex and in this era of western civilization my community has grown into a moving community that has adopted most western cultures and life styles. We have the following;

Traditional council

We have a traditional council headed my the head of my community who act as the chief head of the community


In my society we don’t inter marry or sleep with Fellow kith and kins. it is a serious taboo in my society and we tend to interact with one another in the interest of love, unity and development.


Vigilante group

We have a vigilante group who is charge with security issues in my community, this has gone a long way to effectively introduce the community policing we all glamour for.

Land issues

My community is in the fore front of land acquisition and development. Lands are sold to would be developers who may use it for private or developmental purposes.


Though my community can be said to be Christian in nature but there still exist some form of traditional form of worship. This is also common when cases need to be consulted and decided in the traditional ways.



Beliefs and Norms

Various norms and belief exist in my community, which are strictly adhere to. The idea of not coming out during certain festive periods for the female are prohibited.


My society places great interest on festive period especially the new yam festival in September.










The profound impact of societal values and culture becomes most evident when we examine behaviors or conditions that, like kissing, are normally considered biological in nature. Consider morning sickness and labor pains, both very familiar to pregnant women before and during childbirth, respectively. These two types of discomfort have known biological causes, and we are not surprised that so many pregnant women experience them. But we would be surprised if the husbands of pregnant women woke up sick in the morning during their wives’ pregnancies or experienced severe abdominal pains while their wives gave birth. These men are neither carrying nor delivering a baby, and there is no logical—that is, biological—reason for them to suffer either type of discomfort.







See List of Governors of Rivers State for a list of prior governors

“C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)”. EIU Canback. Retrieved 2008-08-20.


“Nigeria: Administrative Division”. City Population. Retrieved 28 November 2014.


“Amaechi Catches Facebook Bug”. Daily Independent, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). 10 August 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2016.


“Rivers State government website”. Retrieved December 7, 2010.


“History of Rivers State”. Retrieved 30 November 2014.




In criminal law, kidnapping is the abduction or unlawful transportation of a person, usually to hold the person against his or her will. This may be done for ransom or in furtherance of another crime, or in connection with a child custody dispute. During the year 1999 in the United States, 203,900 children were reported as the victims of family abductions and 58,200 of non-family abductions. However, only 115 were the result of “stereotypical” kidnaps (by someone unknown or of slight acquaintance to the child, held permanently or for ransom).

In the past, and presently in some parts of the world (such as southern Sudan), kidnapping is a common means used to obtain slaves and money through ransom. In less recent times, kidnapping in the form of shanghaiing (or “pressganging“) men was used to supply merchant ships in the 19th century with sailors, whom the law considered unfree labour.

Kidnapping on the high seas in connection with piracy has been increasing. It was reported that 661 crewmembers were taken hostage and 12 kidnapped in the first 9 months of 2009




Kidnap appears to be a back-formation from kidnapper (1682).  “woman was kidnapped”, and “child was kidnapped”; there is a mysterious spike around 1850–1870 that may explain the subsequent increase in popularity of applying kidnap to adults, but I’m loath to draw any conclusions. My guess is that kidnap became the general English word for abduction because we just didn’t have another word for it. Abduction didn’t refer to kidnapping till the 1760s, and the verb abduct is from as late as 1834. It makes sense that kidnap would have been extended to close the lexical gap.

Kidnapping is derived from “kid” = “child” and “nap” (from “nab”) = “snatch,” and was first recorded in 1673. It was originally used as a term for the practice of stealing children for use as servants or laborers in the American colonies. It has come to mean any illegal capture or detention of a person or people against their will, regardless of age, such as for ransom; since 1768 the term “abduction” was also used in this sense.

In criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or asportation of a person against the person’s will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment, a confinement without legal authority. This is often done for ransom or in furtherance of another crime. The majority of jurisdictions in the United States retain the “asportation” element for kidnapping, where the victim must be confined in a bounded area against their will and moved. Any amount of movement will suffice for the requirement, even if it is moving the abducted to a house next door.


Kidnapping is the crime of taking away of a person by force, deceit, or threat and detaining that person against their will. While the term “kidnapping” originally referred to the abduction of children (from the word “kid” meaning child) it has come to be used for victims of all ages. There are many aims of kidnappers including the enslavement of their victims, marriage to their victims, and extortion of ransom money. Despite strict laws, serious efforts by law enforcement, and vigorous prosecution, kidnapping continues to be a problem in the world today, particularly in connection with human trafficking in which the victims are often forced into prostitution and other forms sexual abuse.

As humankind becomes more aware of the need to recognize all people as members of the same human family, living according to our conscience, and treating each other with love and respect, it can be expected that crimes of this nature will finally disappear and kidnapping will no longer occur.


A person who is new in Nigeria or visiting this article for the first time from foreign country will ask “what causes kidnapping in Nigeria”?. Causes of kidnapping in Nigeria have made many headlines of news publication companies in the country because of the nature of the incidence. In many schools in the country, this is included as part of the academic syllabus of primary, secondary and even tertiary institution students.

In a nutshell, causes of kidnapping in the Federal Republic of Nigeria are:


Joblessness or unemployment is one of the root causes of kidnapping in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Nigeria has very high unemployment rate. A news publication company, Vanguard online news, reported on May 19, 2014, that an estimate of 60 million Nigerians are unemployed. You can study the topic on Unemployment in Nigeria to understand the level of unemployment that the citizens of Nigeria are facing.

Unemployment in the country is one the major reasons why many Nigerian youths picked kidnapping as avenue to generate money which they will use to establish themselves in the society. It is one of the major challenges in Nigeria and the rate keeps increasing every day. Unemployment is a global problem but Nigeria is one the countries that has it in high rating.


Poverty is another factor that has been pushing many Nigerians into kidnapping business. A poor man needs money to keep life going and because of that can easily be convinced to venture into the field of kidnapping to make money and live above poverty line. A poor man is a hungry man and he needs resources to reduce and say no to his poverty challenge.

One reports has it that there are rich people who have been into the business of kidnapping in the Eastern part of Nigeria where kidnapping is everyday occurrence. The rich men who are into the business recruit the poor and made them get involved into the dirty business. When the relations of any who are held captive pay ransom, these poor men are given their own cut.


Corruption is another driver of kidnapping in Nigeria. In the year 2014, Nigeria ranked 136 out of 174 on the list of the surveyed nations alongside with Cameroon, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, and Russia. That is to say that Nigeria was the 38th most corrupt country in the world in 2014 according to Transparency international ranking.

The members of the political class in Nigeria are known for high embezzlement of the public fund for their individual or personal use. Because of the level of embezzlement being carried out by this class, some of the youths in the country are being compelled to kidnap members of the class to get some money from them through paying of ransom. You can go through the topic on corruption in Nigeria to know more on the level of this menace in the country.

Another phase is that because corruption is high in the country, men see kidnapping in the country as a game and nothing bad. This concept adds to the increasing number of kidnapping in the country.


Some men do not feel happy when they see others progressing in life. This is a major problem among the Igbo tribe of the country, Nigeria. Some men who are not doing well financially sometimes ask themselves questions on why the other person should progress more than them. When this category of people feels very bad on the progress of the other, the next is to make plans on how to bring down the other. This sometimes led to kidnapping of the innocent man who does not know that the other is planning badly for him. The kidnapped in this kind of situation sometimes die in the hands of the kidnappers.

High quest for Money

There are many Nigerians who need money either by hook or by crook. This kind of persons can even kill for rituals to make money as quick as possible. They prefer to get this money today and die tomorrow. These kinds of persons have prosperity as their watchword. Whenever you engage in discussion with them, what you will be hearing from them is usually how to make quick money even through bloodshed.

High quest for money has made many impatient Nigerian youths take kidnapping as “clean business”. On daily basis, what they have as their action plans is on the next person they are to kidnap for them to be paid ransom before the release of the victim.


It is not all about advancing in what is bad but where problem comes in on the consequences. So many people have missed opportunities in Nigeria because of the problem of kidnapping in the country. Kidnapping in Nigeria has paid many citizens of the country very badly. Among the effects of kidnapping in Nigeria are:

  • Poor investment by foreign companies;
  • Lack of trust; and
  • Fear.

Poor Investment by Foreign Companies

The problem of kidnapping in Nigeria has scare away many companies that would have invested in the country. During the kidnapping incidence that took place in the Niger Delta areas of the country, many foreigners who were working in those areas were kidnapped. Some who were not victim of kidnapping refused to work because of the experience their fellow had.

When foreign companies that want to invest in Nigeria hear of the problem of kidnapping in the country, they prefer to invest in other countries that are risk free instead of spending a lot of money as they are likely to receive ugly visit from kidnappers in the country. These are companies that would have help solve the national challenges, especially unemployment, because these companies will employ Nigerians if when established in the country. But because of unemployment in the country, the country misses such opportunity.

Lack of trust

Nigerians are now losing trust in their fellow humans because of the effect of kidnapping in the country. Before kidnapping became rampant in the country, the rich give out their phone numbers to people with clean mind because they believe they are one. Today in Nigeria, the rich find it difficult to do the same. The reason is because the person you want to issue your phone number may be a kidnapper without your knowledge or linked to any of them. It is a big problem in the country today.

In business, businessmen and women do not open up to people again because the person you want to open up to might be a spy being sent by group of kidnappers to come close and know the worth of your business to estimate the amount of ransom they will demand from you when kidnapped. Men who are seeking for information from their good hearts are not given authentic feedback because of lack of trust in the society.



What is fear? Fear according to Oxford English dictionary is an unpleasant emotion caused by the threat of danger, pain, or harm. Do we call the kidnapping in Federal Republic of Nigeria a threat or pain? Kidnapping in Nigeria is a serious societal threat. The threat has made many Nigerian rich men to hide when they move on the road. Some of them have decided not to move around in the day because of kidnappers.

Some that are not yet wealthy enough are making plans on how to employ policemen to guard them whenever they move around. Notwithstanding the fact that some rich and politicians are being guarded by security men, many of them still have fear in themselves.


This subheading would have been better titled “possible solutions to kidnapping in Nigeria”. In this subheading, I will be dealing on the possible ways through which kidnapping in Nigeria can be reduced. Among the possible solutions are:

  • Amendment of state and federal Law;
  • Employment generation; and
  • Proper sensitization to the masses.


Amendment of State and Federal Law

The Law of every country is there to guide the people on what right to do and the wrong to abstain from. On the other hand, Law can be amended when a new challenge comes up in any country or state. The amendment of the part of Law that will strictly address kidnapping in Nigeria will compel the kidnappers to stop such dirty business they have been into for years.

A notable example is the amended by the Anambra State House of Assembly. Because every town in the state were being disturbed by kidnappers when the bad practice started newly, the members of the State House made a strict Law to address the social threat in the state. Part of the Law concerning it is that the property and belongings of anyone found as kidnapper in the state will be destroyed (example buildings). Since the introduction of this Law, many buildings being owned by any detected to be a kidnapper in the state has been destroyed.

Employment Generation

This should not be left for the government alone. All of us need to work together to close the gap between the rich and the poor in the country. If you are a rich man, employ your neighbour since you can help him out of that his unemployment state. When you do not employ him, he may be compelled to plan evil because that which you know you can do to help him you failed to.

On the other hand, political rulers should say no to embezzlement and map out plans on how to make the citizens secure employment. When the youths are busy with the work they do and get paid in return, the challenge of kidnapping in the country will be reduced.

Proper Sensitization to the Masses

This is another bold step that the government of Nigeria needs to take to reduce kidnapping in the country. The masses should be sensitized on the punishment that awaits any who is caught through kidnapping. The citizens should be taught on the bad sides on kidnapping in the country through radio, televisions, community gathering and other channels. There is power in the spoken words and it is believed that a kidnapper can be changed through this channel.









Kidnapping is a global problem but that of Nigeria is now turning into routine. The Western countries are known with kidnapping but today, we practice it more than them. Covered in this piece of write-up is kidnapping in Nigeria as related to its notable occurrences and statistics, causes, effects and solutions.














  • Daily Independence (2013), Nigeria accounts for 26% kidnaps Globally, retrieved 21st April, 2015.
  • Fox News (2014), Nigeria says 219 girls in Boko Haram kidnapping still missing, retrieved 19th April, 2015.
  • Nigeria (2009), Breaking News: Pete Edochie Kidnapped retrieved 19th April, 2015.
  • The Telegram, British Man Kidnapped in Nigeria, retrieved 20th April, 2015.
  • Transparency International (2014), 2014 Corruption Perception Index, retrieved 22nd April 2015.
  • Uzochukwu Mike (2015), Kidnapping: Overview, Causes, Effects, and Solutions, retrieved 25th April 2015.
  • Wikipedia (2015), Chibok Schoolgirls Kidnapping, retrieved 19th April, 2015.





The term intervention refers to all the planned programmatic activities aimed at bringing changes in an organization. These changes are intended to ensure improvement in the functioning of the organization- in its efficiencies and effectiveness. The changes are brought through the employees in the organization while consultants facilitate the change process. Any OD intervention, therefore, involves close interaction between the consultants and the client organization.


Intervention basically refers to an intended activity to bring change in the organization and the consequent activities within the organization.


Who makes the interventions?

The intervention can be brought by an external consultant who acts in consultation with the client members. A member within the organization, acting as the in-house consultant can also make the intervention. The organization itself could plan the intervention without employing either an internal or external consultant. Where a consultant is employed, any intervention is a collaborative activity between the client and the consultant.

To quote, French & Bell Jr (1994), “ intervention are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage in a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development; they “make things happen” and “what is happening”.
As suggested above a number of interventions can be carried out. They may be classified as to their focus and purpose and the intensity or depth.

Management Intervention

It would be quite normal, perhaps even expected, that some tasks and activities contained within the operational plan will not be successfully achieved. The manager needs to monitor the progress of the operational plan and where there is evidence that an element of the operational plan is not succeeding, the manager needs to investigate the probable causes.


Intervention basically refers to an intended activity to bring change in the organization and the consequent activities within the organization. An intervention takes training a step further in an attempt to increase the likelihood of achieving the specified objectives.


The intervention process brings self-efficacy to a conscious level, which enables individuals to assess and address their personal confidence issues. The process or focus of intervention could be : individual, interpersonal, group or team(intra and inter-group), system or subsystem, organization and the external environment.

The purpose of intervention could be to improve the process (for ex. Process reengineering) Action (ex. performance), and provide feedback (ex. Has the system produced the intended results?). The depth of intervention could be less intensive (setting up of a task force) or more intensive (dealing with individual self and emotions)



Specific reasons or usefulness for intervention could be:

  • To provide feedback about task, individual, team and other aspects of organizational dynamics.
  • To provide awareness of changing norms, to confront and deal with issues constructively
  • To develop positive attitudes openness and improve interaction among people,
  • To educate employees, improve theire knowledge and skills
  • To bring constructive and desirable changes to improve individual and organizational performance.






Role focused intervention:

These aim at bringing / improving the compatibility between a job incumbent and the role demands and expectations associated with his / her job.

Role analysis: Role analysis is a structured exercise to provide

  • Why the role exists? the rationale
  • What the role is supposed to achieve?
  • How the role contributes to the achievement of the group/department/unit goals?
  • How the goal is related to other roles in the department and in the organization.


Role Analysis Techniques (RAT) has been developed by Dayal (1969) for redefining the managerial roles in an organization. The techniques as followed has the following steps (Pareek, 1998)


  • Analysis of the role by the occupant as to the main function of the role, its location in the organogram, why it should be there – or its relevance in the organization, and how does it contribute to organizational goals
  • Discussion by the group as to what does the role occupant expect from the other roles in their role set in order to arrive at a consensus.
  • Building the consensus regarding the expectations of other roles in the role set fro the role occupant.
  • Developing of role profile by the role occupants of their roles, classifying what are the prescribed and discretionary elements of the role, the obligation of one role to another in the role set and the expectation of this role from the others in its set.


Role Efficacy Lab : Role Efficacy refers to the psychological factor underlying role effectiveness and the potential effectiveness of an individual occupying a particular role or the potential effectiveness of a role. Role Efficacy Lab (REL) used to develop work commitment.


REL is a short process oriented programme aimed at :


  • Sharing of thoughts and of individual as well as group commitments with the top managemtn.
  • Get moral support and reinforcement form the top management, and
  • Providing an opportunity for the top management to examine why certain expectations are unrealistic or unattainable, and suggest their won action plans taking to account other suggestions.







Organizations need to basically analyse where, how, when what etc, to carryout an intervention to improve their performance, which in other words, refer to ‘intervention strategy’. Interventions are carried to improve an organization from its current position to a desired position and to achieve the desired change a number of techniques are used