Nigerian educational system has gone through various developments and changes viz-a-viz curriculum issues. The dynamic nature of the curriculum process lead to the history of curriculum development for basic education in Nigeria. Analysis of the Nigerian education sector reveals the challenges of incoherence in policy Formulation and implementation. The selection and organization of curriculum content, curriculum implementation and evaluation, the development, distribution and use of teaching materials, and the relevance of the curriculum to the needs of society Therefore, the need for transformation in curriculum for all the educational levels becomes necessary.
Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level. The education system is divided into Kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. Education in Nigeria has attracted much public discussion in recent times. Examining the indices of development and practices in implementing Nigeria’s school curricula to determine whether the fall in standard of education is due to the way in which schools are implementing skills acquisition. Poor implementation of school curricula was listed as one of the cause of poor educational standards, which causes inadequate skills acquisition. Areas to be revisited include curricula, school discipline, school ownership, teacher education and awareness levels of the links between education and self-reliance.
We believe that the falling standard in education in Nigeria could be linked also to the lost glories of traditional education which inculcates among other things the very important values of hard-work, diligence, integrity, and high productivity. When these are lacking in any production system, education inclusive, the results are often devastating leading especially to poor quality output and wastage which in themselves undermine capacity building and sustainable development. The tertiary level produces the much desired human capital that propels nations from backwardness to modernization. But it has to be fed from the lower levels. A “mal-nourished” primary level would breed a “kwashiokored” secondary level that culminates into a “masrasmused” tertiary level. A survey of the opinions of 5,507 stakeholders was therefore carried out to determine whether educational standards were actually falling in Nigeria and at what level it was most grievous. It was found that standards have fallen at all levels of education, with the tertiary level being most hit, followed by secondary, and least, primary level. Three major reasons found were poor funding of education, poor implementation of educational policies and programmes and poor attitude to school-work. Recommendations included better funding of education adopting UNESCO’s 26 percent minimum of annual budget, inculcation of the tenets of traditional education, and utilization of research findings in managing Nigeria’s education
Generally, when people talk about the ‘standard of education’ in Nigeria, they seem to compare what the products of education could do in yesteryears to what it can do today. For example, it is the belief of people that most things the primary school leavers of yesteryears could do, cannot be effectively done by secondary students of today. For example, products of primary schools of yesteryears could easily write letters, whereas secondary school students of today cannot.
The views of scholars on the standard of education vary. This is because there is no well defined instrument to measure it with utmost reliability and validity, and so, it is a relative term. Scholars view standard of education from different perspectives, depending on the angle each of them is looking at it from.
According to Ifedili and Ochuba (2009), “educational standards set out the quality of education that is acceptable to her citizens. It provides for purpose, direction and criteria for performance evaluation. The government sets the policies and the policies are implemented by the masses. The extent to which these policies are implemented are judged by the standards”. Teachers without Boarders (2006) reported that the standard of education is how the products of schools can be measured in terms of outcome. That is, a measure of how school leavers contribute to the society in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor. This is in terms of skills, knowledge and right attitude acquired by graduates the country produces. When the standard is low, half-baked graduates are produced. These graduates go into the market with less than knowledge and less skills and often with dubious attitudes
The government has majority control of university education. The country has a total number of 129 universities registered by NUC among which federal and state government own 40 and 39 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned. In order to increase the number of universities in Nigeria from 129 to 138 the Federal Government gave 9 new private universities their licences in May 2015. The names of the universities that got licenses in Abuja included, Augustine University, Ilara, Lagos; Chrisland University, Owode, Ogun State; Christopher University, Mowe, Ogun State; Hallmark University, Ijebu-Itele, Ogun State; Kings University, Ode-Omu, Osun State; Micheal and Cecilia Ibru University, Owhrode, Delta State; Mountain Top University, Makogi/Oba Ogun state; Ritman University, Ikot-Epene, Akwa- Ibom State and Summit University, Offa, Kwara State.
First year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include: Minimum of SSCE/GCE Ordinary Level Credits at maximum of two sittings; Minimum cut-off marks in Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination (JAMB) of 180 and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. Candidates with minimum of Merit Pass in National Certificate of Education (NCE), National Diploma (ND) and other Advanced Level Certificates minimum qualifications with minimum of 5 O/L Credits are given direct entry admission into the appropriate undergraduate degree programs.
Students normally enter university from age 18 onwards, and study for an academic degree. Historically, universities are divided into several tiers:
First Generation Universities
Five of these Universities were established between 1948 and 1965, following the recommendation of the Ashby Commission set up by the British Colonial Government to study the necessity of university education for Nigeria. These universities are fully funded by the federal government. They were established primarily to meet a need for qualified personnel in Nigeria and to set basic standards for university education. These universities have continued to play their roles for the production of qualified personnel and the provision of standards, which have helped to guide the subsequent establishments of other generations of universities in Nigeria. Universities in this tier include the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and the University of Ibadan.

Second Generation Universities
With the increasing population of qualified students for university education in Nigeria and the growing needs for scientific and technological developments, setting up more universities became imperative. Between 1970 and 1985, 12 additional universities were established and located in various parts of the country.
Third Generation Universities
The need to establish Universities to address special areas of Technological and Agricultural demand prompted the setting up of 10 additional Universities between 1985 and 1999.
State Universities
Pressures from qualified students from each state who could not readily get admissions to any of the Federal Universities continued to mount on States Governments. It became imperative and urgent for some State Governments to invest in the establishment of Universities.
Private Universities
In recognition of the need to encourage private participation in the provision of university education, the Federal Government established a law in 1993, allowing private sectors to establish universities following guidelines prescribed by the Government.
The typical duration of undergraduate programs in Nigerian universities depends largely on the program of study. For example, Social Sciences/Humanity related courses are 4 Years, Engineering/Technology related courses are 5 Years, Pharmacy courses are 5 Years, and Law courses are 5 Years, each with two semester sessions per year. Medicine (Vet/Human) degrees take 6 Years and have longer sessions during the year.

The importance of education to human beings cannot be over emphasized. Education is a human right that should be accorded to all human beings solely by reason of being human. Education is an important factor in every individual’s life; it is the key to a better future. It is generally believed that the standard of education in Nigeria is falling. This is because most of the things a primary school leaver in the years gone by can do, cannot be effectively done by secondary school students of today. An example is letter writing. The problem of education emerged from the neglect which the sector suffered from in the 1980s leading to the gradual erosion of the system. A research was conducted to find out if the standard of education in Nigeria is really falling using the survey method. 50 questionnaires were distributed to students in 5 universities, 3 private schools namely; Caleb University, Covenant University and Babcock University and 2 private schools; university of Lagos and Ogun state university. After a careful analysis of the data gathered, it was discovered that 76% of the students agreed that the educational standard in Nigeria is falling while the remaining 24% said nothing is wrong with the educational standard in Nigeria is not falling. According to the students; most of the causes of the falling standard of education are things that can be controlled. Inadequacy of funding, lack of teaching tools and modern classrooms, corruption, constant strikes, poor numerations and the acute shortage of qualified teachers, have all contributed to the fall in the standard of education in Nigeria. Every student has his own opinion concerning the reason for the falling education standard. One of the respondents, a student of Ogun state university said Government is largely responsible for the falling standard of education. Government change policies concerning education frequently, leaving both teachers and students confused. They also do not equip classroom and laboratories appropriately to enable effective learning. Corrupt officers who misuse institutions funds go unpunished. Exam malpractices, which is one of the major causes of falling standard of education has not been tackled by government.

UBEC. “About UBEC. Universal Basic Education Commission”. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
“Nigeria Education Profile”. U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Nigeria. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
“World data on Education” (PDF). UNESCO-IBE. 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
“Vocational education in Nigeria”. UNESCO-UNEVOC. 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2014.,,contentMDK:23004468~pagePK:64167689~piPK:64167673~theSitePK:7778063,00.html
Schultz, T.P. (2002). “Why Governments should Invest More to Educate Girls” World Development, Vol. 30 No.2 Pp 207 – 225.
Nussbaum, Martha (2003) “Women’s Education: A Global Challenge” Sign:: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 2003, vol. 29, no. 2 Pp 325 – 355.
Aliu, S, (2001). “The Competitive Drive, New Technologies and Employment: The Human Capital Link”. A Paper presented at the Second Tripartite Conference of Manpower Planners. Chelsea Hotel, Abuja.


In econometrics and statistics, a fixed effects model is a statistical model that represents the observed quantities in terms of explanatory variables that are treated as if the quantities were non-random. This is in contrast to random effects models and mixed models in which either all or some of the explanatory variables are treated as if they arise from random causes. Contrast this to the biostatistics definitions, as biostatisticians use “fixed” and “random” effects to respectively refer to the population-average and subject-specific effects (and where the latter are generally assumed to be unknown, latent variables). Often the same structure of model, which is usually a linear regression model, can be treated as any of the three types depending on the analyst’s viewpoint, although there may be a natural choice in any given situation.
While a random effect(s) model, also called a variance components model, is a kind of hierarchical linear model. It assumes that the dataset being analysed consists of a hierarchy of different populations whose differences relate to that hierarchy. In econometrics, random effects models are used in the analysis of hierarchical or panel data when one assumes no fixed effects (it allows for individual effects). The random effects model is a special case of the fixed effects model. Contrast this to the biostatistics definitions, as biostatisticians use “fixed” and “random” effects to respectively refer to the population-average and subject-specific effects (and where the latter are generally assumed to be unknown, latent variables).
Mathematically, the difference between fixed and random effects modeling is that the latter uses a multilevel approach to estimate the variation in a response across multiple groups of observations.* In practice this means that, if you have few data points in a group, the group’s effect estimate will be based partially on the more abundant data from other groups. This is known as partial pooling, and it’s a nice compromise between completely pooling all groups, which could mask group-level variation, and treating all groups completely separately, which could give poor estimates for low-sample groups.
An example should help prime your intuition. Suppose you want to estimate average US household income by ZIP code. You have a large dataset containing observations of households’ incomes and ZIP codes. Some ZIP codes are well represented in the dataset, but others have only a couple households.
For your initial model you would most likely take the mean income in each ZIP. This will work well when you have lots of data for a ZIP, but the estimates for your poorly sampled ZIPs will suffer from high variance. You can mitigate this by using a shrinkage estimator (aka partial pooling), which will push extreme values towards the mean income across all ZIP codes.

20 Fixed effect: Something the experimenter directly manipulates and is often repeatable, e.g., drug administration – one group gets drug, one group gets placebo.
Random effect: Source of random variation / experimental units e.g., individuals drawn (at random) from a population for a clinical trial. Random effects estimates the variability

A method based on chance alone by which study participants are assigned to a treatment group. Randomization minimizes the differences among groups by equally distributing people with particular characteristics among all the trial arms. The researchers do not know which treatment is better. From what is known at the time, any one of the treatments chosen could be of benefit to the participant.
Randomization is a technique used to balance the effect of extraneous or uncontrollable conditions that can impact the results of an experiment. For example, ambient temperature, humidity, raw materials, or operators can change during an experiment and inadvertently affect test results. By randomizing the order in which experimental runs are done, you reduce the chance that differences in experimental materials or conditions strongly bias results. Randomization also lets you estimate the inherent variation in materials and conditions so that you can make valid statistical inferences based on the data from your experiment.
Suppose you work for an offset printing company interested in maximizing the effectiveness of their bookbinding technique. You can control factors such as glue temperature, paper type, and cooling time. However, you cannot control humidity, which can affect how quickly the glue sets. Or, perhaps there are other “unknowns” that cannot be easily controlled or measured. For example, the bookbinding machine might not be applying consistent pressure.
When you create a designed experiment, Minitab automatically randomizes the run order, or ordered sequence of the factor combinations, of the design. For example, a 2-level full factorial design based on the bookbinding example yields the following results, (which will vary because of randomization):
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7
StdOrder RunOrder CenterPt Blocks Glue Temp Paper Type Cooling Time
5 1 1 1 250 Gloss 24
1 2 1 1 250 Gloss 12
7 3 1 1 250 Matte 24
6 4 1 1 350 Gloss 24
2 5 1 1 350 Gloss 12
3 6 1 1 250 Matte 12
4 7 1 1 350 Matte 12
8 8 1 1 350 Matte 24
Minitab reserves and names C1 (StdOrder) and C2 (RunOrder) to store the standard order and run order, respectively.
• StdOrder shows what the order of the runs in the experiment would be if the experiment was done in standard order, or Yates order.
• RunOrder shows what the order of the runs in the experiment would be in random order. This is the order you should follow when you run the experiment.
If you do not randomize, the run order and the standard order are the same. There may be situations when randomization leads to an undesirable run order. For instance, in industrial applications, it may be difficult or expensive to change factor levels. Or, after factor levels are changed, it may take a long time for the system to return to a steady state. Under these conditions, you may not want to randomize. Alternatively, you may want to randomize with a split-plot design in order to minimize the level changes.
If you want to re-create a randomized design with the same run order, you can choose a base for the random number generator. Then, when you want to re-create the design, you use the same base. Randomization is not haphazard. Instead, a random process is a sequence of random variables describing a process whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. For example, a random sample of individuals from a population refers to a sample where every individual has a known probability of being sampled. This would be contrasted with nonprobability sampling where arbitrary individuals are selected.

Flowchart of four phases (enrollment, intervention allocation, follow-up, and data analysis) of a parallel randomized trial of two groups, modified from the CONSORT 2010 Statement
The use of chance alone to assign the participants in an experiment or trial to different groups in order to fairly compare the outcomes with different treatments. Randomization is an important feature of experimental design.
Researchers in life science research demand randomization for several reasons. First, subjects in various groups should not differ in any systematic way. In a clinical research, if treatment groups are systematically different, research results will be biased. Suppose that subjects are assigned to control and treatment groups in a study examining the efficacy of a surgical intervention. If a greater proportion of older subjects are assigned to the treatment group, then the outcome of the surgical intervention may be influenced by this imbalance. The effects of the treatment would be indistinguishable from the influence of the imbalance of covariates, thereby requiring the researcher to control for the covariates in the analysis to obtain an unbiased result.
Second, proper randomization ensures no a priori knowledge of group assignment (i.e., allocation concealment). That is, researchers, subject or patients or participants, and others should not know to which group the subject will be assigned. Knowledge of group assignment creates a layer of potential selection bias that may taint the data. Schul and Grimes stated that trials with inadequate or unclear randomization tended to overestimate treatment effects up to 40% compared with those that used proper randomization. The outcome of the research can be negatively influenced by this inadequate randomization.
Statistical techniques such as analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), multivariate ANCOVA, or both, are often used to adjust for covariate imbalance in the analysis stage of the clinical research. However, the interpretation of this post adjustment approach is often difficult because imbalance of covariates frequently leads to unanticipated interaction effects, such as unequal slopes among subgroups of covariates. One of the critical assumptions in ANCOVA is that the slopes of regression lines are the same for each group of covariates. The adjustment needed for each covariate group may vary, which is problematic because ANCOVA uses the average slope across the groups to adjust the outcome variable. Thus, the ideal way of balancing covariates among groups is to apply sound randomization in the design stage of a clinical research (before the adjustment procedure) instead of post data collection. In such instances, random assignment is necessary and guarantees validity for statistical tests of significance that are used to compare treatments.

The benefits of randomization are numerous. It ensures against the accidental bias in the experiment and produces comparable groups in all the respect except the intervention each group received. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the randomization, including concept and significance and to review several randomization techniques to guide the researchers and practitioners to better design their randomized clinical trials. Use of online randomization was effectively demonstrated in this article for benefit of researchers. Simple randomization works well for the large clinical trails (n>100) and for small to moderate clinical trials (n<100) without covariates, use of block randomization helps to achieve the balance. For small to moderate size clinical trials with several prognostic factors or covariates, the adaptive randomization method could be more useful in providing a means to achieve treatment balance.

1. Frane JW. A method of biased coin randomization, its implementation and validation. Drug Inf J. 1998;32:423–32.
2. Altaman DG, Bland JM. How to use randomize. BMJ. 1999;319:703–4. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
3. Altaman DG, Bland JM. Statistics notes. Treatment allocation in controlled trails: Why randomize? BMJ. 1999;318:1209. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
4. R development Core Team. An Introduction to R 2004. (First Edition) ISBN 0954161742.
5. SAS/Stat User's Guide, version 9.2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc; 2009. SAS institute Inc.
6. Domanski M, Mckinla . A Handbook for the 21st century. Philadephia, PA: Wolters Kulwer; 2009. Successful randomized trails.
7. Kalish LA, Begg GB. Treatment allocation methods in clinical trials a review. Stat Med. 1985;4:129–44. [PubMed]
8. Fleiss JL, Levin B, Park MC. A statistical Methods for Rates and Proportion. 3rd ed. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley and Sons; 2003. How to randomize.
9. Schul KF, Grimes DA. Allocation concealment in randomized trials: Defending against deciphering. Lancet. 2002;359:614–8. [PubMed]


Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field.
Laboratory settings have often been recommended for training students in practical applications of science, but appropriate learning environments for modern research are rare. Today, science is highly interconnected, often multidisciplinary and complex; it therefore requires adequate new learning tools. While the expenses for laboratory infrastructure often prevent its use for training purposes, computational technologies now allow the realization of virtual laboratories that can serve learning equally well. These tools can also provide access to experiments that would be too hazardous to be used in a classroom5. How to create and use such learning tools is a growing field of educational research. Here, we present the concept of Simulated Interactive Research Experiments (SiReX) that have been developed in a design-based research. SiReX combine photo-realistic real-time simulations with a comprehensive series of cognitive tools11. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for the example of quantum diffraction and interferometry with large molecules. This realization of the concept has been evaluated with regards to learning outcomes of undergraduate students.
When the effect of one factor depends on the level of the other factor. You can use an interaction plot to visualize possible interactions.
Parallel lines in an interaction plot indicate no interaction. The greater the difference in slope between the lines, the higher the degree of interaction. However, the interaction plot doesn’t alert you if the interaction is statistically significant.
Basic concepts in experimentation
Dependency: Experiments allow marketing researchers to study the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable. The researcher is able to manipulate the independent variable (i.e. he/she is able to change the value of the independent variable) and observe what effect, if any, this has upon the value of the dependent variable. Put another way, an independent variable is one which can be manipulated independently of other variables. Independent variables are selected for inclusion in an experiment on the basis of an assumption that they are in some way related to the dependent variable being studied. It is for this reason that independent variables are on occasion referred to as explanatory variables. The dependent variable is the one under study. The researcher begins from the premise that changes in the value of the dependent variable are at least in part caused by changes in the independent variable. The experiment is designed to determine whether or not this cause and effect relationship actually exists.
Causality: A causal relationship is said to exist where the value of one variable is known to determine or influence the value of another. Green et al.3 draw a distinction between two types of causation: deterministic and probabilistic.
Where the independent variable (X) wholly explains changes in the value of the dependent variable (Y) and the researcher is able to establish the functional relationship between the two variables then this can be expressed as follows:
y = f(x)
In this case, it is said that X is both a necessary and a sufficient condition for Y to occur. The value of Y is determined by X, and X alone. Thus it can be said, in these circumstances, that X is a deterministic cause of Y. An illustrative example would be where the demand for agricultural commodities, say sugar, is dependent upon the world price. Further suppose that the functional relationship between sugar demand and world prices is known, then the formula becomes:
Changes in demand for sugar (grade No. 6) = f(World Price)
Whilst this example serves to illustrate the point it is rare to find such relationships when studying marketing problems. In most instances, the value of the dependent variable will be a function of several variables. For instance, only in exceptional cases would the demand for a product, even a commodity, depend solely upon price movements. Factors such as the reputation of the supplier, terms of sale, promotional activities, packaging etc., are likely to have an impact on demand as well. A more common causal model is one where the value of the dependent variable is a function of several independent variables.
Marketing problems are more often multivariate than univariate and so the relationship between dependent and independent variables is more often probabilistic than deterministic. A probabilistic relationship could be expressed as:
y = f(x1, x2,…xn).
What is depicted here is a situation where the dependent variable (y) is a function of several variables (x1, x2,…xn). If marketing research can establish the form of the relationship (f) between the independent variables and also between the independent and dependent variables then the value of y can be predicted. In this instance x1, for example, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for y to occur. The same is true of each of the other independent variables. Rather, each individual independent variable is said to be a probabilistic cause of the value of y
Example of an interaction plot
For example, cereal grains must be dry enough before the packaging process. Lab technicians collect moisture data on grains at several oven times and temperatures.

This plot indicates an interaction between the oven temperature and oven time. The grain has a lower moisture percentage when baked for a time of 60 minutes as opposed to 30 minutes at 125 and 130 degrees. However, when the temperature is 135 degrees, the grain has a lower moisture percentage when baked for 30 minutes.
Interaction plots are most often used to visualize interactions during ANOVA or DOE.
Minitab draws a single interaction plot if you enter two factors, or a matrix of interaction plots if you enter more than two factors.
Which interaction plots are available in Minitab?
Minitab provides interaction plots to accompany various analyses. Use the interaction option available through:
• Stat > DOE > Factorial > Factorial Plots to generate interaction plots specifically for factorial designs.
• Stat > DOE > Mixture > Factorial Plots to generate interaction plots specifically for process variables in mixture designs.
• Stat > ANOVA > General Linear Model > Factorial Plots to generate interaction plots for the fitted values from doing an analysis of variance.
• Stat > Regression and then choose either Regression > Factorial Plots, Binary Logistic Regression > Factorial Plots, or Poisson Regression > Factorial Plots to generate interaction plots from a regression model.

Sequential experimentation is the application of statistical experimental design methods to improving processes when many experimental factors must be studied. It emphasizes the sequential use of small two-level designs and steepest ascent to identify critical factors and improved settings, and the sequential assembly of second-order designs to elucidate the nature of the response surface in the improved operational region when necessary.
Applications of sequential analysis
Clinical trials
In a randomized trial with two treatment groups, group sequential testing may for example be conducted in the following manner: After n subjects in each group, i.e., a total of 2n subjects, are available, an interim analysis is conducted. That means, a statistical test is performed to compare the two groups, if the null hypothesis is rejected, the trial is terminated. Otherwise, the trial continues. Another n subjects per group are recruited. The statistical test is performed again, now including all 4n subjects. If the null is rejected, the trial is terminated. Otherwise, it continues with periodic evaluations until a maximum number of interim analyses have been performed. At this point, the last statistical test is conducted, and the trial is discontinued.
Other applications
Sequential analysis also has a connection to the problem of gambler’s ruin that has been studied by, among others, Huyghens in 1657.
Step detection is the process of finding abrupt changes in the mean level of a time series or signal. It is usually considered as a special kind of statistical method known as change point detection. Often, the step is small and the time series is corrupted by some kind of noise, and this makes the problem challenging because the step may be hidden by the noise. Therefore, statistical and/or signal processing algorithms are often required. When the algorithms are run online as the data is coming in, especially with the aim of producing an alert, this is an application of sequential analysis.
A method based on chance alone by which study participants are assigned to a treatment group. Randomization minimizes the differences among groups by equally distributing people with particular characteristics among all the trial arms. The researchers do not know which treatment is better. From what is known at the time, any one of the treatments chosen could be of benefit to the participant.
Randomization is a technique used to balance the effect of extraneous or uncontrollable conditions that can impact the results of an experiment. For example, ambient temperature, humidity, raw materials, or operators can change during an experiment and inadvertently affect test results. By randomizing the order in which experimental runs are done, you reduce the chance that differences in experimental materials or conditions strongly bias results. Randomization also lets you estimate the inherent variation in materials and conditions so that you can make valid statistical inferences based on the data from your experiment.
Suppose you work for an offset printing company interested in maximizing the effectiveness of their bookbinding technique. You can control factors such as glue temperature, paper type, and cooling time. However, you cannot control humidity, which can affect how quickly the glue sets. Or, perhaps there are other “unknowns” that cannot be easily controlled or measured. For example, the bookbinding machine might not be applying consistent pressure.

Interactive nature of Experimentation offers the possibility of establishing a cause and effective relationship between variables and this makes it an attractive methodology to marketing researchers. An experiment is a contrived situation that allows a researcher to manipulate one or more variables whilst controlling all of the others and measuring the resultant effects on some independent variable.
Experiments are of two types: those conducted in a laboratory setting and those which are executed in natural settings; these are referred to as field experiments. Laboratory experiments give the researcher direct control over most, if not all, of the variables that could affect the outcome of the experiment. The evidence for drawing inferences about causal relationships takes three forms: associative variation, consistent ordering of events and the absence of alternative causes.
There are a number of potential impediments to obtaining valid results from experiments. These may be categorised according to whether a given confounding factor has internal validity, external validity, or both. Internal validity is called into question when there is doubt that the experimental treatment is actually responsible for changes in the value of the dependent variable. External validity becomes an issue when there is uncertainty as to whether experimental findings can be generalised to a defined population. The impediments to internal validity are history, pre-testing, maturation, instrumentation, sampling bias and mortality. Impediments to external validity are: the interactive effects of testing, the interactive effects of sampling bias and errors arising from making use of contrived situations.

Board of Directors of the National Science Teachers Association. The use of computers in science education (1999, downloaded 2015-06-01). URL
Rocard, M. et al. Science education now: A renewed pedagogy for the future of Europe. ISBN: 978-92-79-05659-8 (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007).
Sabelli, N. H. Complexity, technology, science, and education. J. Learn. Sci. 15, 5–9 (2006).
Nedic, Z., Machotka, J. & Nafalski, A. Remote laboratories versus virtual and real laboratories. vol. 1, T3E–1–T3E–6 (IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, 2003).


Setting up your own business can be an exciting time. Before you start, save yourself time and money by being aware of what’s involved in running a business.
Investing time into proper planning is key to turning your dreams into reality. Operating a small business is not just about working for yourself or working from home, it’s also about having the necessary management skills, industry expertise, technical skills, finance and of course a long-term vision to grow and succeed.
The name of the business is HYATTARCTIONS SYSTEM
Hyattractions system was established after the dissolution of VALLINKS INTEGRATED SERVICES in 2010. However by March 2011, Hyattractions system was posted live on the internet. It is located at choba campus. There are other business services and its surrounded by other ventures that does same operations, among them are joecrack concepts, Richie Technology, Setto Resources centre, Alpha computers, etc. but many people especially students took special interest in this firm because of its friendly atmosphere and quality services.
Hyattractions system as a firm is into several lines of business which include;
ONLINE DIVISION: This is the department responsible for all internet services ranging from online registration to student related services on campus.
ACADEMIC/RESEARCH WING: This is the department responsible for handling all academic and research works.
ONLINE SOCCER BETTING: This is the online soccer betting department that includes Forex trading, binary options, sales of E-book and promotion of Referrel links. It is currently seen as the biggest revenue earner for the firm.
OFFLINE DIVISION (CONSULTANCY): This is the offline department that is involve in a wide range of activities especially for the students and the academia.

It is managed by the owner Mr. Valentine Chidozie Uwakwe, though it is a one man business but it is well structured and has organizational processes. It has three computer operators, two internet operators, and a photocopier. this is shown diagrammatically below;

Hyattractions system employee/customer relationship is a good one. Both the director, manager and the entire staff co-operate as a family and this attract people to the business firm. It has lots of patronage but normally experience boom whenever sandwich and year one students are around.
Initial capital was raised from a $200 investment in Forex trading in 2010. By February 2011 a savings investment of N33, 000 was injected in the firm and by March 2011, Hyattractions system was posted live on the internet.
By December 2011, it started its offline business with the following February 2012, it enter into alliance with JOECRACK SYSTEM and improve on its capacity. Then by January 8th 2013, HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM was born live as a full business entity on campus and started full operations to the general started with the sum of N80, 000.
Starts up equipment were…
Shop rent……………………………………..N80, 000
1 laptop..………………………………………
1printer………………………………………..N10, 000
Small Generator………………………………
Other accessories…………………………..N5, 000
TOTAL………………………………………..N97, 500.00

In 2013, the firm created lots of potentials. It became well known to the general public. That year, it made a profit of N180, 345. 00 after annual expenses were deducted. In 2014, it recorded an all time profit of N840, 440.00. In 2015, the firm recorded a drop in revenue due to strike activities on campus. However this was corrected by revenue from transfer payments.
The site for the business firm is located at choba shopping complex, choba, Portharcourt, Rivers state. It is a shopping complex where various other business firms are situated.
Here are some common faced problems in business and their solutions.
1. Money
Money is known to be one of the major causes of problems that can lead business to failure. For a new business, the biggest mistake is expecting instant profit. Young and eager entrepreneurs start up a business with little money, assuming they will earn big and then invest that money again in their business. It is significant to understand that you cannot get an instant profit at the start of your business. Experts advise not to expect much profit for at least two years. Always prepare for the worst case scenario. Before starting a business, ensure that you have enough money to sustain you at least up to two years. Start slowly and patiently.
2. Time
The phrase ‘time is money’ holds true, especially for a business. It is essential for new businesses to manage their time wisely. Planning everything in advance and ensuring everything is done on time is very important for the prosperity of any business. Ensure the schedule you are making is achievable and stick to it. Give yourself enough time to perform a task with accuracy. Plan your future projects. Make adjustments accordingly. Utilize calendars and planners to make sure you don’t miss an appointment or a deadline. Spending time effectively can actually save you money and even earn you more revenue.
3. Lack of Knowledge/Skills
This is one of the top most mistakes made by entrepreneurs. It is important that you have ample knowledge about the industry you are entering, your competitors, your target market, current trends, advertising and marketing techniques as well as financial know-how. You must possess the skills needed to start up a new business. If you are not prepared, educate yourself. Do proper research, ask other business owners, read relevant books and websites. You may end up with a huge loss if you start your business without having the required knowledge and skills.
4. Information Overload
The only thing constant is change! This phrase is true as well as change is continuous and we witness it happening all around us. Today, information keeps changing. New facts and data keeps emerging and replacing old beliefs and trends. Due to this information overload, it gets difficult to find effective solutions. It becomes a challenge for a new business to sort through this data and come up with good decisions. However, one easy solution is to look for the authenticity of the data. Check its references, and the writer. Learn to use keywords to narrow a research topic. Start asking successful businessmen about their experiences. Learn from them.
5. Lack of Direction and Planning
This problem prevails because of not creating a thorough and detailed business plan. Many young entrepreneurs are so excited about setting up their very own business that they fail to prepare a proper business plan. It helps in focusing on the goal and mission of the business. It determines the financial situation of the business, the roadmap to follow, market research and analysis of the competition. A business plan is basically an investment to your business.
6. Working in the Business rather than Working on the Business
Usually entrepreneurs get so worked up with the paperwork, satisfying customers and doing all the necessary things in keeping the business running. They fail to fulfill some other equally crucial tasks. It is important that you take a day or even a few hours to analyze your business. Determine which area needs attention, do an inventory review, review cash flow of your business, review payrolls and employee benefits. It is also important to update your corporate minutes, your contracts and your agreements with stakeholders annually. Hold meetings with your managers and other employees to connect with them.
7. Innovation
Unfortunately, there are many new startup companies that stick to the age old book rules. They don’t try to create an innovative culture, even majority of the big businesses struggle with innovation. People get accustomed to the work culture and they don’t think outside the box. Businessmen and employees stay away from change and resist whatever changes that take place in the company. The best thing to do is to be open to innovation. When bringing a change, ensure that all your employees are prepared for it. Discuss it with them in a meeting, tell them how important it is to be innovative, make them understand how beneficial it will be.
8. Trying to Do It Alone
Coping with everything alone is also one of the most common mistake new business owners make. They believe that they can manage everything and don’t need any advice or help form anyone. Initially, they do seem to be successful in this strategy as the cost is low since they handle everything. However, as the work starts growing gradually, the workload takes a toll on the new entrepreneur. Mistakes start being made and the quality of work starts decreasing. You may even start losing customers soon. This is why this strategy is not successful in the long run. Hiring two to three employees is more beneficial for a start up business. It is better to pay a small amount to your workers than lose double the amount in the future.
9. Getting Clients
For a new business, it is difficult to attract prospects and retain customers. With a small marketing and advertising budget, new entrepreneurs are unable to reach out to a wider audience. Potential customers are usually hesitant to going for a new business. They prefer going for companies that have experience and a large customer following. However, the good news is big companies charge more. There are many clients and customers who are looking for companies that provide cheaper, but good quality service. Providing excellent service to them will ensure that they remain your customers and even recommend you to others.
10. Poor Marketing
Apart from a detailed business plan, a marketing plan is also important for any business. Once you have a clear idea about your target market and your competition, you can allocate a budget for advertising and promoting your business and decide which medium to advertise through. You can also decide your product pricing through target market analysis. Make sure you that your pricing can be easily afforded by your target market and that your advertising effectively reaches them.

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Islam is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Allāh), and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim (sometimes spelled “Moslem”).
Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and that the purpose of existence is to worship God. Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Muslims maintain that the previous messages and revelations have been partially misinterpreted over time, they are nevertheless all obliged, according to the Qur’an, to treat the older scriptures with the utmost respect. As for the Qur’an, Muslims consider it to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God. Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from topics ranging from banking and welfare, to family life and the environment.
After the destruction of the North African and Black Christian kingdoms, Islam swept further south, firmly establishing itself in Kano in the second half of the 15th century and spreading to other parts of the north. . However, it was not until 1802, when the major Islamization of Northern Nigeria, then part of the Sudan, began with the jihad of the Fulani leader Uthman dan Fodio. Under the pretext of reform, he conquered the Hausa states, which he claimed were practicing a corrupt form of Islam, installed the Sokoto Caliphate, and consolidated the religion in the presently core Moslem parts of the north. Fulani emirs were also forced on the conquered lands, a situation that prevails even to this day. Borno, which has reportedly an ancient Christian presence, had fallen to Islam as early as the 8th century. However, attempts to impose Islam on other national groups – the Tivs, Idomas, Biroms etc.- met with stiff resistance.
With the Islamic victories in the north, the jihad warriors almost fulfilled their oath to dip the Koran into the waters of the Atlantic Ocean by carrying the Halfmoon deep into Yoruba South, and incorporating into their empire, the Caliphate of Sokoto, and the northern part of the Yoruba kingdom centered on Old Oyo. The Muslims were also able to penetrate other parts of the former Western Nigeria by intermarriage and trade. And although Nigerian population figures are unreliable, some estimates place the Moslems at 33% in 1960 and about 50% presently.
The extent and depth of Islamic penetration of the Yoruba nation is evident from developments since the introduction of a more violent brand of sharia in Zamfara state in 2000 and its rapid enactment by 12 other northern states. During a courtesy visit to the Niger state governor, Abdulkadir Kure, Dr. Ibrahim Datti Ahmad, president of the Supreme Council of Sharia in Nigeria, said that “the council’s immediate target is to work for the implementation of Sharia legal system in Kwara and Oyo states. 60 It was, therefore, not surprising that Oyo has embraced sharia within four months. Under the aegis of the Supreme Council for Sharia in Nigeria (SCSN), Lagos inaugurated an Independent Sharia Panel on December 11, 2002; 61 there are calls to extend the barbaric practice to other states in Oduduwaland. Christian-Muslim tensions have also risen in the region as fanatical Yoruba Moslems attempt to force their religion down the throat of non-Moslems.

Muslim community in Rivers State has calls for more serious measures that will put an end to incessant kidnappings
Port Harcourt is the capital of Rivers State, Nigeria. It lies along the Bonny River and is located in the Niger Delta. According to the 2006 census, the Port Harcourt urban area has a population of 1,382,592.
The area that became Port Harcourt in 1912 was before that part of the farmlands of the Diobu village group of the Ikwerre, an Igbo sub-group. The colonial administration of Nigeria created the port to export coal from the collieries of Enugu located 243 kilometres (151 mi) north of Port Harcourt, to which it was linked by a railway called the Eastern Line, also built by the British. Like every other city in the country’s south, religion in Port Harcourt is predominantly Christianity. The Roman Catholics make up a significant portion of the Christian population. There are scores of churches, parishes and priests within the Port Harcourt Catholic diocese. The central church is the Corpus Christi Cathedral Parish in D-line. The city is also home to other Christian denominations such as Anglicans, Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and members of Evangelical and Pentecostal groups. Just a small number of residents adhere to the Islamic faith
Islam was first documented in Nigeria in the 9th century. Religious archives showed Islam had been adopted as the religion of the majority of the leading figures in the Bornu Empire during the reign of Mai (king) Idris Alooma (1571–1603), although a large part of that country still adhered to traditional religions. Alooma furthered the cause of Islam in the country by introducing Islamic courts, establishing mosques, and setting up a hostel in Mecca, the Islamic pilgrimage destination, for Kanuris. It had spread to the major cities of the northern part of the country by the 16th century, later moving into the countryside and towards the Middle Belt uplands. However, there are some claims for an earlier arrival. The Nigeria-born Muslim scholar Sheikh Dr. Abu-Abdullah Abdul-Fattah Adelabu has argued that Islam had reached Sub-Sahara Africa, including Nigeria, as early as the 1st century of Hijrah through Muslim traders and expeditions during the reign of the Arab conquror, Uqba ibn al Nafia (622–683) whose Islamic conquests under the Umayyad dynasty, in Amir Muavia and Yazid periods, spread all Northern Africa or the Maghrib Al-Arabi, including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco.
Two features of Islam essentially concern its place in the portharcourt society. They are the degree to which Islam permeates other institutions in the society, and its contribution to Nigerian pluralism. As an institution in emirate society, Islam includes daily and annual ritual obligations; the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca; sharia, or religious law; and an establishment view of politics, family life, communal order, and appropriate modes of personal conduct in most situations.
Thus, even in 1990, Islam pervaded daily life. Public meetings began and ended with Muslim prayer, and everyone knew at least the minimum Arabic prayers and the five pillars of the religion required for full participation. Public adjudication (by local leaders with the help of religious experts, or Alkali courts) provided widespread knowledge of the basic tenets of sharia law—the Sunni school of law according to Malik ibn Anas was that primarily followed

Non-sectarian Muslims who reject the authority of hadith, known as Quranists, Quraniyoon, or ‘Yan Kala Kato, are also present in Nigeria. ‘Yan Kala Kato is often mistaken for a militant group called Yan Tatsine (also known as Maitatsine), an unrelated group founded by Muhammadu Marwa. Marwa was killed in 1980. Marwa’s successor, Musa Makaniki, was arrested in 2004 and sentenced in 2006, but later released. And another leader of Yan Tatsine, Malam Badamasi, was killed in 2009. Notable Nigerian Quranists include Islamic scholars Mallam Saleh Idris Bello, Malam Isiyaka Salisu, and Nigerian High Court Judge Isa Othman. Though islam is ever present in portharcourt, its penetration is still low and of no threat to the christains around.


“Mapping The Global Muslim Population” (PDF). Retrieved 13 March 2012.
Mapping the Global Muslim Population
“Global Christianity: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population” (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-29.
CIA – The World Factbook – Nigeria
BBC: “Nigeria: Facts and figures” April 7, 2007
“The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity” (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
Kenny, Joseph (November 1996). “Sharia and Christianity in Nigeria: Islam and a ‘Secular’ State”. Journal of Religion in Africa (BRILL) 24 (4): 338. doi:10.2307/1581837. JSTOR 1581837.
Lapidus, Ira Marvin (2002). “Islam in West Africa”. A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 405. ISBN 0-521-77933-2.


Modern life is full of frustrations, deadlines, and demands. For many people, stress is so commonplace that it has become a way of life. Stress isn’t always bad, though. Stress within your comfort zone can help you perform under pressure, motivate you to do your best, even keep you safe when danger looms. But when stress becomes overwhelming, it can damage your health, mood, relationships, and quality of life.
You can protect yourself by understanding how the body’s stress response works, recognizing the signs and symptoms of stress overload, and taking steps to reduce its harmful effects.
Stress is your body’s way of responding to any kind of demand or threat. When you feel threatened, your nervous system responds by releasing a flood of stress hormones, including adrenaline and cortisol, which rouse the body for emergency action. Your heart pounds faster, muscles tighten, blood pressure rises, breath quickens, and your senses become sharper. These physical changes increase your strength and stamina, speed your reaction time, and enhance your focus.
This is known as the “fight or flight” stress response and is your body’s way of protecting you. When working properly, stress helps you stay focused, energetic, and alert. In emergency situations, stress can save your life—giving you extra strength to defend yourself, for example, or spurring you to slam on the brakes to avoid an accident.
Stress can also help you rise to meet challenges. Stress is what keeps you on your toes during a presentation at work, sharpens your concentration when you’re attempting the game-winning free throw, or drives you to study for an exam when you’d rather be watching TV.
But beyond your comfort zone, stress stops being helpful and can start causing major damage to your mind and body.
The causes of stress
The situations and pressures that cause stress are known as stressors. We usually think of stressors as being negative, such as an exhausting work schedule or a rocky relationship. However, anything that puts high demands on you or forces you to adjust can be stressful. This includes positive events such as getting married, buying a house, going to college, or receiving a promotion.
Of course, not all stress is caused by external factors. Stress can also be self-generated, for example, when you worry excessively about something that may or may not happen, or have irrational, pessimistic thoughts about life.
Common external causes of stress
• Major life changes
• Work or school
• Relationship difficulties
• Financial problems
• Being too busy
• Children and family
Common internal causes of stress
• Chronic worry
• Pessimism
• Negative self-talk
• Unrealistic expectations/Perfectionism
• Rigid thinking, lack of flexibility
• All-or-nothing attitude
What causes excessive stress depends, at least in part, on your perception of it. Something that’s stressful to you may not faze someone else; they may even enjoy it. For example, your morning commute may make you anxious and tense because you worry that traffic will make you late. Others, however, may find the trip relaxing because they allow more than enough time and enjoy listening to music while they drive.
The following table lists some of the common warning signs and symptoms of chronic stress. The more signs and symptoms you notice in yourself, the closer you may be to stress overload.
Cognitive Symptoms
• Memory problems
• Inability to concentrate
• Poor judgment
• Seeing only the negative
• Anxious or racing thoughts
• Constant worrying
Emotional Symptoms
• Moodiness
• Irritability or short temper
• Agitation, inability to relax
• Feeling overwhelmed
• Sense of loneliness and isolation
• Depression or general unhappiness
Physical Symptoms
• Aches and pains
• Diarrhea or constipation
• Nausea, dizziness
• Chest pain, rapid heartbeat
• Loss of sex drive
• Frequent colds
Behavioral Symptoms
• Eating more or less
• Sleeping too much or too little
• Isolating yourself from others
• Procrastinating or neglecting responsibilities
• Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax
• Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)
Keep in mind that the signs and symptoms of stress overload can also be caused by other psychological or medical problems. If you’re experiencing any of the warning signs of stress, it’s important to see a doctor to help determine if your symptoms are stress-related.
Types of Stress
1. Acute Stress
Acute stress is your body’s immediate reaction to a new challenge, event, or demand — the fight or flight response. As the pressures of a near-miss automobile accident, an argument with a family member, or a costly mistake at work sink in, your body turns on this biological response. Acute stress isn’t always caused by negative stress; it’s also the experience you have when riding a roller coaster or having a person jump out at you in a haunted house. Isolated episodes of acute stress should not have any lingering health effects. In fact, they might actually be healthy for you — as these stressful situations give your body and brain practice in developing the best response to future stressful situations.
Severe acute stress such as stress suffered as the victim of a crime or life-threatening situation can lead to mental health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder or acute stress disorder.
2. Chronic Stress
If acute stress isn’t resolved and begins to increase or lasts for long periods of time, it becomes chronic stress. Chronic stress can be detrimental to your health, as it can contribute to several serious diseases or health risks, such as heart disease, cancer, lung disease, accidents, cirrhosis of the liver, and suicide.
Managing Stress
The goal isn’t to get rid of stress completely — which would be entirely impossible, and not completely healthy. The goal of stress management is to identify a your stressors — things that cause you the most problems, or demand the most energy — and find ways to overcome the negative stress those things normally induce.
The latest research into the brain shows that we, as mammals, have three ways of regulating our nervous systems and responding to stress:
• Social engagement is our most evolved strategy for keeping ourselves feeling calm and safe. Since the vagus nerve connects the brain to sensory receptors in the ear, eye, face and heart, socially interacting with another person—making eye contact, listening in an attentive way, feeling understood—can calm you down and put the brakes on defensive responses like “fight-or-flight.” When using social engagement, you can think and feel clearly, and body functions such as blood pressure, heartbeat, digestion, and the immune system continue to work uninterrupted.
• Mobilization, otherwise known as the fight-or-flight response. When social engagement isn’t an appropriate response and we need (or think we need) to either defend ourselves or run away from danger, the body prepares for mobilization. It releases chemicals to provide the energy you need to protect yourself. At the same time, body functions not needed for fight or flight—such as the digestive and immune systems—stop working. Once the danger has passed, your nervous system calms the body, slowing heart rate, lowering blood pressure, and winding back down to its normal balance.
• Immobilization. This is the least evolved response to stress and used by the body only when social engagement and mobilization have failed. You may find yourself traumatized or “stuck” in an angry, panic-stricken or otherwise dysfunctional state, unable to move on. In extreme, life-threatening situations, you may even lose consciousness, enabling you to survive high levels of physical pain. However, until you’re able to arouse your body to a mobilization response, your nervous system may be unable to return to its pre-stress state of balance.
While it’s not always possible to respond to stress using social engagement, many of us have become conditioned to responding to every minor stressor by immediately resorting to fight or flight. Since this response interrupts other body functions and clouds judgment and feeling, over time it can cause stress overload and have a detrimental effect on both your physical and mental health.
You may feel there’s nothing you can do about stress. The bills won’t stop coming, there will never be more hours in the day, and your work and family responsibilities will always be demanding. But you have more control over stress than you might think. Stress management is all about taking charge: of your lifestyle, thoughts, emotions, and the way you deal with problems. No matter how stressful your life seems, there are steps you can take to relieve the pressure and regain control.
We all respond to stress differently so, there’s no “one size fits all” solution to managing stress. But if you feel like the stress in your life is out of control, it’s time to take action. Stress management can teach you healthier ways to cope with stress, help you reduce its harmful effects, and prevent stress from spiraling out of control again in the future.
No matter how powerless you may feel in the face of stress, you still have control over your lifestyle, thoughts, emotions, and the way you deal with problems. Stress management involves changing the stressful situation when you can, changing your reaction when you can’t, taking care of yourself, and making time for rest and relaxation. The first step is to recognize the true sources of stress in your life.
Stress is your body’s response to certain situations. Stress is subjective. Something that may be stressful for one person — speaking in public, for instance — may not be stressful for someone else. Not all stresses are “bad” either. Graduating from college, for example, may be considered a “good” stress. Stress can affect your physical health, your mental health, and your behavior. In response to stressful stimuli, your body turns on its biological response: chemicals and hormones are released that are meant to help your body rise to the challenge. Your heart rate increases, your brain works faster and becomes razor sharp, you have a sudden burst of energy. This response is natural and basic; it’s what kept our ancestors from falling victim to hungry predators. Stress overload, however, can have harmful effects.

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More than 5000 churches of African origin are operational both in Africa and around the world. Though Christianity entered Africa through Europe, some African developed some churches by integrated African ingredients and as well correcting some of the things that are not viewed as normal. There is also the existence of selfish interest by some founders of some of these churches.

The earliest of them was the one that pulled out from the Wesleyan Mission in Freetown by the Settlers in 1819. In 1862, some Fante became divided from the Wesleyan Methodist Mission and formed the Methodist Society.

In Nigeria in 1888 the Native Baptist Church became divided from the American Southern Baptist Mission. In 1891 still in Nigeria the United African Church divided from the Anglican Church.

In Zambia in 1908 the Church of the Watch Tower was founded in what was then called Northern Rhodesia. In Uganda in 1914, many Ganda members of the Church Missionary Society founded the Society of the One Almighty God. This church at present has so many members.
In Kenya in 1914, Johana Owalo left the Church Mission Society and founded the Nomiya Luo Mission. The Army of the Cross was founded in 1922 in Ghana. In 1925 the Eternal Sacred Order of the Cherubim and Seraphim was founded in Nigeria. By 1930 in Nigeria as well the Church of the Lord (Aladura) was founded. In 1931 in Nigeria the Christ Apostolic Church was founded. In 1952 Sierra Leone witnessed the foundation of the God is our Light Church among the Koro people.

In 1953 the Church of the Holy Spirit was founded in Tanzania. In 1954, the Prophetess Alice Lenshina founded the Lumba(itinerating) Church in Zambia. In 1957, the Church of Christ in Africa was founded in Kenya. By the 1963, the Roman Catholic Church in Kenya encountered a serious problem that led to the establishment of the Legion of Mary Church.
One can say the real implementation of the ideal of The Native Pastorate stated when James Johnson took over Breadfruit Church, which was undoubtedly the most important and the wealthiest Church in Lagos. Due to the effort of indefatigable Johnson by 1889 all the Churches in Lagos save one, that is , the Christ Church, where Europeans and most Europeanized Africans worshipped, were absorbed into the Native Pastorate. By this token, Europeans were no longer in ministerial positions in such Churches, the prayers for the native kings, thus signifying the march towards the establishment of an African Church .James Johnson, had always believed that the Native Pastorate would form the nucleus of an African Church which would evolve distinctly African Christianity and would incorporate some parts of indigenous religion which bore resemblance to Christianity, adopt the vernacular languages, have its own hymns and liturgy. Later on, the founding of the African Church (Bethel) had its root in the unwillingness of the missionary societies to appoint an African especially James Johnson to the highest position in the Anglican Church following the resignation and later, death of Bishop Ajayi Crowther in 1891. This created the sharp difference between European missionaries and Africans. The 1894 settlement thereby an African Diocesan Bishop sought by African majority was turned down, while assistant Bishop in person of Isaac Oluwoleand Charles Phillips were appointed to cover up this obvious retrogressive move made many Africans become disillusioned with the European missionaries. In December 2893, the three Bishops- Isaac Oluwole, Charles Phillips and Hill returned to Lagos after their ordination in London. In January 1894, however Bishop Hill and his wife died while Herbert Tug well, was consecrated to replace him. Owing to persistent agitation of Africans, particularly in Breadfruit Church, James Johnson was made the assistant Bishop over the Niger Delta in 1899. He immediately announced his Niger Bishopric fund, to which the Archbishop contributed the offertory collected at the consecration service.
However, the CMS authority felt that James Johnson’s presence in Breadfruit Church was undermining the authority and influence of Bishop Oluwole. He (James Johnson) was therefore demanded to resign his pastoral care of the Breadfruit Church. This view became unpopular amongst the congregation of the Church who preferred James Johnson to any other Minister. In July 1901, Bishop Johnson was away on Episcopal visit to the Delta when Bishop. Tug well announced that his (Johnson’s) resignation from Breadfruit Church had taken effect. On his return, Johnson found his family and belongings thrown out of the street as he was not allowed residence in the Church vicarage. This fury was aggravated by Mrs. Johnson during the crisis. It was in the midst of this that Nathaniel Johnson was appointed the successor of James Johnson. His appointment was met with stiff opposition and protest by the laity congregation of Breadfruit Church against such treatment and the unwholesome clergy’s authoritarian tendency. It was clear that by the turn of the 19th Century, grounds had been well prepared for the emergence of the African Church.
Thus on the morning of Sunday, October 13th 1901, Bishop James Johnson came to St. Paul’s Breadfruit, Lagos to conduct his valedictory service. It then dawned on his supporters who were in the majority among the congregation that their pleas to have him with them had finally fallen on deaf ears. Bishop Tegwell was quoted as saying that those parishioners who did not want Rev.Nathaniel Johnson, the new vicar, could leave the Church. to parishioners, numbering about 600, than left st. Paul’s Breadfruit before the commencement of sermon and marched towards Rose Cottage, the residence of the Church warden, Chief Jacob Kehinde Coker, Singing and chanting as they went. By the time the procession arrived at Rose Cottage, the residence other number had swollen up to about 800. The procession that day was more of a protest march than session. As J.k Coker recounted later, they severed themselves at once without any protect, without any preparation or arrangement for the journey to be undertaken’. at Rose Cottage, they resolve not to go back to St. Paul’s Breadfruit. They wanted to be independence Church within the establishment still accepting the authority of Salisbury Square, London, the Headquarters of CMS.
The administration style of the Church is such that both the clergy and laity share power equally. No one group dominates the other as they guided by the constitution of the Church. The spiritual/ overall head of the Church remains the Primate who oversees the spiritual matters affecting the Church. Similarly, The Bishop and other Minister are in charge of Spiritual matters in their Dioceses and Churches respectively. on the other hand, the finance and other temporal matters of the Church are being supervised by the Lay President and other lay officer at different state of the Church.

The African Church lives and supports educational developmental development in Nigeria. It has to its credit the establishment of several primary and secondary schools across the country, a college of Theology in Ifako, Lagos which is affiliated to the University of Ibadan for the training of the clergy and award of degrees. Currently a National College of Education for the award of NCE Certificate in September 2007 at Ifako by grace of God.
THE African Church has a constitution and this has been subjected to a number of reviews. The current constitution is undergoing a review for necessary amendments


“Coker, Jacob Kehinde, Nigeria, African Church of Nigeria”. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
“The African Church “Heaven’s Light Our Guide” … Official Website”. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
Archived September 7, 2008 at the Wayback Machine


Conceptualization is the process of development and clarification of concepts. • In other words, clarifying one’s concepts with words and examples and arriving at precise verbal definition. One of the most difficult aspects of research — and one of the least discussed — is how to develop the idea for the research project in the first place. In training students, most faculty just assume that if you read enough of the research in an area of interest, you will somehow magically be able to produce sensible ideas for further research. Now, that may be true. And heaven knows that’s the way we’ve been doing this higher education thing for some time now. But it troubles me that we haven’t been able to do a better job of helping our students learn how to formulate good research problems. One thing we can do (and some texts at least cover this at a surface level) is to give students a better idea of how professional researchers typically generate research ideas. Some of this is introduced in the discussion of problem formulation in applied social research.
But maybe we can do even better than that. Why can’t we turn some of our expertise in developing methods into methods that students and researchers can use to help them formulate ideas for research. I’ve been working on that area pretty intensively for over a decade now — I came up with a structured approach that groups can use to map out their ideas on any topic. This approach, called concept mapping can be used by research teams to help them clarify and map out the key research issues in an area, to help them operationalize the programs or interventions or the outcome measures for their study. The concept mapping method isn’t the only method around that might help researchers formulate good research problems and projects. Virtually any method that’s used to help individuals and groups to think more effectively would probably be useful in research formulation. Some of the methods that might be included in our toolkit for research formulation might be: brainstorming, brainwriting, nominal group technique, focus groups, Delphi methods, and facet theory. And then, of course, there are all of the methods for identifying relevant literature and previous research work. If you know of any techniques or methods that you think might be useful when formulating the research problem, please feel free to add a notation — if there’s a relevant Website, please point to it in the notation.
conceptualisation leads to better clarity while doing research . It provides road map to progress and verify the outcome of research, But, in research, when we speak of variables, we need to be careful about what we mean. We can’t use our words casually as we often do in conversation. Concepts can be defined in different ways by different people. If we aren’t careful in specifying exactly how we are defining something, we may end up thinking we are talking about the same thing when in reality we’re talking about different things.

When we refer to a particular variable, whatever that variable might be, we need to spend time defining it very precisely so everyone will know exactly what we mean.

Conceptualization is the process by which researchers define what they are attempting to study as precisely as possible.
Conceptualization is the process whereby an abstract concept is defined. So how do we define our concepts? This is part of the process of measurement, and this portion of the process is called conceptualization. Conceptualization involves writing out clear, concise definitions for our key concepts. Sticking with the previously mentioned example of masculinity, think about what comes to mind when you read that term. How do you know masculinity when you see it? Does it have something to do with men? With social norms? If so, perhaps we could define masculinity as the social norms that men are expected to follow. That seems like a reasonable start, and at this early stage of conceptualization, brainstorming about the images conjured up by concepts and playing around with possible definitions is appropriate. But this is just the first step. It would make sense as well to consult other previous research and theory to understand if other scholars have already defined the concepts we’re interested in. This doesn’t necessarily mean we must use their definitions, but understanding how concepts have been defined in the past will give us an idea about how our conceptualizations compare with the predominant ones out there. Understanding prior definitions of our key concepts will also help us decide whether we plan to challenge those conceptualizations or rely on them for our own work.
If we turn to the literature on masculinity, we will surely come across work by Michael Kimmel, one of the preeminent masculinity scholars in the United States. After consulting Kimmel’s prior work (2000; 2008), we might tweak our initial definition of masculinity just a bit. Rather than defining masculinity as “the social norms that men are expected to follow,” perhaps instead we’ll define it as “the social roles, behaviors, and meanings prescribed for men in any given society at any one time.” Our revised definition is both more precise and more complex. Rather than simply addressing one aspect of men’s lives (norms), our new definition addresses three aspects: roles, behaviors, and meanings. It also implies that roles, behaviors, and meanings may vary across societies and over time. Thus, to be clear, we’ll also have to specify the particular society and time period we’re investigating as we conceptualize masculinity.
As you can see, conceptualization isn’t quite as simple as merely applying any random definition that we come up with to a term. Sure, it may involve some initial brainstorming, but conceptualization goes beyond that. Once we’ve brainstormed a bit about the images a particular word conjures up for us, we should also consult prior work to understand how others define the term in question. And after we’ve identified a clear definition that we’re happy with, we should make sure that every term used in our definition will make sense to others. Are there terms used within our definition that also need to be defined? If so, our conceptualization is not yet complete. And there is yet another aspect of conceptualization to consider: concept dimensions. We’ll consider that aspect along with an additional word of caution about conceptualization next.
• In Deductive research, conceptualization helps to translate portions of an abstract theory into specific variables that can be used in testable hypotheses.
• In Inductive research, conceptualization is an important part of the process used to make sense of related observations.
Concepts are mental images with labels like “chair,” “female,” “social class,” and “grade-point average.” The conceptualization process refines our concepts into attributes and variables, introduced in Chapter One. As we refine what we mean by a concept such as “social class,” for example, we also consider possible indicators of it (observations that would give evidence of low or high class) and different dimensions or aspects of the concept. Thus social class can be a matter of economics, prestige, power, etc.–different dimensions of the concept.