THE EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON NIGERIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN RELATION TO ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM


THE EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON NIGERIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN RELATION TO ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM

INTRODUCTION
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world.
Adult education is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained learning activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values.[1] Adult education can take place through “extension” school (e.g., Harvard Extension School) or “school of continuing education” (e.g. Columbia School of Continuing Education). Adult education frequently occurs at schools, colleges and universities, libraries, and lifelong learning centers. The practice is at times referred to as andragogy to distinguish it from pedagogy.
Globalization is deeply controversial, however. Proponents of globalization argue that it allows poor countries and their citizens to develop economically and raise their standards of living, while opponents of globalization claim that the creation of an unfettered international free market has benefited multinational corporations in the Western world at the expense of local enterprises, local cultures, and common people. Resistance to globalization has therefore taken shape both at a popular and at a governmental level as people and governments try to manage the flow of capital, labor, goods, and ideas that constitute the current wave of globalization.
To find the right balance between benefits and costs associated with globalization, citizens of all nations need to understand how globalization works and the policy choices facing them and their societies. Globalization101.org tries to provide an accurate analysis of the issues and controversies regarding globalization, without the slogans or ideological biases generally found in discussions of the topics.
EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON NIGERIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The internationalization of higher education can be linked to various internal and external changes in the international system. Externally, there have been changes in the labor market, which have resulted in calls for more knowledge and skilled workers, and workers with deeper understandings of languages, cultures and business methods all over the world. Education in Nigeria is becoming more invaluable to individuals. In today’s Nigeria’s educational environment, education provides individuals with a better chance of employment, which in turn leads to a better lifestyle, power and status. The modification of knowledge as intellectual property has occurred particularly with regard to connecting the intellectual work of universities with community, business, and government interests and priorities. While such a tendency is often welcomed by so-called applied disciplines, it causes tensions between the more profitable applied subjects of science and technology, and those of basic theoretical enquiry, particularly in arts and humanities. It also creates institutional winners and losers.
IN RELATION TO ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM
Adult education is concerned not with preparing people for life, but rather with helping people to live more successfully. Thus if there is to be an overarching function of the adult education enterprise, it is to assist adults to increase competence, or negotiate transitions, in their social roles (worker, parent, retiree etc.), to help them gain greater fulfilment in their personal lives, and to assist them in solving personal and community problems. (Darkenwald and Merriam 1982: 9)
Because of dramatic global educational gains, adult education school graduation has now become the norm in most industrialized countries. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reports that by 2009, the Nigerian federation had fallen from 1st in Africa to 8th in the proportion of young adults (ages 18 to 24) receiving a high school diploma within the calendar year. This lower position does not indicate a drop in Nigeria’s graduation levels; rather, it testifies to the success other nations have had ambitiously expanding their secondary school systems and raising their graduation rates. Although the country actually showed a modest increase in secondary school graduation from 2005 to 2009, this achievement is dwarfed by the striking gains of a number of countries. Among the 28 African countries with comparable data for 2009, Nigeria ranked 12th in the percent of the overall population (including adults over the age of 24) achieving secondary school graduation, which is 15 or more percentage points behind countries such as Portugal, Slovenia, Finland, Japan, Ireland, and Norway (OECD, 2011).this is a growing sign of how globalization has impacted on the adult system of education in the country with far reaching consequences.

CONCLUSION
The effects of globalization on Nigerian educational system have been far-reaching. While the living standards of the world are still highly uneven, 400 million people have moved out of extreme poverty since 1980—more than at any other time in human history. The growth and urbanization of a global middle class is creating huge new markets for goods and services of all kinds. Since 2000, despite frequent political and economic crises that cause it to dip temporarily, the global economy has been expanding (Zakaria, 2008). The world’s economic center of gravity is also shifting: 50 percent of growth in gross domestic product (GDP) occurs outside the developed world, a fact that is fundamentally changing business models. Already, one in five U.S. jobs is tied to exports, and that proportion will increase (U.S. Census Bureau, 2004).
Globalization is often viewed as a zero-sum game in which one nation’s economic growth comes at the expense of another. But the reality is more complicated than that. Competition for industries and for high-skill, high-wage jobs has undoubtedly become more intense; especially adults who now prefer to go back to school and acquire a degree.

REFERENCE
1. Al-Rodhan, R.F. Nayef and Gérard Stoudmann. (2006). Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition.
2. Albrow, Martin and Elizabeth King (eds.) (1990). Globalization, Knowledge and Society London: Sage. ISBN 978-0803983243 p. 8. “…all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society.”
3. Stever, H. Guyford (1972). “Science, Systems, and Society.” Journal of Cybernetics, 2(3):1–3. doi:10.1080/01969727208542909
4. Frank, Andre Gunder. (1998). ReOrient: Global economy in the Asian age. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520214743
5. “Globalization and Global History (p.127)”. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
6. Google Books Ngram Viewer: Globalization
7. International Monetary Fund . (2000). “Globalization: Threats or Opportunity.” 12th April 2000: IMF Publications.
8. Bridges, G. (2002). “Grounding Globalization: The Prospects and Perils of Linking Economic Processes of Globalization to Environmental Outcomes”. Economic Geography 78 (3): 361–386. doi:10.2307/4140814.
9. O’Rourke, Kevin H. and Jeffrey G. Williamson. (2000). “When Did Globalization Begin?” NBER Working Paper No. 7632.

TEN DEFINITIONS OF TECHNOLOGY


TEN DEFINITIONS OF TECHNOLOGY
1.”Technology is not a thing in the ordinary sense of the term, but an “ambivalent” process of development suspended between different possibilities. This “ambivalence” of technology is distinguished from neutrality by the role it attributes to social values in the design, and not merely the use, of technical systems. On this view, technology is not a destiny but a scene of struggle. It is a social battlefield, or perhaps a better metaphor would be a parliament of things on which civilizational alternatives are debated and decided.”
2. The branch of knowledge that deals with industrial arts, applied science, engineering, etc.
3. The sum of the ways in which a social group provide themselves with the material objects of their civilization
4. The definition of technology is science or knowledge put into practical use to solve problems or invent useful tools.
5. The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives.
6. All the different and usable technologies developed by a culture or people.
7. The application of scientific devices, machines, and techniques for manufacturing and other productive processes.
8. The purposeful application of information in the design, production, and utilization of goods and services, and in the organization of human activities.
9. Technology as the knowledge of the manipulation of nature for human purposes.
10. the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science.

THE CHALLENGES OF PENSION MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA


THE CHALLENGES OF PENSION MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
INTRODUCTION
A pension is a fixed sum to be paid regularly to a person, typically following retirement from service. There are many different types of pensions, including defined benefit plans, defined contribution plans, as well as several others. Pensions should not be confused with severance pay; the former is paid in regular installments, while the latter is paid in one lump sum.
The terms retirement plan and superannuation refer to a pension granted upon retirement of the individual. Retirement plans may be set up by employers, insurance companies, the government or other institutions such as employer associations or trade unions. A pension created by an employer for the benefit of an employee is commonly referred to as an occupational or employer pension. Labor unions, the government, or other organizations may also fund pensions. Occupational pensions are a form of deferred compensation, usually advantageous to employee and employer for tax reasons. Many pensions also contain an additional insurance aspect, since they often will pay benefits to survivors or disabled beneficiaries. Other vehicles (certain lottery payouts, for example, or an annuity) may provide a similar stream of payments.
The common use of the term pension is to describe the payments a person receives upon retirement, usually under pre-determined legal or contractual terms. A recipient of a retirement pension is known as a pensioner or retiree.
TYPES OF PENSIONS IN NIGERIA.
Retirement plan
A retirement plan is an arrangement to provide people with an income during retirement when they are no longer earning a steady income from employment. Often retirement plans require both the employer and employee to contribute money to a fund during their employment in order to receive defined benefits upon retirement. It is a tax deferred savings vehicle that allows for the tax-free accumulation of a fund for later use as a retirement income. Funding can be provided in other ways, such as from labor unions, government agencies, or self-funded schemes. Pension plans are therefore a form of “deferred compensation”.
Some countries also grant pensions to military veterans. Military pensions are overseen by the government; an example of a standing agency is the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Ad hoc committees may also be formed to investigate specific tasks, such as the U.S. Commission on Veterans’ Pensions (commonly known as the “Bradley Commission”) in 1955–56. Pensions may extend past the death of the veteran himself, continuing to be paid to the widow; see, for example, the case of Esther Sumner Damon, who was the last surviving American Revolutionary War widow at her death in 1906.
Social and state pensions
Many countries have created funds for their citizens and residents to provide income when they retire (or in some cases become disabled). Typically this requires payments throughout the citizen’s working life in order to qualify for benefits later on. A basic state pension is a “contribution based” benefit, and depends on an individual’s contribution history. For examples, see National Insurance in the UK, or Social Security in the Unite States of America.
Many countries have also put in place a “social pension”. These are regular, tax-funded non-contributory cash transfers paid to older people. Over 80 countries have social pensions. Some are universal benefits, given to all older people regardless of income, assets or employment record. Examples of universal pensions include New Zealand Superannuation and the Basic Retirement Pension of Mauritius. Most social pensions, though, are means-tested, such as Supplemental Security Income in the United States of America or the “older person’s grant” in South Africa.
Disability pensions
Some pension plans will provide for members in the event they suffer a disability. This may take the form of early entry into a retirement plan for a disabled member below the normal retirement age.
CHALLENGES OF PENSION MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
One major challenge to be faced by the pensions industry will be the issue of pension fund governance. Private pension’s plans or retirement savings accounts function on the basis of agency relationships between plan members and beneficiaries and the persons or entities involved in the administration or financing of the pension plan, such as the plan sponsor and the plan administrator on the other. Governance provides the structure through which the objectives of a pension plan are set and the means of attaining those objectives and monitoring performance.

Typical governance issues which will apply range include having in place a governing body, identification of responsibilities, custodian, internal controls, and disclosure to members, redress and accountability.

Over the years the management of pension scheme in Nigeria has been inundated by multiple and diverse problems arising from which retirement became dreaded by workers especially in the public service. The failures of pension schemes in the country have been attributed to poor pension fund administration, outright corruption; embezzlement of pension fund; inadequate build-up of funds and poor supervision. There have been several reviews of pension schemes by the federal government which have also caused implementation problems.
METHODOLOGY
This study deals with methodology adopted in carrying out an effective study. The methodology adopted is discussed under the following sub-heading; Research design, Population, Sample and sampling techniques, Instrumentation, Validity, Reliability, Administration of instrument and methods of data analysis.
RESEARCH DESIGN
The research design to be adopted for this study will be the descriptive survey research design. This design is adopted because the study deals with or intends to put the options of a sample population and use the findings obtained to refer to the whole population.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY.
The population for this study will comprises of several pensioners in Nigeria.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIGUES
A total of 20 pensioners will be randomly selected. A sample of household questionnaire as well one respondent will be selected The researcher made use of the stratified sampling technique in arriving at this.
INSTRUMENTATION.
The instrument that will be used for this study will be self-designed item questionnaire titled, “challenges of pension management” (CPM). The instrument will be structured into two sections A and B. section A will be used to get a demographic details of respondents, while section B will be used for gathering answers to the questionnaire. The questionnaire will contain questions and will be adopted on the modified 4-point likert scale of;

Strongly Agree SA- 4points
Agree A- 3points
Disagree D- 2points
Strongly Disagree SD- 1point
VALIDITY
In order to ensure the validity of the instrument, a draft copy will be submitted for scrutiny so as to ascertain the appropriateness of the language used. Corrections, modifications and amendment made by the supervisor will be used to enhance the content and validity of the instrument.
RELIABILTY
To ascertain the reliability of the instrument, the test re-test approach will be adopted.
ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENT
The researcher will personally administer the instrument to the respondent.
METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The data collected will be collated and computed with the use of mean and rank order to analyses the researcher questions. The data obtained will be presented in approaches of weighted mean. For the analysis, items were calculated as stated above. Any score below 2.5 after calculation of the mean would be rejected and above 2.5 will be accepted.

QUESTIONNAIRES
PENSIONER MINISTRY PROBLEMS FACED
RETIRER A: MIN, OF WORKS LATE GRATUITY PAYMENT
RETIRER B: MIN OF FINANCE FACE WITH THE
CHALLENGES OF BRIBERY OF CORRUPTION AT THE PENSION BOARD.
RETIRER C: MIN OF WOMEN AFFAIRS WE ARE FACE WITH THE
CHALLENGES OF DELAY IN PAAYMENT OF GRATUITY
RETIRER D: MIN OF BUDGET/PLANNING WE ARE FACED WITH
THE CHALLENGES OF DELAY IN PROCESSING OF RETIREMENT DOCUMENT FROM THE PENSION BOARD.
RETIRER E: MIN OF WATER RESOURCES WE ARE FACED WITH
ILLEGAL DEDUCTIONS FROM OUR PENSION FUNDS

CONCLUSION
To summarize, the challenges of pension management in the country need to be designed under the guidance of the overriding objective that pension funds are set up to serve as a secure source of funds for retirement benefits. Pension fund governance will be critical to Nigeria’s move to a successful defined contributions pension’s model.

The challenge of pension management provision has only just began. Numerous stakeholders all have a role to play. From the government which sets out the regulatory framework to the regulator PENCOM, to financial institutions who will manage and administer contributions, to individuals who need to pay enough into their account to employers who must also contribute an adequate amount for their employees.

The importance of pension provision in Nigeria will continue to grow as individuals begin to place less reliance on family to look after them in old age and begin to face the reality that they need to look after themselves by building a nest egg for the future.

REFERENCES
1. Lemke and Lins, ERISA for Money Managers, §1:1 (Thomson West, 2013 ed.).
2. Princeton WordNet, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=superannuation, viewed 24 December 2008
3. “Industry SuperFunds – Home”. Industrysuper.com. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
4. HelpAge International Pension watch country fact file http://www.pension-watch.net/country-fact-file/
5. The Ministry of Social Development: New Zealand Superannuation http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/individuals/a-z-benefits/nz-superannuation.html
6. Larry Willmore, Universal Pensions in Mauritius, April 2003 http://ssrn.com/abstract=398280
7. “Old age pension”. GCIS. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
8. “Private Pensions/Les pensions privées” (PDF). Retrieved 2010-09-17.
9. Lemke and Lins, ERISA for Money Managers, §1:2 (Thomson West, 2013 ed.).
10. “The Pensions Advisory Service”. The Pensions Advisory Service. Retrieved 2010-09-17.

THE CONCEPT OF JUSTICE


THE CONCEPT OF JUSTICE
INTRODUCTION
One major concern in the era of philosophy has been the question of social order of man’s existence. Central to this quest about the ideal mode of man’s existence is the problem of justice.
WHAT IS JUSTICE
Justice is a concept of moral rightness based on ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness. It has been argued that ‘systematic’ or ‘programmatic’ political and moral philosophy in the West begins, in Plato’s Republic, with the question, ‘What is Justice?’ According to most contemporary theories of justice, justice is overwhelmingly important: John Rawls claims that “Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought.” In classical approaches, evident from Plato through to Rawls, the concept of ‘justice’ is always construed in logical or ‘etymological’ opposition to the concept of injustice. Such approaches cite various examples of injustice, as problems which a theory of justice must overcome. A number of post-World War II approaches do, however, challenge that seemingly obvious dualism between those two concepts. Justice can be thought of as distinct from benevolence, charity, prudence, mercy, generosity, or compassion, although these dimensions are regularly understood to also be interlinked. Justice is the concept of cardinal virtues, of which it is one. Justice has traditionally been associated with concepts of fate, reincarnation or Divine Providence, i.e. with a life in accordance with the cosmic plan. The association of justice with fairness is thus historically and culturally inalienable.
SOCIAL JUSTICE
Social justice is the ability people have to realize their potential in the society where they live. Classically, “justice” (especially corrective justice or distributive justice) referred to ensuring that individuals both fulfilled their societal roles, and received what was due from society. “Social justice” is generally used to refer to a set of institutions which will enable people to lead a fulfilling life and be active contributors to their community. The goal of social justice is generally the same as human development. The relevant institutions can include education, health care, social security, labour rights, as well as a broader system of public services, progressive taxation and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, equality of opportunity, and no gross inequality of outcome.
While the concept of social justice can be traced through Ancient and Renaissance philosophy, such as Socrates, Thomas Aquinas, Spinoza and Thomas Paine, the term “social justice” only became used explicitly from the 1840s. A Jesuit priest named Luigi Taparelli is typically credited with coining the term,[4] and it spread during the revolutions of 1848 with the work of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. In the late industrial revolution, progressive American legal scholars began to use the term more, particularly Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound. From the early 20th century it was also embedded in international law and institutions, starting with the Treaty of Versailles 1919. The preamble to establish the International Labour Organization recalled that “universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice.” In the later 20th century, social justice was made central to the philosophy of the social contract, primarily by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice (1971). In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action treats social justice as a purpose of the human rights education.

CONCLUSION
The ongoing debate into the concept of social justice serves to tell us the extent to which philosophers have formulated principles aimed at prescribing how the human society should be organized.the results has been a variety of approaches and solutions proffered for consideration and choice as to how social harmony can be promoted.

THE WEALTH OR POVERTY OF A NATION SQUARELY DEPENDS ON THE CONTENT OF THE CURRICULUM. DISCUSS


THE WEALTH OR POVERTY OF A NATION SQUARELY DEPENDS ON THE CONTENT OF THE CURRICULUM. DISCUSS
INTRODUCTION
In formal education, a curriculum is the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. This process includes the use of literacies and datagogies that are interwoven through the use of digital media and/or texts that address the complexities of learning.
Other definitions combine various elements to describe curriculum as follows:
• All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. (John Kerr)
• Outlines the skills, performances, attitudes, and values pupils are expected to learn from schooling. It includes statements of desired pupil outcomes, descriptions of materials, and the planned sequence that will be used to help pupils attain the outcomes.
• The total learning experience provided by a school. It includes the content of courses (the syllabus), the methods employed (strategies), and other aspects, like norms and values, which relate to the way the school is organized.
• The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. The courses are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. In schools, a curriculum spans several grades.
• Curriculum can refer to the entire program provided by a classroom, school, district, state, or country. A classroom is assigned sections of the curriculum as defined by the school.
As an idea, curriculum came from the Latin word which means a race or the course of a race (which in turn derives from the verb “currere” meaning to run/to proceed). As early as the seventeenth century, the University of Glasgow referred to its “course” of study as a curriculum, and by the nineteenth century European universities routinely referred to their curriculum to describe both the complete course of study (as for a degree in Surgery) and particular courses and their content. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the related term curriculum vitae (“course of one’s life”) became a common expression to refer to a brief account of the course of one’s life.
CONTENT OF THE CURRICULUM
Curriculum content is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. Curriculum content has numerous definitions, which can be slightly confusing. In its broadest sense a curriculum may refer to all courses offered at a school. This is particularly true of schools at the university level, where the diversity of a curriculum might be an attractive point to a potential student.
A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. For example, an elementary school might discuss how its curriculum, or its entire sum of lessons and teachings, is designed to improve national testing scores or help students learn the basics. An individual teacher might also refer to his or her curriculum, meaning all the subjects that will be taught during a school year.
On the other hand, a high school might refer to a curriculum as the courses required in order to receive one’s diploma. They might also refer to curriculum in exactly the same way as the elementary school, and use curriculum to mean both individual courses needed to pass, and the overall offering of courses, which help prepare a student for life after high school.
THE WEALTH OR POVERTY OF A NATION SQUARELY DEPEND ON CURRICULUM
The fundamental beliefs and principles underlying a curriculum are very important. Traditionally high school prepared students for college. Those students who did not intend to go to college often dropped out of high school. During the middle of the 20th century it was believed that high school was valuable for all students so the high schools began tracking students. Some took more rigorous classes to prepare for college while others took a general track. Later high schools added courses to prepare for vocations that did not require college. Now high school is desired for all students. In Nigeria, educational policy at independence was most concerned with using schools to develop manpower for economic development and Africanisation of the civil service (Woolman, 2001). The legacies of colonialism underline the many problems of nation building facing the Federal Republic of Nigeria since independence in 1960. This has led to a shaky democratic foundation which resulted in the first military coup in 1966 and three counter coups during the period in focus. Further, the educational policy was narrow in scope and did not meet the hopes and aspirations of Nigerians.
The 1977 National Policy on Education was geared towards addressing the problems of educational relevance to the needs and aspirations of Nigerians as well as promoting Nigeria’s unity and laying the foundation for national integration. Thus the nation’s curriculum content was reviewed and made to blend with the policy of the military government as of then. Also, due to the high level of underdevelopment, the policy aimed at realizing a self-reliant and self-sufficient nation to meet the country’s developmental needs. In order to achieve the objectives, the policy made education in Nigeria the Federal Government’s responsibility in terms of centralized control and funding of education. Such centralization was a departure from the colonial education policy of financing of education based on cost sharing between the proprietary bodies, local community, parents/guardians and the government (Ibadin, 2004). Taiwo (1980, p. 194) has made reference to the ambitious nature of the National Policy on Education which was conceived during a period when Nigeria’s national economy was at its zenith, but born in a period of economic decline. The policy introduced the 6-3-3-4 educational system modelled after the American system of 6 years of primary education, 3 years of junior secondary school, 3 years of senior secondary school, and 4 years of university education (Nwagwu, 2007).

CONCLUSION
Thus curriculum can be viewed as a field of study. It is made up of its foundations (philosophical, historical, psychological, and social foundations); domains of knowledge as well as its research theories and principles. Curriculum is taken as scholarly and theoretical. It is concerned with broad historical, philosophical and social issues and academics. The relationship between education and national development in terms of the wealth and poverty of the nation depends largely on the content of the curriculum and is a matter of critical interest to present and past governments of the country. Similarly, Constitutional reviews in the country and in recognition of the fact that educational policy is dynamic, have led the Federal Government of Nigeria to revise the National Policy on Education from 1977, resulting in four editions to date. In synopsis, the National Policy on Education is dynamic and subject to amendments so as to make it relevant and effective in addressing societal problems and meeting the needs of the pluralistic Nigerian society. In addition, in order to minimize conflict, it is good that people are adequately involved in the policy process and cognizance must be taken in education policy reviews of all the good parts of educational policies,

REFERENCES
1. Oxford English Dictionary, “Curriculum,” 152
2. Bilbao, Purita P., Lucido, Paz I., Iringan, Tomasa C., and Javier, Rodrigo B. (2008). Curriculum Development. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.
3. Bobbitt, John Franklin. The Curriculum. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1918.
4. Jackson, Philip W. “Conceptions of Curriculum and Curriculum Specialists.” In Handbook of Research on Curriculum: A Project of the American Educational Research Association, edited by Philip W. Jackson, 3-40. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co., 1992.
5. Pinar, William F., William M. Reynolds, Patrick Slattery, and Peter M. Taubman. Understanding Curriculum: An Introduction to the Study of Historical and Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.
6. National Education Standards…They’re Back! (article)
7. Diane Ravitch, National Standards in American Education A Citizen’s Guide (book)
8. Kelly, A.V. (2009). The Curriculum: theory and practice (6th ed.).
9. “Harvard Gazette: Discussing the Core Curriculum”. Harvard University. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
10. “Harvard approves new general education curriculum”. The Boston Globe. 15 May 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
11. “Home Page”. National Association of Scholars. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
12. “Examples in Action: Our List of Open Curriculum Colleges & Universities”. Open Jar Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
13. “General Education Expectations, Registrar”. Weslayan University. Retrieved 7 February 2014.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SYMBOLISM AND ICONOGRAPHY


1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SYMBOLISM AND ICONOGRAPHY
Symbolism and iconography, respectively, the basic and often complex artistic forms and gestures used as a kind of key to convey religious concepts and the visual, auditory, and kinetic representations of religious ideas and events. Symbolism and iconography have been utilized by all the religions of the world.
Since the 20th century some scholars have stressed the symbolical character of religion over attempts to present religion rationally. The symbolic aspect of religion is even considered by some scholars of psychology and mythology to be the main characteristic of religious expression. Scholars of comparative religions, ethnologists, and psychologists have gathered and interpreted a great abundance of material on the symbolical aspects of religion, especially in relation to Eastern and local religions. In recent Christian theology and liturgical practices another revaluation of religious symbolical elements has occurred. The importance of symbolical expression and of the pictorial presentation of religious facts and ideas has been confirmed, widened, and deepened both by the study of local cultures and religions and by the comparative study of world religions.
2. SYMBOLS OF NIGERIA COAT OF ARMS
The Coat of Arms of Nigeria has a black shield with two white lines that form in a “Y” shape. The black shield represents Nigeria’s fertile soil, while the two horses or chargers on each side represent dignity. The eagle represents strength, while the green and white bands on the top of the shield represent the rich soil.[1]
The red flowers at the base are Costus spectabilis, Nigeria’s national flower. This flower was chosen for inclusion in the coat of arms as it is found all over Nigeria and also stand for the beauty of the nation,The White Latter Y represent River niger And River Benue On the band around the base is Nigeria’s national motto since 1978, “Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress”, formerly “Peace, Unity, Freedom”

3. SYMBOL OF NIGERIAN ANTHEM
“Arise, O Compatriots” is the national anthem of Nigeria. It was adopted in 1978 and replaced the previous anthem, Nigeria, We Hail Thee. The lyrics are a combination of words and phrases taken from five of the best entries in a national contest. The words were put to music by the Nigerian Police Band under the directorship of Benedict E. Odiase.
The national anthem of Nigeria begins with these words glorifying the country with its rich vibrant culture and heritage. The patriotic fervor finds the best expression through the national anthem because the song takes into account the historical past as well as the aims and aspirations of the future generation. The significance of the national anthem of Nigeria lies in the fact that it binds all the Nigerians into one chord even if they reside in far off lands.
Historical facts indicate that the first national anthem of Nigeria was adopted on 1960 and the lyrics were written by Miss Williams, a British national. Later in the subsequent years, in 1978 particularly the then National Publicity Committee of Nigeria organized a competition for a new national song. However, in this contest some winners were picked up for their excellent composition. They were— John A Ilechukwu, Eme Etim Akpan, B A Ogunnaike, Sota Omoigui and P. O. Aderibigbe.
The national anthem of Nigeria begins with these words glorifying the country with its rich vibrant culture and heritage. The patriotic fervor finds the best expression through the national anthem because the song takes into account the historical past as well as the aims and aspirations of the future generation. The significance of the national anthem of Nigeria lies in the fact that it binds all the Nigerians into one chord even if they reside in far off lands Historical facts indicate that the first national anthem of Nigeria was adopted on 1960 and the lyrics were written by Miss Williams, a British national. Later in the subsequent years, in 1978 particularly the then National Publicity Committee of Nigeria organized a competition for a new national song. However, in this contest some winners were picked up for their excellent composition. They were— John A Ilechukwu, Eme Etim Akpan, B A Ogunnaike, Sota Omoigui and P. O. Aderibigbe.
The music of the present day national anthem of Nigeria was composed by Nigerian Police Band, guided by Ben Odiase. Since Nigeria was a British colony, thus before the achievement of the independence of the country the British national song was sung and performed at popular national festivals and ceremonies. The national song of Nigeria serves as a national call for all Nigerians to serve their motherland with love and compassionate fervor. It also recalls the past history of the land especially the sacrifice of the national heroes of the country during the struggle for independence of the country. In this respect, the blessings of the lord are prayed for so as to guide the nation towards prosperity whilst ushering an era of peace in the country.

4. SYMBOL OF NIGERIAN FLAG
The Flag of Nigeria was designed in 1959 and first officially hoisted on October 1, 1960. The two unique sea-green bands represent the forests and abundant natural wealth of Nigeria while the white band represents peace. The designer of the national flag was Michael Taiwo Akinkunmi, a twenty three-year-old student.

AUTHORITY AND LEADERSHIP UNDER POLITICAL ORGANIZATION IN PEASANT SOCIETY


AUTHORITY AND LEADERSHIP UNDER POLITICAL ORGANIZATION IN PEASANT SOCIETY
INTRODUCTION
A peasant is a member of a traditional class of farmers, either laborers or owners of small farms, especially in the Middle Ages under feudalism, or more generally, in any pre-industrial society. we can describe a peasant society to be one that revolves round an agrarian society.
The word authority (Derived from the Latin word auctoritas) can be used to mean power given by the state (in the form of government, judges, police officers, etc.) or by academic knowledge of an area (someone can be an authority on a subject).
When the word Authority is used in the name of an organization, this name usually refers to the governing body upon which such authority is vested; for example, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority or the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. thus on the other hand, Leadership has been described as “a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”.[1] For example, some understand a leader simply as somebody whom people follow, or as somebody who guides or directs others, while others define leadership as “organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal”.
AUTHORITY AND LEADERSHIP UNDER POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
A political organization is any entity that is involved in the political process.
Political organization including political institution, political parties, political groups- e.g. advocacy groups, Interest groups etc. . Political organizations are engaged in political activities aimed at achieving clearly defined political goals, which improve political system, benefit the interests of their members- e.g., members organizing, campaign, labor unions, etc.
Whilst parties are one type of political organization that enlisted with election authority & engage in some or all of those activities, they are distinct in that they typically focus on supporting candidates for public office, winning elections and forming government.
How organizational politics is related to leadership can be better understood from the fact that organizational leadership occurs in the context of groups,such as a peasant society where followers are influenced by the leaders so as to ensure their commitment and voluntary involvement towards predetermined outcomes.
In the peasant society the Political climate of the society as an organization is impacted by a leader through treatment and use of authority under different settings which is clearly visible during the acts of decision making, setting agenda and interaction with others to mobilize support, inspire teams and individuals and recognize people. This interplay between leaders and their authority & influence over the followers set the tone for political climate in an organization.
FUNCTIONS OF A PEASANT
What were their advantages and disadvantages?
Peasants had many advantage but they also turned out to be their disadvantage as well.
The peasants were given land by their Lord to farm and make a living for themselves. This was also their disadvantage as they had to give a heavy tax back to the Lord and the Church. This usually was very hard for them and they would only grow just enough for them to eat.They were also given protection which was a huge advantage but this all contributed to their tax. In Conclusion it was generally a disadvantage to be a peasant.
The peasants had a system of local politics often forming their own manorial courts. When they had claims against each other, these claims were settled by a village court usually consisting of twelve village representatives. The court was overseen by a steward who was a representative of the manor lord , however he was merely a member of the court, not its head. The feudal lord had the right to grant marriages, tax anything anytime he wanted and force peasants to use ovens or mills that he owned. Along with the power to establish punishments for various offenses, the lords also held the power to make everyone attend court when it was in session. Because the people were bound to their land, they were sold when the land was sold. This meant that they would come under new lordship.
The peasant class was the backbone of the feudal system. Because life at the bottom of the social ladder, was short, most peasants did not live long enough to realize their contributions to society. Although work was hard and lives were often short, peasants lived ordinary lives much like the common man of today.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AUTHORITY LEADERSHIP PEASANT AND A NON PEASANT IN POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
6 down vote accepted Peasant and villager are not completely synonymous. While a villager is just someone who lives in or comes from a village, peasant is more likely to be used in a pejorative way:
1. (especially in the past, or in poorer countries) a farmer who owns or rents a small piece of land
2. (informal, disapproving) a person who is rude, behaves badly, or has little education
A peasant might be described as of low social status, or uncouth, similar to a peon, serf, churl, boor, lout. Closer to villager are synonyms like yokel, bumpkin; but these still imply judgment or disapproval.
Villager alone lacks such a strong negative connotation. It could be used to describe someone from a village without obvious reference to their profession and without implying that they’re ignorant or from the “back woods”, though there are often assumptions that life in villages matches stereotypes such as being simpler, more authentic, or less modern: The villagers adjusted well after moving to the big city.
Interestingly, the etymology of both words reflects that they describe people from a physical location. Peasant is from Latin pagus “country or rural district”; villager is from Latin villa “country house, farm”.

The nature of peasant life
Thus, the peasants are isolated from the national society, isolated physically in villages which have little consistent need for continuous communications both with each other and with the cities. At most, the peasant is likely to be aware of his district, within which members of his own family meet or secure marriage partners, and of the local district town, perhaps the source of the merchants who buy his crop, the market place, the site of the police station and so on. Second, the peasant is dependent almost entirely upon himself and his family for his way of life. He is not part of – or at least, is not aware of – a complex interdependent national division of labour. Since there is little division of labour outside the family, there is little specialisation, and as a result, production is primitive, the peasant is poor, the cultural and technical resources of the village are most backward.
The peasant’s important relationships are not to a wider economy of which he sees himself as a constituent part, but rather to nature, to the rhythms, to the arbitrariness of soil, weather and season. The production unit is the family, and personal relationships are thus also production relationships. Family relationships, rather than competence and technical specialisation, determine the primitive division of labour within the family (the relationship between man and wife, between man and his eldest son, his youngest son, his aged father, and so on), and the production relationships exaggerate and intensify the family relationships. The desperate family feuds within the village exhibit the intensity generated within what is simultaneously the basic personal, production and property unit. The rural family embodies all the exploitative relationships of the wider society, and it is the peasant household father who is of necessity the agent for the worst forms of exploitation of the members of his own family; the agent which sustains all that is worst in pre-capitalist society in terms of personal relationships. The violence locked up in the family is matched by the violence between families, the violence intrinsic in the gross subordination of the peasantry as a whole.
Thus, if achieving a socialist revolution were merely a function of the savagery of exploitation, then undoubtedly the peasantry would always have pre-eminently qualified for the role of agency of the revolution. But revolution requires also collective organisation, a mass division of labour, a concentration of advanced technical and political abilities. And it is these which the peasantry – by the nature of its way of life – cannot produce. It cannot, as a class, produce the abilities required to operate a society with a collective division of labour. It can only duplicate the ideal of its own members, the small peasant holding. The aim of peasant rebels thus becomes, not the advance of society as a whole, but no more than a just sharing of a common poverty. This is certainly egalitarianism, but it is the egalitarianism of communalists, of independent identical participants, not the egalitarianism of collectivists, of interdependent people organised in a social division of labour. The peasantry cannot, as a class, constitute itself the ruling class in order to realise the full economic potentialities of society. On the contrary, it can, on its own, only drag society backwards into the poverty of the past.

Peasant opposition
It is for these reasons that the revolt of the peasant is so often a purely localised occurrence, restricted to the district he knows. His enemy is the local landlord or landowner, the local money-lender, policeman or merchant, not a national ruling class of which he is inevitably only very dimly aware. But without destroying the national ruling class, the local peasant’s cause is lost. The destruction of only the local minions of the ruling class will invoke massive reprisals on a scale with which the local peasant cannot cope. Indeed, so muddled may be the peasant’s view of the world outside his district, he may completely exonerate the ruling class for responsibility for the crimes of its local officials. In Tsarist Russia, the peasants often certainly hated their local noblemen, but they worshipped the Tsar as the ‘Little Father’, explaining that the Tsar did not know the crimes committed in his name by his noblemen. For them, there was no ‘system’ within which Tsar and noblemen fitted as complementary elements within a common exploitative class. Thus when the Narodniks assassinated Tsar Alexander in 1881 with the expectation that this would precipitate a peasant revolt against the regime, the peasants were appalled, and blamed yet again the evil nobles for depriving them of their only defender. Lewin suggests that Stalin was similarly exonerated by the Russian peasantry for the Communist rape of the countryside during collectivisation. [3]
Thus, historically, the peasant is a figure of the utmost tragedy. He is grotesquely exploited, forced into self-subjection, forced into preserving all that is most backward and reactionary. And yet he makes his own strait jacket. He cannot, by his way of life, conceive of a real alternative. He cannot emancipate himself, and self-emancipation is one of the pre-conditions for socialism. His opposition to his own exploitation, when he is solely dependent upon his own resources, is thus either purely negative, or marginal to the system – that is, the opposition does not challenge the existence of the system so much as check certain practices within it. The most common form of this opposition – and the least effective in revolutionary terms – is social banditry. Small bands of armed men prey on the forces of authority, acting as Robin Hoods to take from the rich and give, at least in principle, to the poor. The small size of such groups, their great mobility, and the willingness of the dispersed peasant families to protect and supply the rebels as a sort of ‘counter police’ force, make them almost invulnerable to counter-attack by the authorities. Hobsbawm has described the features of such forces in parts of southern Europe [4], and perhaps these features are shared with the Indian dacoits and similar bands which operated in China. Hobsbawm also notes the similarities between social banditry and guerilla warfare, and how the second sometimes absorbs the first (thus, no one should be shocked to find that the guerilla forces of the Chinese Communist Party incorporated erstwhile bandits [5]). Banditry is the most primitive form of taking sanctions against the system, where self-interested criminality is scarcely distinguishable from socially conscious rebellion, and where the sanction is no more than a marginal irritant to the system.
The sporadic riot in densely populated agricultural areas has more possibilities. Here, rural Luddites directly attack the symbols of immediate oppression – the merchant hoarding grain, the big farmer cutting his labour force or the wages he pays, the State reducing the price it regulates for wine. If such riots are a response to a general condition on the land, the riot may spread. And if it coincides with movements in the towns, it may provide a contributory element in a movement for radical change. But it is only one tributary to the river. Alone it can do little. When Wat Tyler’s rebels took London, as when Zapata’s warriors reached Mexico City, they did not know what to do with it. Finally they could only retire back to the world they knew, to the village and the dispersed land holding. They left the real power of the ruling class, chastened perhaps, but not destroyed. Of course, if the status quo is already under threat from other sources, the possibility may exist for a temporary enclave of peasant power. Makhno and the Green armies in Russia relied on the Civil War raging around them to defend their islands of power. And in China, the decay of the Manchu dynasty under the corrosive forces of imperialism, permitted the Taiping rebels similarly to establish their own domain along the Yangtze. But once the wider issue is settled or moderated, the national ruling class can react with a force capable of destroying the enclave.
More effectively and more characteristically, the peasantry can in certain conditions control much more massive sanctions of a purely negative kind. They can refuse to obey the law, and if this spreads far enough, the ruling class has insufficient power to garrison the whole countryside. But the organisation capable of co-ordinating such a strike usually can only be found in the cities. The intellectual formulation of this tactic is clearest in the doctrine of passive disobedience as advanced by Tolstoy in Russia and Gandhi in India. [6] But what is to be done when the countryside is paralysed? It is at this point that again the strategy breaks down, for the peasants have no positive alternative to present. The same applies to a similar tactic: withholding the food on which the survival of the cities depends. This is unlikely to occur normally, since the peasants also depend on the cities for certain goods, and many need to sell their crop quickly to meet their debts. But in Russia between 1927 and 1929 when the cities could not supply the goods the peasants wanted, there was something of a strike which produced a major crisis in the society as a whole. The strike was not an organised act, one of collective solidarity and depending on political consciousness. It was a simultaneous reaction to a market situation. And the peasants had no defence when Stalin launched his counter-attack and set about destroying the Russian peasantry once and for all.

CONCLUSION
The sheer diversity and immensity of the rural population in the world’s backward countries makes general discussion of ‘the peasantry’ very difficult. However, certain important generalisations can be made, but it must be borne in mind that such generalisations may have different implications for groups as different as owner-occupier peasants, subsistence tenants, share croppers, landless labourers – for the serfs of Latin American haciendas, for the depressed small tenants of South Asia, or for the tribal farming groups of sub-Saharan Africa.
But, on the other hand, the sheer size of the peasantry in the world suggests something of its possible political importance. What that political importance is, however, is the subject of considerable disagreement. In particular, this article is concerned with the debate between those peasants who identify the industrial proletariat as the sole agency for the achievement of socialism (the Marxists), and those who identify other groups or classes – including the village peasantry – as capable of achieving socialism.
Finally, the labour of family members of the peasants does not engage in wages or labour. He does not employ people to work for him once he employs people, then he is no longer a peasant. This is the reason why he marries more than one wife and have many children. The peasant is involved in an economic system.

MARY ULUMMA ONYEAKU THE MANY GIRLS IN MY LIFE……………….PART 4


An intelligent Christian graduate of Management from the University of Port Harcourt, Mary (Nne jesu) as my mum fondly calls her is the current queen of VAL202.she is also doing her M.SC programme here in Port Harcourt. A shrewd and hardworking business woman whom I will forever be proud of. i will be so happy if tomorrow she become my wife. i have fallen for her and truly love this lady so much…of late, she has been the driving force, propelling and pushing me further to attain new heights in life…from my business to office, to Golden moon and other vital projects I intend to undertake in future.
I see a resourceful, kind and open lady in Mary, who is so emotional and cool, as well as easy going. Above all a Christian of many exemplary character and virtue worthy of emulating love you so much and I hope soon you will be ready.
I plan to go for the introduction, traditional and white wedding soonest but already committed it will indeed take a mantle to cross. Nevertheless, I will fight till the end.. Am not going to lose something I have worked for and it’s making me happy so easily…

ADAOBI MATILDA OKOYE THE MANY GIRLS IN MY LIFE……………….PART 3


I would forever remain thankful to this lady who made so many differences in life at Gaanda, Gombi LGA of Adamawa state where I did my one year NYSC programme. It is still seen as one of my darkest life moments and I praise her for her support. she is the pillar of strength that sustain and push me through in my undertaken.
I remember my foot step into Gaanda, October 19th 2009….. I spent the first nite in Gaanda Jan 19th 2010 and the last pass out nite on July 5th 2010.i saw Adaobi on October 21st 2010 and it was fun…..our relationships dates back from From January 29th 2010- April 9th 2013.
It was a glorious moments as I would still value this woman. I fell short in my dealings with her but it was not my fault. i met her late and have even vow that if I have met her earlier, I would have married her.
But all that is gone now as she is happily married but this pearl would forever remain evergreen in my heart. She is a train nurse and midwife. May God bless her for me and bless the womb that conceives her.