“Publication” is a technical term in legal contexts and especially important in copyright legislation. An author of a work generally is the initial owner of the copyright on the work. One of the copyrights granted to the author of a work is the exclusive right to publish the work. Thus, an unpublished materials refers to any information source that is not officially released by an individual, publishing house, or other company, and can include both paper and electronic sources. Some examples of unpublished sources may include manuscripts accepted for publication but still “in-press,” data from an unpublished study, letters, manuscripts in preparation, memos, personal communications (including e-mails), and raw data. Titles of unpublished works should be capitalized and enclosed in quotation marks. In a note, the identification of a thesis or dissertation, the academic institution, and the date are enclosed in parentheses.
A material that has not undergone publication, and thus is not generally available to the public, or for citation in scholarly or legal contexts, is called an unpublished material. In some cases unpublished materials are widely cited, or circulated via informal means
A work that has not undergone publication, and thus is not generally available to the public, or for citation in scholarly or legal contexts, is called an unpublished work or material. In some cases unpublished works are widely cited, or circulated via informal means. An author who has not yet published a work may also be referred to as being unpublished.
The status of being unpublished has specific significance in the legal context, where it may refer to the non-publication of legal opinions in the United States. Some of the five ways this unpublished materials can be used can be outline below;
i. Try and seek the permission of the copyright owners, be they the authors themselves, their heirs, or a third party in referencing or quoting their book.
ii. a licencing fee should be paid to the copyright owners to used their unpublished materials
iii. Reach out to the author and agree terms with him.
iv. Only relevant materials should be sited and the authors name must be quoted clearly
iv. Persons using or quoting from these sources should endeavour to make it so known to the readers that materials are being sourced from.

References to unpublished material may include articles or abstracts that have been presented at a society meeting but not published and material accepted for publication but not published. If, during the course of the publication process, these materials are published or accepted for publication, and if the author is familiar with the later version, the most up-to-date bibliographic information should be included.

Berne Convention, article 3(3). URL last accessed 2010-05-10.
Universal Copyright Convention, Gevena text (1952), article VI. URL last accessed 2010-05-10.

German UrhG, §6, in German. URL last accessed 2007-05-29.

Australian Copyright Act, section 29: Publication. URL last accessed 2007-05-29.

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (c. 48), section 175, Copyright law of the United Kingdom. URL last accessed 2007-05-29.

Hawksworth, D. L. (2011). “A new dawn for the naming of fungi: impacts of decisions made in Melbourne in July 2011 on the future publication and regulation of fungal names”. MycoKeys 1: 7–20. doi:10.3897/mycokeys.1.2062.

“APA REFERENCE STYLE: Unpublished Sources”. linguistics.byu.edu. 2002. Retrieved 7 March 2012.


Religious tourism, also commonly referred to as faith tourism, is a type of tourism, where people travel individually or in groups for pilgrimage, missionary, or leisure (fellowship) purposes. The world’s largest form of mass religious tourism takes place at the annual Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. North American religious tourists comprise an estimated $10 billion of the industry.[1]
Modern religious tourists are more able to visit holy cities and holy sites around the world. The most famous holy cities are Mecca, Madinah, Karbala, Jerusalem and Varanasi. The most famous holy sites are the Kaaba, Rauza of Imam Husain at Karbala, Church of the Nativity, The Western Wall and the Brahma Temple at Pushkar. Religious tourism has existed since antiquity. A study in 2011 found that 2.5 million people visited Karbala on the day of Arbaeen in 2013, pilgrims visited Jerusalem for a few reasons: to understand and appreciate their religion through a tangible experience, to feel secure about their religious beliefs, and to connect personally to the holy city
Cultural tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region’s culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle, as well as niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. This form of tourism is also becoming generally more popular throughout the world, and a recent OECD report has highlighted the role that cultural tourism can play in regional development in different world regions.[3]
Cultural tourism has been defined as ‘the movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs’. These cultural needs can include the solidification of one’s own cultural identity, by observing the exotic “other”.
Cultural tourism has a long history, and with its roots in the Grand Tour is arguably the original form of tourism. It is also one of the forms of tourism that most policy makers seem to be betting on for the future. The World Tourism Organisation, for example, asserted that cultural tourism accounted for 37% of global tourism, and forecast that it would grow at a rate of 15% per year. Such figures are often quoted in studies of the cultural tourism market (e.g. Bywater, 1993), but are rarely backed up with empirical research.
There exist numerous differences between religious and cultural tourism and some of them can be outline below;

1. Religious tourism, also commonly referred to as faith tourism, is a type of tourism, where people travel individually or in groups for pilgrimage, missionary, or leisure (fellowship) purposes Cultural tourism has been defined as ‘the movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs’
2. The idea of the religious pilgrimage begins almost with the dawn of humanity. The idea of the cultural ethics begins almost with the dawn of civilization.
3. Religious tourism is not only a visitation to a particular holy destination, but may also be travel for a humanitarian cause, for reasons of friendship or even as a form of leisure. Religious tourism is purely a form of visits to cultural sites and civilization

The emergence of cultural tourism and Religious tourism in research practice as an object of study dates back to the beginning of the XX century, but only in 2002 the International Council for cultural and historical monuments publish a formal definition as follows: “The cultural and cultural-cognitive tourism actually is this form of tourism, which focuses on the cultural environment, which in turn may include cultural and historical sights of a destination or cultural-historical heritage, values and lifestyle of the local population, arts, crafts, traditions and customs of the local population. Furthermore, cultural and cognitive routes may include a visit or participation in cultural activities and events, visit museums, concerts, exhibitions, galleries, etc. (International Council on Monuments and Sites).
The key category in that definition is the concept of “cultural heritage” which includes intangible and tangible movable and immovable heritage as “A set of cultural values that are carriers of historical memory, national identity and have scientific or cultural value” (Cultural Heritage Act, Art. 2, para. 1).
From the perspective of the development of religious and cultural tourism, the meaningful coverage of the concept of cultural heritage determines the application of an integrated approach – except traditional archaeological and historical monuments include the architecture, art and ethnographic heritage, museum infrastructure and cultural landscape and the acquiring in recent times particular importance religious heritage – Christian churches and temples of other religions. Cultural tourism includes besides all the visiting of historical sites and sightseeing, providing the opportunity for enjoyment of past human achievements. As part of domestic tourism, visiting such places is an object of admiration, national pride and rediscovering the achievements of our ancestors.
Both are instrument for economic development that achieves economic growth by attracting visitors outside the community-host who are motivated generally or partially by an interest in the historical, artistic, scientific or related to lifestyle and traditions reality and facts of a community, region, group or institution. Such a travel is focused on the feeling of the cultural environment, including landscapes, visual and performing arts, lifestyles, values, traditions and events. Tourism is looking for ways to create “marketable tourism products” as well as environment for work and life. Cultural-cognitive tourism is an interaction between cultural, ethnic and historical components of the society or of the place to be used as resources to attract tourists and tourism development.

• Dallen J. Timothy and Daniel H. Olsen, Tourism, religion and spiritual journeys, Routledge, 2006
• Razaq Raj and Nigel D. Morpeth, Religious tourism and pilgrimage festivals management : an international perspective, CABI, 2007


Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the “what” question (what are the characteristics of the population or situation being studied?) while the historical method is employed by researchers who are interested in reporting events and/or conditions that occurred in the past. An attempt is made to establish facts in order to arrive at conclusions concerning past events or predict future events.
Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies, but instead it can utilize elements of both, often within the same study. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive statistics tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect.
The type of question asked by the researcher will ultimately determine the type of approach necessary to complete an accurate assessment of the topic at hand. Descriptive studies, primarily concerned with finding out “what is,” might be applied to investigate the following questions: Do teachers hold favorable attitudes toward using computers in schools? What kinds of activities that involve technology occur in sixth-grade classrooms and how frequently do they occur? What have been the reactions of school administrators to technological innovations in teaching the social sciences? How have high school computing courses changed over the last 10 years? How do the new multimediated textbooks compare to the print-based textbooks? How are decisions being made about using Channel One in schools, and for those schools that choose to use it, how is Channel One being implemented? Descriptive research can be either quantitative or qualitative. It can involve collections of quantitative information that can be tabulated along a continuum in numerical form, such as scores on a test or the number of times a person chooses to use a-certain feature of a multimedia program, or it can describe categories of information such as gender or patterns of interaction when using technology in a group situation. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). It often uses visual aids such as graphs and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. Because the human mind cannot extract the full import of a large mass of raw data, descriptive statistics are very important in reducing the data to manageable form. When in-depth, narrative descriptions of small numbers of cases are involved, the research uses description as a tool to organize data into patterns that emerge during analysis. Those patterns aid the mind in comprehending a qualitative study and its implications.
Descriptive research is unique in the number of variables employed. Like other types of research, descriptive research can include multiple variables for analysis, yet unlike other methods, it requires only one variable (Borg & Gall, 1989). For example, a descriptive study might employ methods of analyzing correlations between multiple variables by using tests such as Pearson’s Product Moment correlation, regression, or multiple regression analysis
On the other hand, descriptive research might simply report the percentage summary on a single variable. Examples of this are the tally of reference citations in selected instructional design and technology journals by Anglin and Towers (1992); Barry’s (1994) investigation of the controversy surrounding advertising and Channel One; Lu, Morlan, Lerchlorlarn, Lee, and Dike’s (1993) investigation of the international utilization of media in education (1993); and Pettersson, Metallinos, Muffoletto, Shaw, and Takakuwa’s (1993) analysis of the use of verbo-visual information in teaching geography in various countries. Some examples of descriptive research include case studies and preliminary observation of a group. Case studies are examples of a relevant event that can be analyzed to learn about a specific group or topic. Observation is an essential part of descriptive research, and is the main way of gathering information.
Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, including the evidence of archaeology, to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. The question of the nature, and even the possibility, of a sound historical method is raised in the philosophy of history as a question of epistemology. The study of historical method and of different ways of writing history is known as historiography.
Historical research can also mean gathering data from situations that have already occurred and performing statistical analysis on this data just as we would in a traditional experiment. The one key difference between this type of research and the type described in the first paragraph concerns the manipulation of data. Since historical research relies on data from the past, there is no way to manipulate it. Studying the grades of older students, for example, and younger students may provide some insight into the differences between these two groups, but manipulating the work experience is impossible. Therefore, historical research can often lead to present day experiments that attempt to further explore what has occurred in the past.

An important goal of the research scientist is the publication of the results of a completed study. Scientific journals do not allow for literary embellishments and expressions, often seen in other journals, as the purpose is to communicate the scientific findings as clear as possible, in a highly stylized, distinctive fashion. This often makes it difficult for the applied professional to grasp all that the article has to offer. The purpose of this article is to help bridge much of that communication breach in scientific writing.
In almost every research article you read you will see a definite methodology develop that will help you understand the study. Fortunately, most research journals begin each article with an Abstract that summarizes the study for you Historical research involves understanding, studying, and explaining past events. Its purpose is to arrive at some conclusions concerning past occurrences that may help to anticipate or explain present or future events. Understanding past research from high-impact aerobics injuries has helped our industry design step and slide programs that offer safer means of achieving similar goals. Descriptive research often involves collecting information through data review, surveys, interviews, or observation. This type of research best describes the way things are. A review paper of previously reported research is descriptive research. The music and exercise article in this edition of IDEA Today is an example of this type of research. Often new ideas and theories are discovered and presented from this descriptive process.

C. Behan McCullagh, Justifying Historical Descriptions, Cambridge University Press: New York (1984). ISBN 0-521-31830-0.
Gilbert J. Garraghan, A Guide to Historical Method, Fordham University Press: New York (1946). ISBN 0-8371-7132-6
Louis Gottschalk, Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method, Alfred A. Knopf: New York (1950). ISBN 0-394-30215-X.

Martha Howell and Walter Prevenier, From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods, Cornell University Press: Ithaca (2001). ISBN 0-8014-8560-6.

Shields, Patricia and Rangarjan, N. 2013. A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Project Management. [1]. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press. See Chapter 4 for an in-depth discussion of descriptive research

Shields, Patricia and HassanTajalli. 2006. Intermediate Theory: The Missing Link in Successful Student Scholarship. Journal of Public Affairs Education. Vol. 12, No. 3. Pp. 313-334. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/polsfacp/39/


A business plan is a formal statement of business goals, reasons they are attainable, and plans for reaching them. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. Business plans may target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, taxpayer, or larger community. When the existing business is to assume a major change or when planning a new venture, a 3 to 5 year business plan is required, since investors will look for their investment return in that timeframe.
Business plans may be internally or externally focused. Externally focused plans target goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly financial stakeholders. They typically have detailed information about the organization or team attempting to reach the goals. With for-profit entities, external stakeholders include investors and customers. External stake-holders of non-profits include donors and the clients of the non-profit’s services. For government agencies, external stakeholders include tax-payers, higher-level government agencies, and international lending bodies such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, various economic agencies of the United Nations, and development banks.
Internally focused business plans target intermediate goals required to reach the external goals. They may cover the development of a new product, a new service, a new IT system, a restructuring of finance, the refurbishing of a factory or a restructuring of the organization. An internal business plan is often developed in conjunction with a balanced scorecard or a list of critical success factors. This allows success of the plan to be measured using non-financial measures. Business plans that identify and target internal goals, but provide only general guidance on how they will be met are called strategic plans.
Operational plans describe the goals of an internal organization, working group or department. Project plans, sometimes known as project frameworks, describe the goals of a particular project. They may also address the project’s place within the organization’s larger strategic goals.
Business plans are decision-making tools. The content and format of the business plan is determined by the goals and audience. For example, a business plan for a non-profit might discuss the fit between the business plan and the organization’s mission. Banks are quite concerned about defaults, so a business plan for a bank loan will build a convincing case for the organization’s ability to repay the loan. Venture capitalists are primarily concerned about initial investment, feasibility, and exit valuation. A business plan for a project requiring equity financing will need to explain why current resources, upcoming growth opportunities, and sustainable competitive advantage will lead to a high exit valuation.
Preparing a business plan draws on a wide range of knowledge from many different business disciplines: finance, human resource management, intellectual property management, supply chain management, operations management, and marketing, among others. It can be helpful to view the business plan as a collection of sub-plans, one for each of the main business disciplines.
“… a good business plan can help to make a good business credible, understandable, and attractive to someone who is unfamiliar with the business. Writing a good business plan can’t guarantee success, but it can go a long way toward reducing the odds of failure.”
The format of a business plan depends on its presentation context. It is common for businesses, especially start-ups, to have three or four formats for the same business plan.
An “elevator pitch” is a short summary of the plan’s executive summary. This is often used as a teaser to awaken the interest of potential investors, customers, or strategic partners.
A pitch deck is a slide show and oral presentation that is meant to trigger discussion and interest potential investors in reading the written presentation. The content of the presentation is usually limited to the executive summary and a few key graphs showing financial trends and key decision making benchmarks. If a new product is being proposed and time permits, a demonstration of the product may be included.
A written presentation for external stakeholders is a detailed, well written, and pleasingly formatted plan targeted at external stakeholders.
An internal operational plan is a detailed plan describing planning details that are needed by management but may not be of interest to external stakeholders. Such plans have a somewhat higher degree of candor and informality than the version targeted at external stakeholders and others.
Typical structure for a business plan for a start up venture
• cover page and table of contents
• executive summary
• mission statement
• business description
• business environment analysis
• SWOT analysis
• industry background
• competitor analysis
• market analysis
• marketing plan
• operations plan
• management summary
• financial plan
• attachments and milestones
Typical questions addressed by a business plan for a start up venture
• What problem does the company’s product or service solve? What niche will it fill?
• What is the company’s solution to the problem?
• Who are the company’s customers, and how will the company market and sell its products to them?
• What is the size of the market for this solution?
• What is the business model for the business (how will it make money)?
• Who are the competitors and how will the company maintain a competitive advantage?
• How does the company plan to manage its operations as it grows?
• Who will run the company and what makes them qualified to do so?
• What are the risks and threats confronting the business, and what can be done to mitigate them?
• What are the company’s capital and resource requirements?
• What are the company’s historical and projected financial statements
Business plans are documents used for planning out specific details about your business. They can range in size from a simple few sentences to more than 100 pages with formal sections, a table of contents and a title page. According to Entrepreneur Magazine, typical business plans average 15 to 20 pages. Comprehensive business plans have three sections–business concept, marketplace and financial–and these are broken down into seven components that include the overview or summary of the plan, a description of the business, market strategies, competition analysis, design and development, operations and management, and financial information. Even small one-page business plans have importance and purpose for the success of the business however.
Clarify Direction
The primary purpose of a business plan is to define what the business is or what it intends to be over time. Clarifying the purpose and direction of your business allows you to understand what needs to be done for forward movement. Clarifying can consist of a simple description of your business and its products or services, or it can specify the exact product lines and services you’ll offer, as well as a detailed description of your ideal customer.

Future Vision
Businesses evolve and adapt over time, and factoring future growth and direction into the business plan can be an effective way to plan for changes in the market, growing or slowing trends, and new innovations or directions to take as the company grows. Although clarifying direction in the business plan lets you know where you’re starting, future vision allows you to have goals to reach for.
Attract Financing
The Small Business Administration states, “The development of a comprehensive business plan shows whether or not a business has the potential to make a profit.” By putting statistics, facts, figures and detailed plans in writing, a new business has a better chance of attracting investors to provide the capital needed for getting started.
Attract Team Members
Business plans can be designed as a sale tool to attract partners, secure supplier accounts and attract executive level employees into the new venture. Business plans can be shared with the executive candidates or desired partners to help convince them of the potential for the business, and persuade them to join the team.
Manage Company
A business plan conveys the organizational structure of your business, including titles of directors or officers and their individual duties. It also acts as a management tool that can be referred to regularly to ensure the business is on course with meeting goals, sales targets or operational milestones.
A business plan is a tool with three basic purposes: communication, management, and planning.
As a communication tool, it is used to attract investment capital, secure loans, convince workers to hire on, and assist in attracting strategic business partners. The development of a comprehensive business plan shows whether or not a business has the potential to make a profit. It requires a realistic look at almost every phase of business and allows you to show that you have worked out all the problems and decided on potential alternatives before actually launching your business.
As a management tool, the business plan helps you track, monitor and evaluate your progress. The business plan is a living document that you will modify as you gain knowledge and experience. By using your business plan to establish timelines and milestones, you can gauge your progress and compare your projections to actual accomplishments.
As a planning tool, the business plan guides you through the various phases of your business. A thoughtful plan will help identify roadblocks and obstacles so that you can avoid them and establish alternatives. Many business owners share their business plans with their employees to foster a broader understanding of where the business is going.
Cost overruns and revenue shortfalls
Cost and revenue estimates are central to any business plan for deciding the viability of the planned venture. But costs are often underestimated and revenues overestimated resulting in later cost overruns, revenue shortfalls, and possibly non-viability. During the dot-com bubble 1997-2001 this was a problem for many technology start-ups. Reference class forecasting has been developed to reduce the risks of cost overruns and revenue shortfalls and thus generate more accurate business plans
Legal and liability issues
Disclosure requirements
An externally targeted business plan should list all legal concerns and financial liabilities that might negatively affect investors. Depending on the amount of funds being raised and the audience to whom the plan is presented, failure to do this may have severe legal consequences.
Limitations on content and audience
Non disclosure agreements (NDAs) with third parties, non-compete agreements, conflicts of interest, privacy concerns, and the protection of one’s trade secrets may severely limit the audience to which one might show the business plan. Alternatively, they may require each party receiving the business plan to sign a contract accepting special clauses and conditions.
This situation is complicated by the fact that many venture capitalists will refuse to sign an NDA before looking at a business plan, lest it put them in the untenable position of looking at two independently developed look-alike business plans, both claiming originality. In such situations one may need to develop two versions of the business plan: a stripped down plan that can be used to develop a relationship and a detail plan that is only shown when investors have sufficient interest and trust to sign an NDA.
Open business plans
Traditionally business plans have been highly confidential and quite limited in audience. The business plan itself is generally regarded as secret. However, the emergence of free software and open source has opened the model and made the notion of an open business plan possible.
An open business plan is a business plan with unlimited audience. The business plan is typically web published and made available to all.
In the free software and open source business model, trade secrets, copyright and patents can no longer be used as effective locking mechanisms to provide sustainable advantages to a particular business and therefore a secret business plan is less relevant in those models.
• Education
o Business plans are used in some primary and secondary programs to teach economic principles.[10]
o Wikiversity has a Lunar Boom Town project where students of all ages can collaborate with designing and revising business models and practice evaluating them to learn practical business planning techniques and methodology
• Fundraising
Fundraising is the primary purpose for many business plans, since they are related to the inherent probable success/failure of the company risk.

o Angel investors
o Business loans
o Grants
o Startup company funding
o Venture capital
• Internal use
o Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives (as can be detailed within business plans) within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they are in the organization.
o Strategic planning is an organization’s process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. Business plans can help decision makers see how specific projects relate to the organization’s strategic plan.
o Total quality management (TQM) is a business management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. TQM has been widely used in manufacturing, education, call centers, government, and service industries, as well as NASA space and science programs.

The business plan is the subject of many satires. Satires are used both to express cynicism about business plans and as an educational tool to improve the quality of business plans. For example,
• In his presentation, Five Criteria For a Successful Business Plan in Biotech, Dr. Roger Bernier, uses Dilbert comic strips to remind people what not to do when researching and writing a business plan for a biotech start-up.
• Selena Maranjian’s “Fool on the Hill” article in the The Motley Fool, “‘South Park’s’ Investing Lesson” (November 8, 2001), references the “Underpants Gnomes” to illustrate the fallacy of focusing on goals without a clear implementation strategy. That “Gnomes” episode satirizes the business plans of the Dot-com era.

Nearly all business experts agree on one thing: the importance of drafting a business plan. Yet plenty of companies plunge into the competitive arena without a formal plan. Why? We’ve heard plenty of excuses posing as reasons.
A lot of new businesses are carried away and figure their passion and optimism are enough to build a successful company. Others say they were just too busy to develop a formal business plan. But operating without a plan can prove even more time-consuming in the long run.

Pinson, Linda. (2004). Anatomy of a Business Plan: A Step-by-Step
Guide to Building a Business and Securing Your Company’s Future (6th Edition). Page 20. Dearborn Trade: Chicago, USA.
Small Business Notes business plan outline for small business
Tasmanian government project management knowledge base
government project plan Archived June 22, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Eric S. Siegel, Brian R. Ford, Jay M. Bornstein (1993), ‘The Ernst &
Young Business Plan Guide’ (New York: John Wiley and Sons) ISBN 0-471-57826-6
Creating a Business Plan: Expert Solutions to Everyday Challenges.
United States: Harvard Business School. 2007. p. 7. ISBN 1422118851.
“Cayenne Consultng LLC Ten Big Questions” (PDF). ‘Cayenne
Consultng LLC’. Cayenne Consultng LLC. 2015-03-28. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
“Pennsylvania Business Plan Competition”. Economic Spa.
competition intended to teach economic principles to K-12 students
Bernier, Ph.D., P.Ag., Roger Laurent. Five Criteria For a Successful Business Plan in Biotech. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012.
Maranjian, Selena (November 8, 2001). “‘South Park’s’ Investing Lesson”. The Motley Fool.


Feminism is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as ‘the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes.’ At one level this is very simple, seeking equal and fair treatment for both men and women, not discriminating against either just because of their gender. it could be said that feminism aligns itself with the Biblical statement that we are all created in God’s image, both male and female (Genesis 1:27) and God’s image can’t be second-rate.
On the other hand feminism as a concept has become hugely loaded and divisive. So often it morphs into a form of identity politics where women’s rights become tied to a pro-choice, anti-marriage, secularist agenda supportive of LBGT rights and hostile towards perceived masculine privilege. To call yourself a feminist causes others to make assumptions about you that may or may not be true.
The following are a brief response to the common features of (non-evangelical) feminism
1 One God , the Creator – not ‘All is One’
Theism and monism are opposed. The Bible proclaims that God existed before the Creation, and cannot be identified with the Creation. He is ‘other’. God has named himself, and the name of God represents who he is. ‘To challenge or change the name of God as God has revealed it is a denial of God.’
2 Christ is the only way to God – all religions are not one
If there were any other way to be right with God, then Christ’s death on the Cross is the ultimate absurdity. The Bible proclaims that this is the only way to God.
3 The problem with the world is sin – not ‘making distinctions’
The evils noted by feminists, evils of oppression and misogyny, are caused by sin: ie. rebellion against God and his laws.
Christian feminists redefine sin, some saying that it is patriarchy. Those affirming goddess spirituality tend to adopt the monist view that ‘sin’ lies in making dualistic distinctions, for example between good and evil or between Creator and Created.
4 True religion based on revelation – not human experience
Much of Christian feminism is just the latest development in the progression of liberal theology, which takes its departure from human experience. Personal (female) experience is always the benchmark. But what when experiences diverge? I am a woman, and my experience is that of liberation and fulfillment within a conservative Christian context, but presumably my experience is invalid because Christian feminists would judge that I have been brainwashed. Is it only those women whose experience fits feminist pre-suppositions whose experience counts? We others are judged to need ‘re-education’ or ‘consciousness raising’ through a women’s studies course or similar. Christian feminist texts provide a bewildering smorgasbord of ideas, because each author is free to make up their theology as they go along. Liberated from an authoritative canon, theology becomes totally arbitrary.
5 Christian and post-Christian feminist theo/alogy is intolerant in the extreme
Orthodox Christianity is routinely denounced as demonic, toxic etc. All previous ‘patriarchal’ interpretations bear bitter fruit and the tree must be cut down: feminist interpreters are there with the axe. Indeed, it must be so, as for many ‘patriarchy’ is now defined as sin. There are astounding personal attacks on those who disagree: for example Rosemary Radford Ruether refers to women who are conservative as ignorant, unqualified, and usually dependent on their bread-winning husbands (only ‘one man away from benefits’). Much of the discussion is extremely patronising, for example Elizabeth Schussler Fiorenza has decided that poor men are now to be called ‘subaltans’ and are to be regarded as wo/men.
6 Are Christianity and feminism compatible?
Evangelicals are divided on this. Evangelical feminists (‘egalitarians’) believe they are compatible. They believe that although the Bible was written within a patriarchal framework, the principles of freedom and equality are contained within it, and we can keep the principles and discard the cultural husk. They reject gender-based differentiation of roles within church and family. Others disagree. On the far right are those who are unashamedly chauvinistic, and use the Bible to endorse oppressive marriages and female passivity within the church.
Then there are those in the middle, evangelicals who abhor abuse of women, who do not believe women should be passive in the church (or in marriage) but who affirm the complementarity of men and women: that they are created ‘different by design’. This is referred to as the ‘complementarian’ perspective. For example, Mary Kassian argues that commitment to feminism ultimately leads one away from maintaining absolute confidence in the authority of Scripture. One has to choose an ultimate authority, the Bible or experience. She documents the journey of several Biblical feminists away from conservative Christianity towards radical feminism and pagan spirituality. (Kassian, The Feminist Gospel, pp. 225-240). Certainly post-Christian feminists such as Daphne Hampson would agree that the Bible and feminism are incompatible. You have to choose one authority or the other: Scripture or female experience.
It is possible to be fully committed to the dignity and equality of women and not be a feminist. The Bible teaches that men and women are of equal value in God’s sight, created equally in his image. But it also makes it clear that created beings do not have the right to name God. God has named himself, his creation, and he has named man and woman.

It is impossible to categorically condemn or affirm feminism based on the Bible. It has gone through too many stages and has now branched off into too many variations. As with many movements, the individual messages must be judged on their own merits. It was good for femininity to gain a value in society and for the needs of women to be addressed. It is fine for women to have reached a place of freedom within their culture. But many of the issues feminists have supported with that freedom have been unwise or sinful. As with anything, we should study the Scriptures and see what God says—and be willing to accept His Word on it. It may not be what we expect or would wish for, but it will be what’s best.

Ann Loades, ed. Feminist Theology: A Reader. SPCK, 1990
Melissa Raphael. Introducing Thealogy: Discourse on the Goddess. Sheffield Academic Press, 1999.
Letty M. Russell, ed. Feminist Interpretation of the Bible. Westminster Press, 1985.
Mary Kassian. The Feminist Gospel: The Movement to Unite Feminism with the Church. Crossway, 1992. (New edition now available, entitled The Feminist
Mistake: The Radical impact of Feminism on Church and Culture. Crossway, 2005).
Kimel, Alvin F. jr. Speaking the Christian God: The Holy Trinity and the Challenge of Feminism. Eerdmans, USA and Gracewing, UK. 1992. Kimel, Alvin F.jr. This is my Name Forever. IVP, US, 2001.
Critiques of evangelical feminism:
Wayne Grudem, Evangelical Feminism and Biblical Truth. IVP. 2005.
Sharon James, God’s Design for Women. Evangelical Press, 2002.


Calvinism is the theological system associated with the Reformer John Calvin that emphasizes the rule of God over all things as reflected in its understanding of Scripture, God, humanity, salvation, and the church. In popular vernacular, Calvinism often refers to the Five Points of Calvinistic doctrine regarding salvation, which make up the acrostic TULIP. In its broader sense, Calvinism is associated with Reformed theology. Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Calvinists broke with the Roman Catholic Church but differed with Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of God’s law for believers, among other things. Calvinism can be a misleading term because the religious tradition it denotes is and has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. The movement was first called Calvinism by Lutherans who opposed it, and many within the tradition would prefer to use the word Reformed. Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition — as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism — divided into separate groups, Arminians and Calvinists.
Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity, but most are presbyterian or congregationalist with some being episcopalian.
While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism. Some have also argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation.
Early influential Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox. In the twentieth century Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til and Gordon Clark were influential, while contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, R. C. Sproul, Timothy J. Keller, John Piper, and Michael Horton.
The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 80 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations like the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as

Five points of Calvinism
Most objections to and attacks on Calvinism focus on the “five points of Calvinism,” also called the doctrines of grace, and remembered by the mnemonic “TULIP.” The five points are popularly said to summarize the Canons of Dort; however, there is no historical relationship between them, and some scholars argue that their language distorts the meaning of the Canons, Calvin’s theology, and the theology of 17th-century Calvinistic orthodoxy, particularly in the language of total depravity and limited atonement. The five points were popularized in the 1963 booklet The Five Points of Calvinism Defined, Defended, Documented by David N. Steele and Curtis C. Thomas. The origins of the five points and the acronym are uncertain, but the acronym was used by Cleland Boyd McAfee as early as circa 1905. An early printed appearance of the T-U-L-I-P acronym is in Loraine Boettner’s 1932 book, The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination. The acronym was very cautiously if ever used by Calvinist apologists and theologians before the booklet by Steele and Thomas. More recently, theologians have sought to reformulate the TULIP acronym to more accurately reflect the Canons of Dort.
The central assertion of these points is that God saves every person upon whom he has mercy, and that his efforts are not frustrated by the unrighteousness or inability of humans.
• “Total depravity,” also called “total inability,” asserts that as a consequence of the fall of man into sin, every person is enslaved to sin. People are not by nature inclined to love God but rather to serve their own interests and to reject the rule of God. Thus, all people by their own faculties are morally unable to choose to follow God and be saved because they are unwilling to do so out of the necessity of their own natures. (The term “total” in this context refers to sin affecting every part of a person, not that every person is as evil as they could be). This doctrine is derived from Augustine’s explanation of Original Sin. While the phrases “totally depraved” and “utterly perverse” were used by Calvin, what was meant was the inability to save oneself from sin rather than being absent of goodness. Phrases like “total depravity” cannot be found in the Canons of Dort, and the Canons as well as later Reformed orthodox theologians arguably offer a more moderate view of the nature of fallen humanity than Calvin.
• “Unconditional election” asserts that God has chosen from eternity those whom he will bring to himself not based on foreseen virtue, merit, or faith in those people; rather, his choice is unconditionally grounded in his mercy alone. God has chosen from eternity to extend mercy to those he has chosen and to withhold mercy from those not chosen. Those chosen receive salvation through Christ alone. Those not chosen receive the just wrath that is warranted for their sins against God.
• “Limited atonement,” also called “particular redemption” or “definite atonement”, asserts that Jesus’s substitutionary atonement was definite and certain in its purpose and in what it accomplished. This implies that only the sins of the elect were atoned for by Jesus’s death. Calvinists do not believe, however, that the atonement is limited in its value or power, but rather that the atonement is limited in the sense that it is intended for some and not all. Some Calvinists have summarized this as “The atonement is sufficient for all and efficient for the elect.” All Calvinists would affirm that the blood of Christ was sufficient to pay for every single human being IF it were God’s intention to save every single human being. But Calvinists are also quick to point out that Jesus did not spill a drop of blood in vain (Galatians 2:21), and therefore, we can only be sure that His blood sufficed for those for whom it was intended, however many (Matthew 26:28) or few (Matthew 7:14) that may be. Some Calvinists also teach that the atonement accomplished certain benefits for all mankind, albeit, not their eternal salvation. The doctrine is driven by the Calvinistic concept of the sovereignty of God in salvation and their understanding of the nature of the atonement. At the Synod of Dort, both sides agreed that the atonement of Christ’s death was sufficient to pay for all sin and that it was only efficacious for some (it only actually saved some). The controversy centered on whether this limited efficacy was based on God’s election (the view of the Synod and of later Reformed theologians) or on the choice of each person and God’s foreknowledge of that choice (the view of Arminius).
• “Irresistible grace,” also called “efficacious grace”, asserts that the saving grace of God is effectually applied to those whom he has determined to save (that is, the elect) and overcomes their resistance to obeying the call of the gospel, bringing them to a saving faith. This means that when God sovereignly purposes to save someone, that individual certainly will be saved. The doctrine holds that this purposeful influence of God’s Holy Spirit cannot be resisted, but that the Holy Spirit, “graciously causes the elect sinner to cooperate, to believe, to repent, to come freely and willingly to Christ.” This is not to deny the fact that the Spirit’s outward call (through the proclamation of the Gospel) can be, and often is, rejected by sinners; rather, it’s that inward call which cannot be rejected.
• “Perseverance of the saints” (or perseverance of God with the saints) (the word “saints” is used to refer to all who are set apart by God, and not of those who are exceptionally holy, canonized, or in heaven) asserts that since God is sovereign and his will cannot be frustrated by humans or anything else, those whom God has called into communion with himself will continue in faith until the end. Those who apparently fall away either never had true faith to begin with (1 John 2:19), or, if they are saved but not presently walking in the Spirit, they will be divinely chastened (Hebrews 12:5–11) and will repent (1 John 3:6–9).
There are two mains camps of theology within Christianity in America today: Arminianism and Calvinism. Calvinism is a system of biblical interpretation taught by John Calvin. Calvin lived in France in the 1500’s at the time of Martin Luther who sparked the Reformation.
The system of Calvinism adheres to a very high view of scripture and seeks to derive its theological formulations based solely on God’s word. It focuses on God’s sovereignty, stating that God is able and willing by virtue of his omniscience, omnipresence, and omnipotence, to do whatever He desires with His creation. It also maintains that within the Bible are the following teachings: That God, by His sovereign grace predestines people into salvation; that Jesus died only for those predestined; that God regenerates the individual where he is then able and wants to choose God; and that it is impossible for those who are redeemed to lose their salvation.
Arminianism, on the other hand, maintains that God predestined, but not in an absolute sense. Rather, He looked into the future to see who would pick him and then He chose them. Jesus died for all peoples’ sins who have ever lived and ever will live, not just the Christians. Each person is the one who decides if he wants to be saved or not. And finally, it is possible to lose your salvation (some arminians believe you cannot lose your salvation).
Basically, Calvinism is known by an acronym: T.U.L.I.P.
Total Depravity (also known as Total Inability and Original Sin)
Unconditional Election
Limited Atonement (also known as Particular Atonement)
Irresistible Grace
Perseverance of the Saints (also known as Once Saved Always Saved)
The principle of Calvin’s system can be expressed by the term Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone). This principle of the Reformation demonstrates the conviction that the Bible is the Word of God and therefore the final authority in belief and practice. A common mistake is made when Sola Scriptura is understood as the Bible “alone.” Calvin and the Reformers, believed strongly in church tradition, e.g. Calvin consistently and often cites the early church fathers. However, Scripture had the final authority and tradition was given a subordinate role. The authority of Scripture was not through rational argumentation or proofs, but through the witness of the Holy Spirit. [1]
Calvinism affirms and confesses the historic doctrine of the Trinity: God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. God is perfect in all his attributes, and is self-sufficient. Therefore, God is not subject to time or other beings, nor is he reducible to matter or spatial categories available to human reasoning or examination.[2] God is also mysterious, or hidden, except as he chooses to reveal himself to men, which He has done in the Scriptures.
Salvation (Five Points of Calvinism)
The Calvinist doctrine of salvation is summarized in what is commonly called the Five Points of Calvinism, or the Doctrines of Grace, known by the acronym TULIP. These five points are a summary of the Canons of Dort which in turn was the judgment of the Synod of Dort (1618–1619) against related Arminian teaching. These five points are not intended to be a comprehensive summary of Calvinism or Reformed doctrine, but an exposition of the sovereignty of God in salvation — arranged to address the particular points in dispute raised by the Arminians of that day.
Note: The summary wording below is adapted from the Center for Reformed Theology and Apologetics
Total depravity
Calvinism teaches that humanity is totally depraved. Due to the Fall, the original relationship that Adam and Eve enjoyed with God was severed by sin. This affected the entire human race, corrupting the heart, mind, and will of every person born. Thus, people’s natural actions and affections, whether viewed by man as bad or good, are never pleasing to God. The Calvinist understanding of total depravity does not mean that people are as evil as they possibly could be. People still make good choices (from a human perspective), but no matter how good they may be, they never gain favor with God. While total depravity is commonly associated with John Calvin, this theological viewpoint is based on the theology of Augustine (b. 354).
• See main page: Total depravity
• Contrast with Universal prevenient grace
Unconditional election
Unconditional election is the doctrine which states that God chose those whom he was pleased to bring to a knowledge of himself, not based upon any merit shown by the object of his grace and not based upon foreseen faith (especially a mere decisional faith). God has elected, based solely upon the counsel of his own will, some for glory and others for damnation (Romans 9:15, 21). He has done this act before the foundations of the world (Ephesians 1:4–8).

Calvinism is a theological system of Christian interpretation initiated by John Calvin. It emphasizes predestination and salvation. The five points of Calvinism were developed in response to the Arminian position (See Arminianism). Calvinism teaches: 1) Total depravity: that man is touched by sin in all parts of his being: body, soul, mind, and emotions, 2) Unconditional Election: that God’s favor to Man is completely by God’s free choice and has nothing to do with Man. It is completely undeserved by Man and is not based on anything God sees in man (Eph. 1:1-11), 3) Limited atonement: that Christ did not bear the sins of every individual who ever lived but instead only bore the sins of those who were elected into salvation (John 10:11, 15), 4) Irresistible grace: that God’s call to someone for salvation cannot be resisted, 5) Perseverance of the saints: that it is not possible to lose one’s salvation (John 10:27-28).

Schaff, Philip. “Protestantism”. New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge IX. pp. 297–299.

Muller, Richard A. (2006). Dictionary of Latin and Greek Theological Terms: Drawn Principally from Protestant Scholastic Theology (1st ed.). Baker Book House. pp. 320–321. ISBN 978-0801020643.

Hägglund, Bengt (2007). Teologins Historia [History of Theology] (in German). Translated by Gene J. Lund (Fourth Revised ed.). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.

Muller 2004, p. 130.

“Reformed Churches”. Christian Cyclopedia.

Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Vol. Two: The Reformation to the Present Day (New York: HarperCollins, 1985; reprint – Peabody: Prince Press, 2008) 180

“Theology and Communion”. Wcrc.ch. Retrieved 2013-12-05.