Easter (also called the Pasch or Pascha) is a Christian festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day after his crucifixion at Calvary as described in the New Testament. Easter is the culmination of the Passion of Christ, preceded by Lent, a forty-day period of fasting, prayer, and penance. The last week of Lent is called Holy Week, and it contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday (also known as Holy Thursday), commemorating the Last Supper and its preceding foot washing, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. Easter is followed by a fifty-day period called Eastertide or the Easter Season, ending with Pentecost Sunday.

Easter is a moveable feast, meaning it is not fixed in relation to the civil calendar. The First Council of Nicaea (325) established the date of Easter as the first Sunday after the full moon (the Paschal Full Moon) following the March equinox. Ecclesiastically, the equinox is reckoned to be on 21 March (even though the equinox occurs, astronomically speaking, on 20 March in most years), and the “Full Moon” is not necessarily the astronomically correct date. The date of Easter therefore varies between 22 March and 25 April. Eastern Christianity bases its calculations on the Julian calendar whose 21 March corresponds, during the 21st century, to 3 April in the Gregorian calendar, in which the celebration of Easter therefore varies between 4 April and 8 May.

Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In many languages, the words for “Easter” and “Passover” are etymologically related or homonymous. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, but attending sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church and decorating Easter eggs, a symbol of the empty tomb, are common motifs. Additional customs include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, and Easter parades, which are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians.

The second-century equivalent of Easter and the Paschal Triduum was called by both Greek and Latin writers Pascha, derived from the Hebrew term Pesach (פֶּסַח), known in English as Passover, the Jewish festival commemorating the story of the Exodus. Paul writes from Ephesus that “Christ our Pascha has been sacrificed for us,” although the Ephesian Christians were not the first to hear that Exodus 12 spoke about the death of Jesus. In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast today is known by the name Pascha and words derived from it.

The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern German Ostern, developed from the Old English word Ēastre or Ēostre, which itself developed prior to 899. This is generally held to have originally referred to the name of an Anglo-Saxon goddess, Ēostre, a form of the widely attested Indo-European dawn goddess. The evidence for the Anglo-Saxon goddess, however, has not been universally accepted, and some have proposed that Eostre may have meant “the month of opening” or that the name Easter may have arisen from the designation of Easter Week in Latin as in albis.




Theological significance

The New Testament teaches that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is a foundation of the Christian faith. The resurrection established Jesus as the powerful Son of God and is cited as proof that God will judge the world in righteousness. God has given Christians “a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead”. Christians, through faith in the working of God are spiritually resurrected with Jesus so that they may walk in a new way of life.

Easter is linked to the Passover and Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion that preceded the resurrection. According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as he prepared himself and his disciples for his death in the upper room during the Last Supper. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, “Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you really are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed”;this refers to the Passover requirement to have no yeast in the house and to the allegory of Jesus as the Paschal lamb.

One interpretation of the Gospel of John is that Jesus, as the Passover lamb, was crucified at roughly the same time as the Passover lambs were being slain in the temple, on the afternoon of Nisan 14. The scriptural instructions specify that the lamb is to be slain “between the two evenings”, that is, at twilight. By the Roman period, however, the sacrifices were performed in the mid-afternoon. Josephus, Jewish War 6.10.1/423 (“They sacrifice from the ninth to the eleventh hour”). Philo, Special Laws 2.27/145 (“Many myriads of victims from noon till eventide are offered by the whole people”). This interpretation, however, is inconsistent with the chronology in the Synoptic Gospels. It assumes that text literally translated “the preparation of the passover” in John 19:14 refers to Nisan 14 (Preparation Day for the Passover) and not necessarily to Yom Shishi (Friday, Preparation Day for Sabbath) and that the priests’ desire to be ritually pure in order to “eat the passover” refers to eating the Passover lamb, not to the public offerings made during the days of Unleavened Bread.


Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts, in that they do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars (both of which follow the cycle of the sun and the seasons). Instead, the date for Easter is determined on a lunisolar calendar similar to the Hebrew calendar. The First Council of Nicaea (325) established the date of Easter as the first Sunday after the full moon (the Paschal Full Moon) following the March equinox. Ecclesiastically, the equinox is reckoned to be on 21 March (even though the equinox occurs, astronomically speaking, on 20 March in most years), and the “Full Moon” is not necessarily the astronomically correct date.

In Western Christianity, using the Gregorian calendar, Easter always falls on a Sunday between March 22 and April 25 included.[44] The following day, Easter Monday, is a legal holiday in many countries with predominantly Christian traditions.

Eastern Christianity bases its calculations on the Julian Calendar. Due to the 13-day difference between the calendars between 1900 and 2099, 21 March corresponds, during the 21st century, to 3 April in the Gregorian Calendar. Easter therefore varies between 4 April and 8 May on the Gregorian calendar (the Julian calendar is no longer used as the civil calendar of the countries where Eastern Christian traditions predominate). Among the Oriental Orthodox some churches have changed from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar and the date for Easter as for other fixed and moveable feasts is the same as in the Western church.



Good Friday is a religious holiday observed primarily by Christians commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary. The holiday is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, and may coincide with the Jewish observance of Passover. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Black Friday, or Easter Friday, though the latter properly refers to the Friday in Easter week.

Based on the details of the Canonical gospels, the Crucifixion of Jesus was most likely to have been on a Friday (John 19:42). The estimated year of the Crucifixion is AD 33, by two different groups, and originally as AD 34 by Isaac Newton via the differences between the Biblical and Julian calendars and the crescent of the moon. A third method, using a completely different astronomical approach based on a lunar Crucifixion darkness and eclipse model (consistent with Apostle Peter‘s reference to a “moon of blood” in Acts 2:20), points to Friday, 3 April AD 33.

According to the accounts in the Gospels, the Temple Guards, guided by Jesus’ disciple Judas Iscariot, arrested Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane. Judas received money (30 pieces of silver) (Matthew 26:14-16) for betraying Jesus and told the guards that whomever he kisses is the one they are to arrest. Following his arrest, Jesus was brought to the house of Annas, the father-in-law of the high priest, Caiaphas. There he was interrogated with little result and sent bound to Caiaphas the high priest where the Sanhedrin had assembled (John 18:1-24).

Conflicting testimony against Jesus was brought forth by many witnesses, to which Jesus answered nothing. Finally the high priest adjured Jesus to respond under solemn oath, saying “I adjure you, by the Living God, to tell us, are you the Anointed One, the Son of God?” Jesus testified ambiguously, “You have said it, and in time you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Almighty, coming on the clouds of Heaven.” The high priest condemned Jesus for blasphemy, and the Sanhedrin concurred with a sentence of death (Matthew 26:57-66). Peter, waiting in the courtyard, also denied Jesus three times to bystanders while the interrogations were proceeding just as Jesus had predicted.

In the morning, the whole assembly brought Jesus to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate under charges of subverting the nation, opposing taxes to Caesar, and making himself a king (Luke 23:1-2). Pilate authorized the Jewish leaders to judge Jesus according to their own law and execute sentencing; however, the Jewish leaders replied that they were not allowed by the Romans to carry out a sentence of death (John 18:31).

–Pilate questioned Jesus and told the assembly that there was no basis for sentencing. Upon learning that Jesus was from Galilee, Pilate referred the case to the ruler of Galilee, King Herod, who was in Jerusalem for the Passover Feast. Herod questioned Jesus but received no answer; Herod sent Jesus back to Pilate. Pilate told the assembly that neither he nor Herod found guilt in Jesus; Pilate resolved to have Jesus whipped and released (Luke 23:3-16). Under the guidance of the chief priests, the crowd asked for Barabbas, who had been imprisoned for committing murder during an insurrection. Pilate asked what they would have him do with Jesus, and they demanded, “Crucify him” (Mark 15:6-14). Pilate’s wife had seen Jesus in a dream earlier that day, and she forewarned Pilate to “have nothing to do with this righteous man” (Matthew 27:19). Pilate had Jesus flogged and then brought him out to the crowd to release him. The chief priests informed Pilate of a new charge, demanding Jesus be sentenced to death “because he claimed to be God’s son.” This possibility filled Pilate with fear, and he brought Jesus back inside the palace and demanded to know from where he came (John 19:1-9).

Coming before the crowd one last time, Pilate declared Jesus innocent and washed his own hands in water to show he has no part in this condemnation. Nevertheless, Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified in order to forestall a riot (Matthew 27:24-26) and ultimately to keep his job. The sentence written was “Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews.” Jesus carried his cross to the site of execution (assisted by Simon of Cyrene), called the place of the Skull, or “Golgotha” in Hebrew and in Latin “Calvary”. There he was crucified along with two criminals (John 19:17-22).

Jesus agonized on the cross for six hours. During his last 3 hours on the cross, from noon to 3 p.m., darkness fell over the whole land.[6] With a loud cry, Jesus gave up his spirit. There was an earthquake, tombs broke open, and the curtain in the Temple was torn from top to bottom. The centurion on guard at the site of crucifixion declared, “Truly this was God’s Son!” (Matthew 27:45-54)

Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin and secret follower of Jesus, who had not consented to his condemnation, goes to Pilate to request the body of Jesus (Luke 23:50-52). Another secret follower of Jesus and member of the Sanhedrin named Nicodemus brought about a hundred pound weight mixture of spices and helped wrap the body of Christ (John 19:39-40). Pilate asks confirmation from the centurion whether Jesus is dead (Mark 15:44). A soldier pierced the side of Jesus with a lance causing blood and water to flow out (John 19:34), and the centurion informs Pilate that Jesus is dead (Mark 15:45).

Joseph of Arimathea took Jesus’ body, wrapped it in a clean linen shroud, and placed it in his own new tomb that had been carved in the rock (Matthew 27:59-60) in a garden near the site of crucifixion. Nicodemus (John 3:1) also brought 75 pounds of myrrh and aloes, and placed them in the linen with the body, in keeping with Jewish burial customs (John 19:39-40). They rolled a large rock over the entrance of the tomb (Matthew 27:60). Then they returned home and rested, because Shabbat had begun at sunset (Luke 23:54-56). On the third day, Sunday, which is now known as Easter Sunday (or Pascha), Jesus rose from the dead.



Want to know what the application process is like for international students? Check out this step-by-step guide that could have you applying to U.S. colleges in no time. Does the idea of studying in the United States cross your mind every once in a while? Do you want access to global perspectives by studying in a diverse learning environment? Or are you simply looking for an adventure? No matter what your reason is for wanting a U.S. education, you’re not alone. In fact, the number of international students in the United States reached an all-time high during the 2010 to 2011 academic year, at 723,277, according to “Open Doors 2011: Report on International Educational Exchange” by the Institute of International Education, an independent organization that has been conducting an annual census of international students in the U.S. since 1919. Judith A. McHale, former undersecretary of state for public diplomacy and public affairs says that a high number of foreigners studying in the United States “testifies to the quality and diversity for which American higher education is known around the world.” So, whether you want to study at a traditional U.S. campus or earn an American education online in your home country, you’re in luck. Both options are possible, and the process to make it happen isn’t as complicated as you might think. Keep reading to find out which steps you need to take to get the education you always wanted to. Step 1 – Research and Narrow Down Your Options One of the upsides of studying in the United States is that you have a variety of schools to choose from. In fact, as of July 2012, there were over 7,000 higher education institutions in the country, according to the U.S. Department of Education. And that’s not all. For those who would prefer to receive an American education at home, you’ll also have a great selection of online programs to choose from. “The institutions that offer distance education programs are almost as varied as the programs themselves,” says Education USA, a global network of advising centers supported by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. Online programs are available through traditional U.S. colleges and universities and other educational institutions, such as virtual universities, and junior or community colleges. But with so many options, how will you find the right program and school for you? To start, you should find out what colleges or universities offer the programs you’re interested in. To gain more information, you could use independent websites like the College Board or the American Association of Community Colleges, attend educational fairs, or simply refer to college and university websites. After you know what’s out there, start narrowing your choices by what meets your interest and needs. Step 2 – Get a Head Start on Your Application When it comes to college applications, the sooner you start, the better. Why? Because “Application packages require a great deal of preparation and planning,” says Education USA. It adds that “Most [programs] have similar application procedures for enrollment into a distance education program as on-site programs.” Although requirements vary by institution, they may include educational credentials, standardized tests, recommendation letters, and essays. Here are a few tips Education USA says could help students plan ahead: • Look online for application forms 12 months prior to when you want to enroll. • Request official transcripts of your academic performance and make a certified copy of your high school diploma 11 months prior to enrollment. • If you’re documents are in another language, you’ll also want to get your documents translated into English. • Ask teachers or the head principal of your school to write a recommendation letters 11 months prior to enrollment. • Take standardized tests eight months before you plan to enroll. Some tests you might be required to take to apply: • SAT • ACT • TOEFL Another part of your application may include writing a personal statement, which is described as Education USA as “your chance to write about your interests and strengths.” Stephanie Balmer, Dean of Admissions at Dickinson College, also recommends that you write about how you’ll contribute to the campus, and more importantly, what you’ll do with your educational experiences when you return to your home country. Step 3 – Apply to Your Program of Choice, and then Some The moment you’ve been waiting for: you can now apply for college. Education USA recommends that you confirm that all applications are complete seven months before enrollment. Now you can sit back and relax. At least for the next three to four months, because according to Education USA, your letters of acceptance or rejection could come a few months later. But it doesn’t end there, after you make your final choice it is important to notify the admissions office of your decision and send letters of regret to those college or universities you reject. Step 4 – Apply for Your Student Visa* Now that you’ve been accepted to college, what’s next? That’s right, applying for your visa, unless you’ve chosen to pursue an online program. For online students, the application process ends here and the adventure begins. And the adventure could begin with getting your books. Education USA says now is the time to find out how you will get your course materials. Now for those who do plan to travel to the U.S., there is still some work to do. You should start the application process for F-1, J-1 or M-1 visas, visas specifically for international students, says the Bureau of Consular Affairs (CA), the government dependency that issues visas and passports. These types of visas are issued 120 days before students’ courses start or less. If you’re planning to travel to the U.S. 30 days before your courses start, you have to obtain a visitor visa, CA adds. When you apply for your student visa you must fill out the correct forms and schedule your interview at the embassy. CA also says you must have a valid passport, present photographs and pay your visa fees. Remember that a visa does not guarantee entry in to the United States; it only allows a permission to visit a port-of-entry and request permission to do so. Step 5 – Get Started on Travel Arrangements Once you’re all set to go, student visa in hand, you can purchase airplane tickets or make hotel reservations if you need to. You should also start looking into housing options. “Most U.S. colleges and universities give students the option to live in residence halls or dormitories (“dorms”). This is a great environment to meet U.S. students and make new friends rapidly,” says Education USA. Keep in mind that the United States does not have a government medical plan that covers health care services, so purchasing health insurance should also be in your to-do list. “Ask your international student adviser for specific information regarding health insurance at the college or university you will be attending,” says Education USA. “Nearly all international students purchase health insurance through their universities,” Education USA adds. *All information regarding the visa application process comes from travel.state.gov.


Crime is the breaking of rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a conviction. Crimes may also result in cautions, rehabilitation or be unenforced. Individual human societies may each define crime and crimes differently, in different localities (state, local, international), at different time stages of the so-called “crime”, from planning, disclosure, supposedly intended, supposedly prepared, incomplete, complete or future proclaimed after the “crime”.
While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime; for example: breaches of contract and of other civil law may rank as “offences” or as “infractions”. Modern societies generally regard crimes as offences against the public or the state, as distinguished from torts (wrongs against private parties that can give rise to a civil cause of action). Many different causes and correlates of crime have been proposed with varying degree of empirical support. They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence research and effects of gun politics. The label of “crime” and the accompanying social stigma normally confine their scope to those activities seen as injurious to the general population or to the State, including some that cause serious loss or damage to individuals. Those who apply the labels of “crime” or “criminal” intend to assert the hegemony of a dominant population, or to reflect a consensus of condemnation for the identified behavior and to justify any punishments prescribed by the State (in the event that standard processing tries and convicts an accused person of a crime).

CRIME: Crime in the social and legal framework is the set of facts or assumptions (causes, consequences and objectives) that are part of a case in which they were committed acts punishable under criminal law, and the application of which depends on the agent of a sentence or security measure criminal.
There are many different types of crimes, from crimes against persons to victimless crimes and violent crimes to white collar crimes. With each type of crime also come different sociological phenomena and demographic profiles.
Crimes Against Persons
Crimes against persons, also called personal crimes, include murder, aggravated assault, rape, and robbery. Personal crimes are unevenly distributed in the United States, with young, urban, poor, and racial minorities committing these crimes more than others.
Crimes Against Property
Property crimes involve theft of property without bodily harm, such as burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson. Like personal crimes, young, urban, poor, and racial minorities generally commit these crimes more than others.
Crimes Against Morality
Crimes against morality are also called victimless crimes because there is not complainant, or victim. Prostitution, illegal gambling, and illegal drug use are all examples of victimless crimes.
White-Collar Crime
White-collar crimes are crimes that committed by people of high social status who commit their crimes in the context of their occupation. This includes embezzling (stealing money from one’s employer), insider trading, and tax evasion and other violations of income tax laws.
White-collar crimes generally generate less concern in the public mind than other types of crime, however in terms of total dollars, white-collar crimes are even more consequential for society. Nonetheless, these crimes are generally the least investigated and least prosecuted.
Organized Crime
Organized crime is crime committed by structured groups typically involving the distribution of illegal goods and services to others. Many people think of the Mafia when they think of organized crime, but the term can refer to any group that exercises control over large illegal enterprises (such as the drug trade, illegal gambling, prostitution, weapons smuggling, or money laundering).
A key sociological concept in the study or organized crime is that these industries are organized along the same lines as legitimate businesses and take on a corporate form. There are typically senior partners who control the business’ profits, workers who manage and work for the business, and clients who buy the goods and services that the organization provides.

Crime is a “Carry On” type industry. It never stops and always keeps growing on. The society has its own rule. Our society says that “One is innocent until he/she is proven guilty” and it never gives unusual and cruel punishment. So unfortunately the crime of society can not be stopped. Actually the terrific truth is that society itself creates the criminals and laws are there for them to live free.

Crime does not require any kind of education or work experience and there is not that much risk, so the person who has nothing to lose can easily choose crime as his/her career. The minimal risk and times of it rewards puts delicious test on the person’s dish. Even a person who has done crime is caught, there are free legal advices and fewer chances to visit the prison and if he/she is sent to prison, there is free room. If we do not change some rules of our society, it will be impossible for us to reduce the crime.

The major problem is that when a criminal pays off his crime and wants to come back to society, the high profile persons never allow him to be a part of society. So at the end when he embarrassed, he again moves toward the criminal world. So instead of blaming the society, we are the main players to make someone a criminal. Even the public servants such as cops, lawyers, and other government servants should do their job with full of honesty. Because a criminal always offer bribe to such people when he is caught.

If we want to reduce crime in our society, we have to change our thoughts and minds. We have to change some rules and regulations of our society. There are too many ways to reduce crime in society. First let the criminal come in our society if he wants to leave the hypnotic job of crime. We have to create interest in his mind to set himself as a genuine civilian. Only then a criminal can make a “U-turn” from his crime career. It is not easy for us to forgive a criminal and to welcome him with warm but what if he does not want to go in crime world?

So, crime is not the subject to think on or not only criminals are responsible for increasing the crime. We, the people of society, are also responsible for it as we are used to watch the crime happening against our eyes and we just watch it like a dumb audience.
The conclusion says that crime can not be stopped by happening but criminals can be diverted to our society or be punished so that no other frustrated person thinks to break the rules.

Thus, the crime is the production of a frustrated or a dirty mind, if it comes through a dirty mind, we just have to vanish that or else we have many options and some of them remove crime and rest of them creates another reasons to develop the crime.



Nigeria operates a federal political structure under the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999. The Federation consists of 36 (thirty six) States and a Federal Capital Territory. This constitution vests the legislative, executive and judicial powers of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in the National Assembly, the Executive and the courts established there under respectively. The powers of the States are vested in similar organs, except that the legislative organ of the States is known as the House of Assembly.
The Attorney General of the Federation and Minister of Justice is the Chief Law Officer of the Federation. He is the head of the Federal Ministry of Justice and institutes, undertakes, takes over, continues or discontinues criminal proceedings before courts of law in Nigeria in respect of offences created under any Act of the National Assembly. Likewise, the Attorneys General of the States have similar powers in respect of Laws enacted by the Houses of Assembly of the States.
The development of the Nigerian legal system has been greatly influenced by its colonial past as a part of the British Commonwealth . The common law of England , the doctrines of equity as well as statutes of general application in force in England as at 1 st January 1900 form an integral part of our laws in addition to certain English statutes that have been received into our laws by local legislation. Other sources of Nigerian law include local legislation (State and Federal), Nigerian case law as well as customary law. The principles of judicial precedent and hierarchy of courts is also a fundamental part of our legal system with the Supreme Court of Nigeria at the apex of the court system.
Nigeria operates the adversarial system of court proceedings similar to what obtains in other common law countries. However, the jury system is not used in the system of administration of justice, as the presiding judge is both a judge of the law and fact.
The 1999 Constitution makes provisions for the establishment and constitution of the following courts:
The Supreme Court of Nigeria
This is the apex court in the hierarchy of courts in Nigeria and is situated in the Federal Capital Territory , Abuja . The Chief Justice of the Federation heads the Judiciary of Nigeria and presides over the Court. The court has limited but exclusive original jurisdiction in any dispute between the Federation and a State or between States if and in so far as that dispute involves any question (whether of law or fact) on which the existence of a legal right depends. Its appellate jurisdiction is to determine appeals from the Court of Appeal and this is also to the exclusion of any other court. The court consists of the Chief Justice of Nigeria and such number of Justices not exceeding twenty one as may be prescribed by the National Assembly. Ordinarily, the Court is duly constituted if it consists of not less than five Justices of the Court, except where it is exercising its original jurisdiction or a matter involves a question as to the interpretation or application of the constitution or whether any provision relating to the Fundamental Rights provisions of the Constitution has been, is being or is likely to be contravened. In this regard, the Court is duly constituted if it consists of seven Justices of the Court.
The decision of the Supreme Court on any matter is final and is not subject to an appeal to any other body or person. This is however without prejudice to the power of the President or Governor of a State’s exercise of Prerogative of Mercy in appropriate cases. The decisions of the Court are binding on all other courts in Nigeria.
The Court of Appeal
This is next in the hierarchy of courts in Nigeria and its decisions are binding on all other lower courts. It is composed of the President of the Court of Appeal and other Justices of the Court of Appeal not being less than forty-nine. The court has original and exclusive jurisdiction over questions as to whether a person has been validly elected to the Office of President or Vice President of the Federation or whether the term of office of such person has ceased or whether the office has become vacant. It also has appellate jurisdiction to hear appeals from decisions of the High Courts of the States and the Federal Capital Territory, Federal High Court, the Sharia Courts of Appeal of the States or of the Federal Capital Territory, Customary Courts of Appeal of the States or of the Federal Capital Territory as well as from decisions of a court martial or other tribunals as specified by an Act of the National Assembly. The court is duly constituted by not less than three Justices for the purpose of exercising any of its stated jurisdiction. For administrative convenience, the court is divided into Judicial Divisions which sit in various parts of the country namely, Abuja, Lagos, Enugu, Kaduna, Ibadan, Benin, Jos, Calabar, Ilorin and Port Harcourt.
The Federal High Court
There is a Federal High Court for the country, comprising of a Chief Judge and such number of Judges as the National Assembly may prescribe. The court has limited but exclusive jurisdiction in civil and criminal causes or matters as set out in the Constitution. It however has no appellate jurisdiction. In exercising its jurisdiction, the Court is duly constituted by one Judge of the Court. Like the Court of Appeal, the Federal High Court is divided into Judicial Divisions for administrative convenience but has a wider geographical spread as these Divisions are currently situated in over seventeen states of the Federation with plans to establish a Division of the Court in all the States of the Federation.
The High Court
There is a High Court in each State of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory . Each Court is made up of a Chief Judge and such other number of judges as the State House of Assembly or the National Assembly (in the case of the High Court of the Federal Capital Territory ) may prescribe. The High Courts of the various States have general original jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters except matters in respect of which any other court has been vested with exclusive jurisdiction, making them the courts with the widest jurisdiction under the Constitution. The court duly constitutes by one judge. Each High Court is divided into Judicial Divisions for administrative convenience.
The Sharia Court of Appeal
There is a Sharia Court of Appeal for the Federal Capital Territory and any State that requires it. This Court has appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of Islamic personal law, which the Court is competent to decide in accordance with the Constitution. The Court comprises of a Grand Khadi and other Khadis as the National Assembly or the State Houses of Assembly (as the case may be) may prescribe.
The Customary Court of Appeal
There is a Customary Court of Appeal for the Federal Capital Territory and any State that requires it. This Court has appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of customary law and is comprised of a President and such number of Judges as the National Assembly or the State Houses of Assembly (as the case may be) may prescribe.
In addition to these courts created by the Constitution, there also exist Magistrate Courts, Disctrict Courts, Area Courts and Customary Courts established in various states by state laws. These courts are of limited jurisdiction as specified in their enabling laws and appeals from them lie to the High Court, Sharia Court of Appeal or Customary Court of Appeal as the case may be.


The issue of religion and culture can be seen as man’s greatest asset as they have been with man right from the creation. It is often said that man, culture and religion co-exist together. Thus culture can be define as the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief,art, law, morals, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of the society tylor 1871: 52
Whereas Religion can also be define as the varied symbolic expression of and appropriate response to that which people deliberately affirm as being of unrestricted value for them. Cavanagh (1978:9)
Religion is an organized collection of belief systems, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the Universe. From their ideas about the cosmos and human nature, they tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred lifestyle. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world. Culture (Latin: cultura, lit. “cultivation”) is a modern concept based on a term first used in classical antiquity by the Roman orator, Cicero: “cultura animi”. The term “culture” appeared first in its current sense in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, to connote a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticultureFor the German nonpositivist sociologist Georg Simmel, culture referred to “the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history”.
In the 20th century, “culture” emerged as a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of human phenomena that cannot be attributed to genetic inheritance. Specifically, the term “culture” in American anthropology had two meanings:
(1) The evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and
(2) The distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively. The interrelationship between religion and culture can be briefly summary below;
1. Religion and culture are as old as mankind itself
2. Both are the foundations where both ancient and modern norms and values of societies were rooted
3. Culture begets religion, where the religion of a place begets societal settings.
4. Societal values, norms, rites of passage and ritual associated with ones culture can be traced to the kind of religion practices.
5. Religion and culture remould an individual for better consciousness and awaereness.
From the above statements, one can deduce that there exist and interrelationship between religion and culture not only in our families or societies but in every aspect of our human lives.

• ^ The Everything World’s Religions Book: Explore the Beliefs, Traditions and Cultures of Ancient and Modern Religions, page 1 Kenneth Shouler – 2010
• ^ Oxford Dictionaries mythology, retrieved 9 September 2012
• ^ Durkheim, E. (1915) The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. London: George Allen & Unwin, p.10.
• “Adolf Bastian”. Today in Science History. 27 Jan 2009 Today in Science History
• “Adolf Bastian”, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 27 January 2009
• Ankerl, Guy (2000) [2000]. Global communication without universal civilization, vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. INU societal research. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.
tylor 1871: 52
Cavanagh (1978:9)


Youth is generally the time of life between childhood and adulthood (maturity). Definitions of the specific age range that constitutes youth vary. An individual’s actual maturity may not correspond to their chronological age, as immature individuals can exist at all ages. Youth is also defined as “the appearance, freshness, vigor, spirit, etc., characteristic of one who is young”.Youth is a term used for people of both sexes, male and female, of a young age. Around the world, the terms “youth”, “adolescent”, “teenager”, “kid”, and “young person” are interchanged, often meaning the same thing, occasionally differentiated. Youth generally refers to a time of life that is neither childhood nor adulthood, but rather somewhere in-between. Youth also identifies a particular mindset of attitude, as in “He is very youthful”. The term youth is also related to being young. The term also refers to individuals between the ages of 16-24.
“This world demands the qualities of youth: not a time of life but a state of mind, a temper of the will, a quality of imagination, a predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the life of ease.” – Robert Kennedy.
Youth is an alternative word to the scientifically-oriented adolescent and the common terms of teen and teenager. Another common title for youth is young person or young people.
Youth is the stage of constructing the Self-concept. The self-concept of youth is influenced by several variables such as peers, lifestyle, gender and culture. It is this time of a person’s life which they make choices which will affect their future.
August 12th was declared International Youth Day by the United Nations.
Christianity (from the Ancient Greek: Χριστιανός Christianos and the Latin suffix -itas) is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings. It also considers the Hebrew Bible, which is known as the Old Testament, to be canonical. Adherents of the Christian faith are known as Christians.
The mainstream Christian belief is that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human and the savior of humanity. Because of this, Christians commonly refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah. Jesus’ ministry, sacrificial death, and subsequent resurrection are often referred to as the Gospel, meaning “Good News” (from the Greek: εὐαγγέλιον euangélion). In short, the Gospel is news of God the Father’s eternal victory over evil, and the promise of salvation and eternal life for all people, through divine grace.
Worldwide, the three largest groups of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the various denominations of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the East–West Schism of 1054 AD, and Protestantism came into existence during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church.
Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East (modern Israel and Palestine), it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few centuries, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a sometimes large religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world.
Christianity is a major religious tradition in Nigeria. The presences of its churches and related institutions are as ubiquitous as its faithfuls. Christian traditions have permeated all aspects of Nigeria social system. It may not be an overstatement to say that Christianity has attained the level of indigenous religion in the country. The teachings and doctrines are internalized and conceived as the driving force of life yawning by a significant number of the Nigerian populace. In the mainline churches, Nigerian Christians have made significant impacts in the propagation and practice of the faith. The Anglican denomination is now Church of Nigeria, Anglican Communion instead of Church of England. In Catholicism, Nigerians constitute members of the College of Cardinals in recent times. This feat gives hope of a possible Nigerian Pope in the near future. Similar impacts are also recorded in other Christian denominations. Hence, the above are few examples. Again, Nigerian Christian churches and Movements now ‘export’ indigenous Missionaries to other parts of the world, especially to prop-up the faith in areas where the commitment and practice is declining. Within the country, evangelism and creation of new church administrative units are on steady increase. But in spite of these factors of growth and expansion, the Nigerian church is faced with challenges and problems in the present time. A socio-religious spotlight and analysis of such problems is the focus of this contribution.
As a social institution operating in the larger society, Christianity in Nigeria is faced by challenges. However, right from the time of its propagation in Nigeria, there have been problems and challenges to surmount. But what is the nature of current problems challenges? Identifying such contemporary problems is the aim of this essay. To achieve our aim, we sourced our data from phenomenal observation of Nigeria’s religious landscape, from the Christian paradigm. To complement this approach, we used qualitative analytical method, and with existing literature to validate our findings.

Astronomic Proliferation of Churches
The emergence of New Churches and other Christian Movements in Nigeria is unprecedented. At present, Nigeria is being spotlighted as the country with the highest number of churches in Africa. This is more so in the major cities of the southern part of the country. Hence, churches and prayer houses are said to be a major industry in that geo-political extraction of the country. Churches exist in family houses, uncompleted buildings, warehouses, and in any available space.
In 1980 Hackett (3) puts the African figure of New Christian Movements at 15000. By 1999 Onuh (in Gbenda 2006: 118), puts Nigeria’s share of New Religious Movements at 1018. However, these are permutations, based on popular and registered groups. A greater number exist unregistered. Yet, a good number that were in conception, and those immediately ‘ordered and founded by the Holy Spirit’ have emerged and are flourishing. The above figures are not reliable. They are far-cries. New churches emerge on daily basis, hence it will continue to defy statistical conceptualization. Consequently, the continued, and indiscriminate emergence of New churches is a challenge to Christianity in Nigeria. The scenario raise puzzling questions concerning Christian commitment, and faithfulness, towards salvation. It seems that as churches multiply they gradually shift emphasis from spiritual and eternal life course to earthly life course, here and now.

Materialism and Commercial Ministry
The contemporary Nigerian church is engulfed by the quest for materialism, prevalent in the society. Rather than find solace in the Christian hope of eternal life, signs of total submission to capitalistic tendencies, especially in insatiable material acquisition, looms large in Nigerian churches. Spiritual growth and moral sanctity towards better eternity is fast giving way to material craving, as the ‘new idea of fulfillment of life and ultimate reality’. The quest for materialism in religion may not be peculiar to Nigeria. But, it is now alarming and critically challenging. The level of material quest by Nigerian Christians, especially clergy men is radically in deviance, and inimical to the values and life of the early Church. Consequently, a new kingdom in which treasures are found here on earth is preferred to a delayed gratification, and treasure in the heavenly kingdom of ‘the other world’. This scenario place the Nigerian church in a dilemma and frightening challenge. Conventionally, church liturgy and messages show preference for the poor. But the structure and functional praxis of Nigerian churches, such as elitist form of theology, classiest form of its clergy and the romance between church leaders and politico-economic power brokers and stakeholders in our society betray and reverse this preference for the affluent (Ehusani, 1991:161).
Today, many of our church leaders consciously or unconsciously measure success in life in terms of wealth, prestige and power; three key principles of stratification, and social mobility in secular society. No wonder, in the churches, issues that concern the rich resound high, while that of the poor is many atime un-acknowledged or at best handled lackadaisically.
Every Minister in the Independent Churches and Pentecostal Charismatics, (the self-proclaimed Evangelists, self-ordained Bishops, Arch-bishops and General Overseers), is a vision seer, and a miracle worker, or pretend to be one. Their miracles, blessings, and sundry religious services attract financial charges.
A particular pastor is known to look straight in the face of some members and tell them their problems ranging from matters of contract, search for the fruit of the womb or search for a husband. After these, he would ask for payment, – N200,000, N50,000, or a brand new car (Waapela, 2006:358).
With catchy and animating words, Ministers advertise for harvest of miracles, which turn out to be harvest of money. Using both “evil and satanic powers to draw large crowds to their churches” (Akiode in Ogunwole, 2006:327), they convince their followers to sow ‘quality seeds’ (special Levy), and wait for their miracles, coming on the way. Followers are told that the more they sow, the more blessings that will come their way. While the Minister and miracle worker smile to the bank, his clients go home in the euphoria of hope for imminent and miraculous socio-economic break-through in life. This phenomenon of materialism and commercial ministry is contrary to the teachings and attitude of Christ and the early church over blessing, and miraculous deliverance of people in affliction. Nigerian churches must rise up against this challenge.

Declining Spiritual Commitment
It may not be overstatement to state that the practical spiritual life of Nigerian Christians is not commensurate with their numerical strength. The renowned Professor of Religious studies, and Catholic Priest Ejizu (2008:19-21) underscore this phenomenon, that it seems that the more proliferation of the churches in Nigeria, the more the faith experience decline in spiritual commitment, morality and practical Christian living. Instead, many of the churches are significantly occupied with the here, and now affairs of this world as shaped by the Nigerian social system. The scenario facilitates rapid secularization of Christian spirituality. The implication is that the practice of Christianity in modern Nigeria is deviating from its intrinsic worth and value, to some motives which are at variance with its fundamentals. Fake Ministers, Prophets, Evangelists and sundry clergy-men are ubiquitous, vending ‘individually framed, and false imaginations’, in place of Divine revelations and fervour. Is like such practice presents God, not as He is, but as suits their selfish motives. One common practice among the Pentecostal Charismatic variety is shouting and ‘commanding’ God to ‘obey’ and respond according to their wish, not by the will of God.
The declining emphasis on spirituality is concomitant with the crave for materialism in churches. This is the background of the emphasis on faith by works; works without spiritual fervour. Thus, donations from any source, including known cheats and criminals are heralded by resounding ovation and commendation. The preference for faith by works (materialism), is diminishing spirituality towards eternal life. In followers’ relationship with the clergy, they create an aura of sin-free, and ‘ignorance’ of the importance of confession of sins to God before forgiveness. Many a times, prayers from the clergy is preferred to confession to God. And, for fear of losing their clients, Ministers sometimes withhold the truth from people (Apenda, 2006:133). The spiritual commitment of the poor is reducing in church value. This is a fundamental challenge to tackle if the Nigerian church will not concede that it is radically deviating or reinterpreting Christianity for mundane ends.
This regrettable trend in the house, and name of God, however, worries some conscientious Ministers. Noting that negative practices in Christianity have taken root in Nigeria, a priest, Adasu (1992:447), spotlights political religion, and prosperity gospel as main features which have obliterated and diminished the basic teachings and spiritual fervour of the church in Nigeria. These are teething problems which erode spiritual commitment. Where lies the strength of Christian faith if the spiritual fervour and quality is eroded?

Fraud and Criminality
The unguarded quest for material wealth by Ministers and Clerics attract ‘money-bags’, and criminals into Christian fold. Since no formal training and requirement are needed for opening a church, it is an ‘open industry’ for all comers. Consequently, false prophets, and religious deceits loom large in our religious landscape. They use delusive prophecies and erroneous interpretations of the scripture to catch their victims for foul deals and exploitation, claiming such to be directed by the Holy Spirit. A fraudulent and fearless use of the sacred name of God. The Ministers’ “sole desire is grabbing that which they have not right … an aggressive acquisition, perpetrated by the exploit of the sacred name of God” (Apenda, 2006:123). Freedom of worship is turned into freedom of exploitation and fraud. People are fraudulently asked to sow seeds that never germinate, pay and expect miracles that never arrive, or surrender the benefits of their labour to the Lord’s vineyard, only reaped by one person and his family members.
We agree with Kumuyi (in Obeta, 2006:252), that preaching prosperity without legitimate means to its realization implies aiding and abating crime. After several prophecies for wealth, ‘break- through’, and a continuous wait for the arrival of the miracle, the expectant may be tempted to ‘fast-track’ the prophecy through foul and dubious human means. While some people die in pursuit of such delusive utterances, a few get something out of the fraud, and are welcomed by the Minister in a well commended thanksgiving service. All, associated to the will of God.
Apart from fraudulent ministering, churches have cases of embezzlement and misappropriation of funds. At one time, it is the Pastor, at the other time it is the members. This has become a common feature which sometimes attract more shame than in the secular sphere of our social system. Consequently, Christians in such churches are engulfed in conflict. Such fraudulent cases affect public perception of the church in contradiction to the basic teachings of the institution, and its founder. For instance, the Saint Andrew’s Anglican Church Diobu, Port Harcourt had for long been closed, following frequent fraud related controversies within its fold. Writing under the caption “Money Crises” the Sunday Sketch of May 19, 1985, reports of how money contributed for musical instruments and the one realized from thanksgiving, and dedication were embezzled at the Christ Holy Church of Nigeria, Mokola Ibadan. The Sunday Concord of May 19, 1985 also report of a Baptist Church Pastor at Abeokuta who embezzled church funds. The ensuing feud led to the split of the church. Report of embezzlement and fraud is a frequent occurrence in our churches. Many of the fraudulent cases in the church end up in the law courts. Nigerian ‘followers of Christ’ shamelessly prosecute and follow-up court processes of litigation to the latter. They portray barren hearts of repentance, reconciliation and forgiving spirit. This is an open challenge to 21st century Christianity in Nigeria.
Christianity in Nigeria is yet faced with cases of criminality. Many of our present day churches provide refuge for criminals. With its reverential and ‘unsuspecting’ status many of the churches have become den, and hideout for robbers and ritualists who deal in human parts. Reports about the Otokoto saga in Owerri about 1997, has it that two human skulls and other human parts were discovered in one Overcomer Mission Church building, (Obeta, 2006:251). Again, we also recall that one Pastor King is facing murder charges in a Lagos high court. Either that some ministers are interested in criminal endeavours or they are loose in managing the human, and infrastructural resources under their leadership. Several cases of rape, sexual harassment and other immoral practices have become negative features of contemporary Nigerian churches.

Rivalry and Confusion
On arrival, Christian missions in Nigeria engaged in denominational rivalry. In recent time, the tempo is rising higher as a result of the astronomic proliferation of churches. The various churches compete for legitimacy, acceptance and spiritual superiority amongst themselves. Each group claim possession of the ‘real Christian truth’ and bask in the euphoria of denominational triumphalism. That is, each group hold the unshaken conviction that it is their church that can lead people to salvation. In fact, many of the new churches express sympathy for non members, hence for them such people are few steps to damnation, and eternal punishment. This is the background of the appellative stereotype of ‘living’ and ‘non-living’ churches in Nigeria. The pursuit of religious legitimacy and superiority promote fundamentalism, and fanaticism amongst the groups.
Followers are confused as groups profess differing and contradicting messages and doctrines. Which is the true path to salvation? This question becomes more puzzling against the backdrop of the absence of standard measurement and quality control devices. Each claim revelation from the Holy Spirit. Followers are only expected to believe, and not query their veracity. Since it is a matter of faith, which do we belief? Do we believe all or none? or profess the Christian faith in delusion, and confusion? There is accusation and counter accusations of ‘sheep stealing’. Against this backdrop, we ask: are the different churches preparing their faithfuls for different kingdoms of God? The church must rise up to this challenge.

Unhealthy Moslem-Christian Relations and Religious Freedom
Both Islam and Christianity came to Nigeria as foreign religions, and were gladly embraced by the people. The two religions drew a sketchy geo-social divide. In spite of the presence of faithfuls of the two religions in all parts of the country, the north is predominantly Muslim and the south predominantly Christians. The two faiths exists side by side, sharing some fundamental beliefs in common. This relationship was nourished, and maintained by the colonial authorities that governed the Nigerian state then. Freedom of worship was emphasized, and equally enforced by government.
The background of the current sour relationship between the two predominant faiths in Nigeria was the ethno-religious sentiment and fervour used to interpret the military coup of January 1966. Consequently, there was a spurious interpretation of the factors building up to the civil war which started in May 1967, along ethno-religious divide of the country. Christian missionaries were accused of showing sympathy and support for Biafrans, while the entire Muslim Umar were conceived to have approached the war as a religious course. When Biafra lost the war, the muslim north saw it as a victory for their geo-religious extraction. Consequently, mission schools which gave Igbos an edge in education, and human development was weakened with a policy that nationalized them. With this conception internalized in the mind of the populace, religious practice became a very volatile institution in the Nigerian state. Isichei (1995:342) underscores this, as she notes that: “Christian-Muslim conflict became much more of a reality in the two decades that followed. Many Christians in the south accepted Muslim political dominance, preferring this to the risk of further bloodshed, but there was always an underlying tension”.
The build-up to the incessant muslim-Christian conflict in the country has its antecedents, and catalyst in the 1977-78 Constituent Assembly debate, over the establishment, and membership of the Sharia Court of appeal. Religious freedom was on the verge of abuse in the infamous and unpopular debate. In 1982 some churches in Kano were burnt down by Muslim fundamentalists, who felt that the Anglicans had no freedom to expand their church building, which was in close proximity to a Mosque, (Ibrahim cited in Isichei, 1995:411). In 1986, the controversial issue of Nigeria joining the Organization of Islamic Conference (O.I.C), heightened the religious tension in the country. Christians became suspicious of the Babangida led military government, and the utterances of prominent Muslims like Shiek Abubakar Gumi. Accusation of alleged plan to turn the country into an Islamic state; a situation which will obliterate the secularity status of the nation and its constitutional provisions for religious freedom, loomed large. Christians were agitated. The situation was like a gun powder waiting to explode. Every issue in the country was hence forth attached religious implication that must be resisted by the other group. This was the state and driving force of Muslim-Christian relations, from the post 1977-78 Constituent Assembly to the present time that religious crisis has taken permanence as a structural property of our social system.
On 6th March, 1986, the second recorded religious crisis in modern Nigeria took place. The crisis was sequel to a misunderstanding between Muslim Students Society (MSS) and the Fellowship of Christian Students (FCS) at the Federal College of Education, Kafanchan, Kaduna State. The riot spread to neighbouring states. At the end of the uprising which lasted for about two weeks, “a total of 19 people were killed, and 152 churches and five Mosques destroyed” (Ibrahim, cited in Isichei 1995:343). Some prominent Muslims noted with dismay the level of Christian involvement in group violence, to the extent of killing Muslims, as unprecedented, (This Week, 1987:16). Political religion, and mutual suspicion therefore, became a front burner in Muslim – Christian relations. Takaya (1992:113-114), notes the dangerous legacy of the Sharia debate of the 1977-78 Constituent Assembly, that: … then, religious politicization in Nigeria only grew deeper, such that both Christian, and Muslim leaders tend to weigh every government decision in terms of their respective religions; calculating, therefore, their possible gains and losses.

Religious tension and crisis nurtured during the military era were carried over to the present democratic government. First was the July 1999 religious uprising in Sagamu. The crisis claimed about 50 lives with Churches, Mosques and industrial institutions raised down, (The Punch 19, July, 1999, The Guardian July 19, 1999).
In the year 2000, Muslims, and Christians were at it again, in what became known as the Kaduna 2000 ethno-religious clashes. The crisis was over the introduction of Sharia Law in paths of the North. Between 21 & 23 February, about 3000 lives were lost in Kaduna city alone. The colossal loss of Christian lives (Southerners), resident in the North led to reprisal attack in the eastern city of Aba. The result of the reprisal attack was the loss of about 450 more lives. Kaduna, yet experienced another episode of religious uprising in May 22 & 23, 2002, in which over 300 lives were lost. In November 2002, Kaduna was yet engulfed by another religious uprising, spearheaded by rampaging Muslims who were angered by a This Day Newspaper remark about Mohammed, in the context of an analysis of the Miss World Beauty Pageant slated to hold in Nigeria that month. The riot even spread to Abuja.
Between 2001 and 2004, Plateau was a spotlight of ethno-religious crisis. The first episode was on September 9, 2001. The crisis claimed many lives and properties worth billions of naira. On Sunday February 23, the Hausa-Fulani Muslim Youths carried out an organized attack on kafirs (non believers of Islam). The attack spread to Yelwa and Shedam. Christian lives and property were violently destroyed in an unprecedented magnitude, notes Bakoji & Onoja (2004). The crisis also spread to Kano. In a 3 day reprisal attack of Christians, and non-indigenes by Muslim Youths, 40 persons were killed, according to official records. Several hundreds of people were injured, while thousands of people became homeless and refuges. In 2008, Jos was yet another spotlight of fierce religious crisis. Several lives and properties were destroyed.
The scenario of religious conflict is a distraction to Christianity. It threatens the freedom of Christians to profess and live their faith in Nigeria. Nigerian Christians are faced with the challenge of peaceful co-existence, and inter-religious tolerance and respect. The challenge of elusive dialogue between the two dominant religions starr at them. This will continue to affect Christian practice until better relationship with Muslims is fostered.

An appraisal of the activities of Christianity in Nigeria show evidence of good results. Proudly, the faith has taken firm root in the country, surviving threats of hostility. But developments in the contemporary practice of the faith is a regrettable tale of contradictions and degenerating spiritual fervour. There is astronomic proliferation of churches, with features of small scale industries; vending of religious services on commercial terms. A good number of the churches indulge in ‘unchristian activities’, and unhealthy rivalry to show superiority and acceptance. Yet, Christianity in Nigeria is faced with frequent inter-religious conflicts.
The church in Nigeria should wake up from its slumber in practicalization of its teachings. It should honestly acknowledge the ‘unchristian’ practices in its fold and rise up to the challenge. The church should anchor its courage and inspiration on the spirit of reformation. In this case, it will be worthwhile to set some standards, and quality control measures. This will reduce the activities of Ministers hiding under the religion for the pursuit of worldly-selfish ends, that run contrary to the cause of Christianity and its faithfuls. The Nigerian church should confront the secular onslaught against it in the society.


Adasu Moses (1992) “Worldliness and Lack of Spirituality in the Church” News Cathdica, Vol. 19.
Apenda, A.Z. (2006) “Spirituality or Materialism: The Dilemma of Contemporary Church in Nigeria” in Yahya M.T. et. al ed. Issues in the Practice of Religion in Nigeria Jos: NASR.
Bakoji, S., and Onoja A. (2004) “Who Will Tame Plateau’s Ethno-Religious Crisis” Daily Independent (May 14).
Ehusani George (1991) “Christian Commitment: The African Dilemma’ in A.R. Kofi ed. African Dilemma: A Cry for Life (EATWOT).
Ejizu, C.I. (2008) “Between Religion and Morality: Their Inter-Connection and Significance in Public Life” Inaugural Lecture Series No. 59, University of Port Harcourt.
Gbenda Joseph (2006) “Marketing” God in Nigeria: A Critique of Nigerian Independent Churches” in Yahya M.T. et al. ed. Issues in the Practice of Religion in Nigeria Jos: NASR.
Hackett R. (1987) “Introduction: Variations on a Theme” Hackett R. ed. New Religious Movements in Nigeria. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Isichei Elizabeth (1995) A History of Christianity in Africa: From Antiquity to the Present Michigan: W. B Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Obeta S.J. (2006) “Commercialization and Religion in Nigeria: From the Antecedents of the Old Testament Religious Practices” Yahya M.T. et al. ed. Issues in the Practice of Religion in Nigeria Jos: NASR.
Ogunwole Z.O. (2006) “Corruption as a Major Source of Conflict in the Church” in Yahya M.T. et al. ed. Issues in the Practice of Religion in Nigeria Jos: NASR.
Takaya B.J. (1992) “Religion, Politics and Peace: Resolving the Nigerian Dilemma” in Olupona J.K. ed. Religion and Peace in Multi-Faith Nigeria Ile-Ife: OAU.
The Guardian July 19, 1999
The Punch July 19, 1999
Sunday Concord May 19, 1985
Sunday Sketch May 19, 1985
This Week, Lagos 6 April 1987
Waapela N.P. (2006) “Commercialization of Religion: The Case of Christianity in Nigeria” in Yahya M.T. et al. ed. Issues in the Practice of Religion in Nigeria Jos: NASR.


Squatting is a pretty simple concept. It’s setting up camp on a parcel of land or moving into an abandoned or unused dwelling. (However, moving into a house that has a family still living there is considered home invasion, not squatting.)
There are a number of different situations that can give rise to squatting. The poverty-stricken commonly build shantytowns on property that doesn’t belong to them. The homeless may take refuge in an abandoned home for a few nights — or years. Some people use squatting to make a political statement about the economic gap between the rich and poor. To others, squatting simply represents a way to buck authority. Even a houseguest who won’t leave and a tenant who continues to stay past the expiration date of a lease both qualify as squatters.
Squatters who take over land or dwellings have the law to contend with. Since the establishment of property rights in the U.S. (which were founded around the time the nation formed), disputes over squatting have favored the landowner. But there are plenty of legal loopholes that squatters can take advantage of to help him or her take ownership of a property.
The life of a squatter is fraught with pitfalls and confrontations at each turn — and so is the life of the landlord who has to deal with the unwanted resident. There are concurrent laws that give rights to squatters as well as provide a process for landowners to get rid of them.
In general, squatters fall in two broad categories: there are those who, desperate for somewhere to live, take the chance of occupying any empty land seen. The other category comprises persons who are professional squatters. These are the persons who go from community to community, parish to parish, occupying mainly government land, usually prime land, with the hope and expectation that Government will regularise their occupation of these lands by providing utilities like water and electricity and infrastructure, including roads.
Many squatter communities are breeding grounds for criminals. These communities usually need criminals to protect them from members of adjoining communities who might oppose their presence. They also need criminals to protect them from political opponents and, in some instances, from the owners of lands on which they are trespassing.
A squatter community is usually a safe haven for criminals. The irregular development comprising initially blue tarpaulins, zinc fences, winding tracks, lack of street lights, lack of roads, lack of street names and the absence of addresses and, indeed, no proper names for occupants all create a mixture of impossibilities and nightmare for police personnel who are required to enforce law and order in these communities.
The police cannot patrol these communities with motor vehicles or even with motorbikes. They are, therefore, required to enter on foot and to do that at nights, bearing in mind that there are no street lights, is like sending police officers on a suicide mission.
Squatter communities are potential breeding grounds for dons, extortionists, prostitutions rings and drug peddlers. Guns are often stored in these communities and it is from here that dons dispatch members of their criminal gangs to neighbouring communities where they carry out extortion activities, demand protection money, commit robberies, shootings, rape and murders. It is all but impossible to trace and monitor members of these criminal gangs in the squatter communities.
We should appreciate that not only are there no well-laid-out streets with address numbers in these squatter communities, but most of the residents are more often than not known by aliases instead of their proper names. There is also a culture of silence, either out of fear or because some of the members of these communities are beneficiaries of the proceeds of crime.

It must also be recorded that politicians on both sides of the fence encourage squatting as a means of bolstering their electoral support and, in some instances, rely on squatters to establish a garrison-like constituency in which they are confident the squatters will always vote them across the threshold into electoral victory.
Thus the concept of upgrading squatters in Nigerian cities can be likened below as to the cost and benefits;
1. Squatters are allowed to apply for housing benefit. There is no guarantee that you will get any housing benefit, or that it will cover your payments
2. Landlords usually won’t carry out any repairs for a squatter. However, if you have been given a ‘use and occupation’ book by the Housing Executive or a housing association you may be able to get some repairs carried out.
3. Squatters can be evicted more easily than most other people and in most cases the landlord doesn’t have to get a court order first. If a court order is needed, the property owner can apply without giving you any notice. In most cases the court will automatically give the owner the right to get back into the property.
4. Squatters don’t pay tax or any utility bills associated with government revenue or monetary policies.
5. Squatters have the advantages of low price cost in Nigeria as If you were squatting in Housing Executive or housing association property you may be given a ‘use and occupation’ book if the court orders you to leave. This means that you are allowed to live in the accommodation but you don’t have the same rights as secure Housing Executive or housing association tenants.
The cost and benefits associated with squatter uprading in nigeria cities can be traced to inadequate housing policy by the nigeraia government. Here lies various scattered squatters around the various cities in Nigeria wanting government attentions and upgrading. This can only be done if there is the political will of the government and the grand reduction in cement prices in the country can this squatters be upgraded in Nigerian cities.
• Roberts, Chris (2006), Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme, Thorndike Press, ISBN 0-7862-8517-6
• Neuwirth, R. (2004), Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-93319-6
• Reeve, Kesia, “Squatting Since 1945: The enduring relevance of material need”, in Somerville, Peter; Sprigings, Nigel, Housing and Social Policy, London: Routledge, pp. 197–216, ISBN 0-415-28366-3
• Peñalver, Eduardo M. (March 25, 2009). “Homesteaders in the Hood”. Slate Magazine. http://www.slate.com/id/2214544/.
• Pruijt, H. ‘Squatting in Europe’ – English version of Pruijt, H., 2004, Okupar en Europa, in Miguel Martínez Lopez & Ramón Adell (eds) (2004) ¿Dónde están las llaves? El movimiento okupa: prácticas y contextos sociales, Madrid, La Catarata, 35-60


The interrelationships between the church and the state can be linked to a double edge sword were each one pact each other on the back. They can be simplify below.
The word state and its cognates in other European languages (stato in Italian, Estado in Spanish état in French, Staat in German) ultimately derive from the Latin status, meaning “condition” or “status.”
With the revival of the Roman law in the 14th century in Europe, this Latin term was used to refer to the legal standing of persons (such as the various “estates of the realm” – noble, common, and clerical), and in particular the special status of the king. The word was also associated with Roman ideas (dating back to Cicero) about the “status rei publicae”, the “condition of public matters”. In time, the word lost its reference to particular social groups and became associated with the legal order of the entire society and the apparatus of its enforcement.
In English, “state” is a contraction of the word “estate”, which is similar to the old French estat and the modern French état, both of which signify that a person has status and therefore estate. The highest estates, generally those with the most wealth and social rank, were those that held power.
The early 16th century works of Machiavelli (especially The Prince) played a central role in popularizing the use of the word “state” in something similar to its modern sense.
A state is an organized community living under a unified political system, the government. States may be sovereign. The denomination state is also employed to federated states that are members of a federal union, which is the sovereign state.[1] Some states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state.[2] The state can also be used to refer to the secular branches of government within a state, often as a manner of contrasting them with churches and civilian institutions (civil society). Also a State could commonly be refers to either the present condition of a system or entity, or to a governed entity (such as a country) or sub-entity (such as an autonomous territory of a country). It could stand for different meanings to a subject matter as can be describe below.
A state could mean,
• Sovereign state, a sovereign political entity in public international law
• “State”, in some contexts virtually synonymous with “government”, e.g., to distinguish state (government) from private schools
• Nation state, a state which coincides with a nation
• Federated state, a political entity forming part of a federal sovereign state such as the USA, Australia, India, and Brazil
• Member state, a member of an international organization
Whereas the Church is an English word for a Christian religious institution or building but it may refer to:
• Church (building)
• Church service, a formalized period of communal worship
• Church music written for performance in church
• Christian Church, refers to the whole Christian religious tradition through history.
• Any of several more specific Christian denominations
o Particular church, ecclesial communities within Catholic Christianity
o Simple church, an Evangelical Christian movement
• Ecclesiology, the study of the church in Christian theology
• A religious denomination

Relationship between religious and secular authority in society. In most ancient civilizations the separation of religious and political orders was not clearly defined. With the advent of Christianity, the idea of two separate orders emerged, based on Jesus’ command to Render unto Caesar what are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s (Mark 12:17). The close association of religion and politics, however, continued even after the triumph of Christianity as emperors such as Constantine exercised authority over both church and state. In the early middle Ages secular rulers claimed to rule by the grace of God, and later in the Middle Ages popes and emperors competed for universal dominion. During the Investiture Controversy the church clearly defined separate and distinct religious and secular orders, even though it laid the foundation for the so-called papal monarchy. The Reformation greatly undermined papal authority, and the pendulum swung toward the state, with many monarchs claiming to rule church and state by divine right. The concept of secular government, as evinced in the U.S. and postrevolutionary France, was influenced by Enlightenment thinkers. In western Europe today all states protect freedom of worship and maintain a distinction between civil and religious authority. The legal systems of some modern Islamic countries are based on Sharah. In the U.S. the separation of church and state has been tested in the arena of public education by controversies over issues such as school prayer, public funding of parochial schools, and the teaching of creationism.

The relationship between Church and State can be described as the institutional form of the relation between religion and politics. As a problem, ‘Church and State’ has been a particularly Western and Christian concern. This is not only because Western secularization has required a limit to the powers of religious authorities, but it has its origins in a much earlier period, in the development of separate Church and State institutions in Christendom which were natural rivals (with rival claims of authority and law enforcement) to a degree incomprehensible in the realms of other prominent religions. Thus the rivalry between Emperor and Pope was a key feature of the politics of Europe in the Middle Ages and in the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth century the rivalry between Guelphs (or Guelfs) and Ghibellines was the greatest contest in Italian politics. It had started as a feud between South German tribes but became a partisan quarrel between the papal faction (Guelfs) and the imperial Ghibellines.

Western society thus has a long history of rivalry between Church and State (see e.g. Augustine; Aquinas; Bodin; and Calvin) which has helped foster secular and anticlerical movements. Many modern states and parties welcome the separation of Church and State, but a suspicion has often attached to Catholic politicians in predominantly Protestant countries, such as John F. Kennedy, that they are, whatever they may say, religiously committed to extending the influence of their Church over the State.

The interrelationship between the church and the state can be likened to a two way process. It has been on e of true benefits and none beneficial to both as each claim supremacy to either the church or country. The catholic church is foremost in interrelationship with church activities and the state. In ancient and modern history, we can see that there is a huge gap in intergovernment affairs.