AFCON 2013 DRAWS


Group A-
———————
South Africa- Bafana Bafana

Cape Verde- Blue Sharks

Morocco- Atlas Lion

Angola- Palancas Negras
———————
Group B-

Ghana- Black Stars

DR Congo – Simbas

Niger Republic- Menas

Mali-Eagles
———————–
Group C-

Zambia- Chipolopolo

Ethiopia- Walya Antelopes

Burkina Faso- Stallions

Nigeria- Super Eagles
———————
Group D-

Cote D’Ivoire- Elephants

Togo-Hawks

Algeria- Desert Warriors

Tunisia-Carthage Eagles

MAKE MONEY THROUGH ONLINE SOCCER BETTING


MAKE MONEY THROUGH ONLINE SOCCER BETTING
Dear Reader,
My Name is valentine c. uwakwe.
I am a Graduate of Geography & Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt and also the Director, operations of HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM base in the city of Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria. I discover and developed this system that will assist you make money through online soccer bets. Please free your mind and make no comments. This is not yahoo yahoo stuff or a fraud or scam thing. All my personal information and profile have been display for you to have that confidence in what you are about to see, read and do.
People who have read most of my articles and notes online knows it not just a fraud or scam stuff but real enlightened way and steps to make money from online soccer bets. As of today I have close to 300 clients I mentor on this issue and the number is still counting. To be sure, I will like you to visit my blog spot on hyattractions. Just go to Google and type hyattractions and my numerous articles on online soccer betting and current affairs numbering 200 will be display for you to read. All I want is for you to follow details plans outline here and you would make it through online soccer betting.
There are lots of online soccer bet sites which you can trade with locally. Some are naira bet, naira stake, 1960bet, saharabet, 9ja predict, naijabet, mars leisure’s etc. As a business firm we engage in all of such mentioned above but I can tell you that the best and most reliable is……call me to get the answer.
You will have to be ready and do this:
1. Register with a bet site
2. Connect to the internet. Call me on this to tell you on how to use the cheapest sum and plan of 1,400 monthly to browse the internet.
3. Get a personal laptop or be consistent with one cyber café
4. Fund your account from 3,000 upwards.
5. Order for this manual, e-book or cd plate
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COST:
The total cost for these items is display below;
Manual/e-book to be sent via your email address : 3,500
cd plate version to be sent to your address anywhere in Nigeria: 5,000
This system is a do-it-yourself and the price offer is limited for a short time, It will be increase without notice in future.
BENEFITS:
Don’t be awed by the amount involve or doubt if it’s a scam thing or if it will work or not. Online soccer betting is real and many are making it. The benefits I will assure you, when you order this manual/cd plates from me will include the followings;
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3. Send you the unlocking codes on how to break any network modem and place any SIM to browse with.
4. I will mentor you via phone calls on matches and leagues to place your bets
5. I will send to your email address these sure matches you can place bets for only two weeks only.
6. I will then tell you of an online soccer bet site that allows you to place bets and make money every four minutes, yes every four minutes!

MONEY BACK GUARANTEE:
If after purchasing this manual and you fail to make money within three weeks, please ask for the refund of your money. You will have to be fast in contacting me and be brief and fast as I have other clients I attend to.
Call me: 08033559733, 08098984202
Mondays-Fridays: 9am- 6pm
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TO ORDER: Make your payments to any of the following banks nearest to you.
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Please notify me of your payment via SMS to 08033559733/08098984202 or e-mail soccersurebets@yahoo.com stating your name, teller no and which bank you paid to. Delivery of the manual will be made minutes after the confirmation of your payments by our banks agents. Winners concentrate on winning while losers just get by. Make this rightful decision today and help us tell others how we made you rich. Your financial destiny is now in your own hands. Make that step today.
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Valentine uwakwe
Director, Operations

TWITTER AND YOU TUBE


Twitter is an online social networking service and microblogging service that enables its users to send and read text-based messages of up to 140 characters, known as “tweets”.
It was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey and launched that July. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity, with over 500 million active users as of 2012, generating over 340 million tweets daily and handling over 1.6 billion search queries per day. Since its launch, Twitter has become one of the top 10 most visited websites on the Internet, and has been described as “the SMS of the Internet.” Unregistered users can read tweets, while registered users can post tweets through the website interface, SMS, or a range of apps for mobile devices.
WHEREAS, YouTube is a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005, on which users can upload, view and share videos. The company is based in San Bruno, California, and uses Adobe Flash Video and HTML5 technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips, and music videos, as well as amateur content such as video blogging and short original videos.
WHAT IS TWITTES?
Simply put, a Tweet is a message sent on Twitter. To send or receive a Tweet, you have to create a free account with Twitter. You also need to have friends and contacts with Twitter accounts — otherwise you’re typing to the void. Of course, you could use Twitter as a blog and keep all of your Tweets public, meaning anyone could read them on your personal Twitter profile page. But if you want to use Twitter as a way to keep in touch with friends, you’ll need to convince them to sign up, too.
Once you have an account, you can begin building your network of contacts. You can invite other users to receive your Tweets, and you can follow other members’ posts. As you receive Tweets, you may discover you’re looking into only part of a conversation. You’ll see your contact’s posts, but if he or she is sending messages in response to someone who isn’t in your network, you won’t see the other person’s messages.
Tweets have a few limitations, mostly due to the fact that Twitter’s design relies heavily on cell phone text messages. Tweets can only have up to 140 characters before the system cuts off the rest of the message for cell phone users. Members can read full Tweets on their Twitter Web pages or by using a third-party developer’s desktop or Web-based application.
How Twitter Works
Many social networking Web sites have lots of bells and whistles. Sites like MySpace and Facebook let users build profiles, upload pictures, incorporate multimedia, keep a blog and integrate useful or bizarre programs into homepages. But one Web company with a very simple service is rapidly becoming one of the most talked-about social networking service providers: Twitter.
So what does Twitter do? When you sign up with Twitter, you can use the service to post and receive messages to a network of contacts. Instead of sending a dozen e-mails or text messages, you send one message to your Twitter account, and the service distributes it to all your friends. Members use Twitter to organize impromptu gatherings, carry on a group conversation or just send a quick update to let people know what’s going on.
Twitter’s history is entwined with a few other Internet companies. Twitter’s founders are Evan Williams, Biz Stone and Jack Dorsey. A few years before Twitter was born, Williams created Blogger, a popular Web journal service. Internet giant Google purchased Blogger, and Williams began to work directly for Google. Before long, he and Google employee Stone left the Internet giant to form a new company called Odeo.
Odeo is a podcasting service company. According to Williams, he didn’t have a personal interest in podcasting, and under his guidance, the company temporarily lost focus. However, one of Odeo’s products was just beginning to gather steam: Twitter, a new messaging service. Stone gave Twitter its name, comparing the short spurts of information exchange to the chirping of birds and pointing out that many ring tones sound like bird calls .
As the service became a more important part of Odeo, Stone and Williams decided to form a new company with Twitter as the flagship product. Williams bought out Odeo and Twitter from investors, then combined the existing company and service into a new venture called Obvious Corporation. Jack Dorsey joined the team and began to develop new ways for users to interface with Twitter, including through computer applications like instant messaging and e-mail. In March 2006, Twitter split off from Obvious to become its own company, Twitter Incorporated.
WHAT IS YOU-TUBE
You tube is a popular free video-sharing Web site that lets registered users upload and share video clips online at the YouTube.com Web site. To view the videos you are not required to register. Launched in 2005 by former PayPal employees, the video-sharing site was acquired by Google Inc. in October 2006 for US $1.65 billion in Google stock. YouTube is currently based in San Bruno, CA and is a subsidiary of Google, Inc.
HOW YOU-TUBE WORKS
Basically, YouTube is a video-hosting website that allows users to upload videos to the site and allowing visitors to search and watch videos anytime they want, conveniently, quickly, and at no cost. With an easy-to-navigate website layout and user-friendly features, YouTube makes it a cinch for people to upload videos, and even easier for people to view videos. A search function allows visitors to search videos by keywords or topics ranging from the David Letterman Show to hilarious home video clips.
CONCLUSION
From the foregoing it can be seen that the concept of both social networking sites in the Nigerian society has grown considerably with it usage more common among the youths in Nigeria. Moreover the use of application software’s like smart phones and blackberry phones have revolutionized the way this socio networks are being use in the country.

REFERENCES
• ^ a b Dorsey, Jack (March 21, 2006). “just setting up my twttr”. Twitter. http://twitter.com/jack/status/20. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
• ^ “Contact Us”. http://twitter.com/about/contact.
• ^ a b Staff writer (July 15, 2009). “Hacker Exposes Private Twitter Documents”. Bits (blog of The New York Times). http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/15/hacker-exposes-private-twitter-documents/?hpw.. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
• ^ Kafka, Peter (April 3, 2012). “Twitter Expands European Business”. All Things Digital. Dow Jones & Company. http://allthingsd.com/20120403/twitter-expands-european-business/. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
• ^ a b “Twitter.com Site Info”. Alexa Internet. http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/twitter.com. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
• ^ a b “Twitter has 500 million registered users”. http://www.mediabistro.com/alltwitter/500-million-registered-users_b18842.
• ^ a b c Arrington, Michael (July 15, 2006). “Odeo Releases Twttr”. TechCrunch. AOL. http://techcrunch.com/2006/07/15/is-twttr-interesting/. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
• ^ Twitter Search Team (May 31, 2011). “The Engineering Behind Twitter’s New Search Experience”. Twitter Engineering Blog. Twitter. http://engineering.twitter.com/2011/05/engineering-behind-twitters-new-search.html. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
• ^ “Youtube.com Site Info”. Alexa Internet. http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/youtube.com. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
• ^ a b “YouTube language versions”. http://i.imgur.com/C2mND.png. Retrieved January 15, 2012.

NIGERIA IN HISTORY 1


How true is this: “Does anybody remember Dr Ishola Oyenusi and
gang? They introduced armed robbery into
nigeria in the early 70’s. Does anybody
remember professor Wole Soinka? he
introoduced cultism into nigeria that is now

wreaking havoc on the nation. Does anybody
remember GBOMO GBOMO? it is child
kidnapping for rituals happening in yorubaland
as far back as the 60’s long before any nigerian
knew of kidnapping. Does anyone rememberthe
1964 rigged elections in the western region
which led to the first coup and crisis that
caused the civil war? The yorubas were the
first to start and introduce election rigging in
nigeria after the departure of the colonial
masters. Does anyone remember operation
wetie? That was the introduction of thuggery,
arson, mass murders and other forms of
violence in yorubaland from 1964. Does anyone
remember the state of emergency in the
western region in 1962? Yorubaland was the
place were the first state of emergency in
nigeria’s history was imposed because of the
lawlessness in the region then. Does anyone
remember the carpet crossing wahala? that
was the introduction of tribal politics in nigeria
when awolowo convinced the yoruba members
of Azikiwe’s party the NCNC who won seats in
the western region to cross carpet on tribal
grounds thereby introducing tribal politics into
nigeria. Does anyone remember the first coup
trial in 1963? Obafemi awolowo was tried and
jailed for coup plotting in 1963 becoming the
first nigerian and yoruba in nigerian history to
be involved in coup plotting. Does anyone
remember the ITT scam in the early 70’s? that
was the contract money for nigeria’s
telecommunications that Abiola looted thereby
introducing contractor scams and denying
nigerians of a functional telecomunications
service. The failed banks and wonder bank
scams in the 80’s and 90’s were introduced by
yorubas. Does anyone remember the
Tafa Balogun? he was a monumentally corrupt
and first inspector general of police in history to
be jailed for looting 19 billion naira. Does
anyone remember the importation of sand in
place of fertilizers by yorubas? The list can go
on and on to show that yorubas introduced
pratically all the vices destroying the nation. In
my next write-up i will be publishing the list of
all the federal looters since 1970, a list that will
put the yorubas and hausas to shame on how
they looted and destroyed the nation!”

REVIEW THE EFFECT OF MARKETING INTERMEDIARIES ON FIRMS EFFECTIVENESS.


INTRODUCTION

Marketing intermediaries refers to resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing services agencies, and financial intermediaries. Marketing intermediaries help to sell, promote, and distribute goods. Intermediaries take �many forms. Resellers Physical �distribution firms Marketing services �agencies Financial �intermediaries Customer markets must be studied. Market types Consumer Business Government Reseller International Customer markets must be studied. Market types Consumer Business Government Reseller International Various publics must also �be considered Government Media Financial Local General Internal Citizen Action Groups

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT MARKETING INTERMEDIARIES.

The production manager at my company argued at yesterday’s staff meeting that wholesaling intermediaries or “middlemen” simply increase the cost of products and that is whey company sales are lower. What would I tell the Production Manager? Is there any benefit from marketing intermediaries? Where are my choices?
a. The marketing intermediaries are primarily useful for the government. He intermediaries are responsible for administering the tax and inspection programs imposed by the Federal Trade Commission.
b. Marketing intermediaries add efficiency to the distribution of products by reducing the number of buyers seller transaction required to satisfy the buyer’s needs.
c. Marketing intermediaries conduct the product development function. Although this may be expensive companies benefit by having a steady flow of new product ideas
d. The primary benefit involves supporting foreign marketing operations in the domestic market; however, market intermediaries are really not necessary and tend to just add another layer of administration between the producer and the buyer.
Marketing intermediaries refers to resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing services agencies, and financial intermediaries. These are the people that help the company promote, sell, and distribute its products to final buyers. Resellers are those that hold and sell the company’s product. They match the distribution to the customers and include places such as Wal-Mart, Target, and Best Buy. Physical distribution firms are places such as warehouses that store and transport the company’s product from its origin to its destination. Marketing services agencies are companies that offer services such as conducting marketing research, advertising, and consulting. Financial intermediaries are institutions such as banks, credit companies and insurance companies.
Another aspect of microenvironment is the customers. There are different types of customer markets including consumer markets, business markets, government markets, international markets, and reseller markets. The consumer market is made up of individuals who buy goods and services for their own personal use or use in their household. Business markets include those that buy goods and services for use in producing their own products to sell. This is different from the reseller market which includes businesses that purchase goods to resell as is for a profit. These are the same companies mentioned as market intermediaries. The government market consists of government agencies that buy goods to produce public services or transfer goods to others who need them. International markets include buyers in other countries and includes customers from the previous categories.
Competitors are also a factor in the microenvironment and include companies with similar offerings for goods and services. To remain competitive a company must consider who their biggest competitors are while considering its own size and position in the industry. The company should develop a strategic advantage over their competitors.
The final aspect of the microenvironment is publics, which is any group that has an interest in or impact on the organization’s ability to meet its goals. For example, financial publics can hinder a company’s ability to obtain funds affecting the level of credit a company has. Media publics include newspapers and magazines that can publish articles of interest regarding the company and editorials that may influence customers’ opinions. Government publics can affect the company by passing legislation and laws that put restrictions on the company’s actions. Citizen-action publics include environmental groups and minority groups and can question the actions of a company and put them in the public spotlight. Local publics are neighborhood and community organizations and will also question a company’s impact on the local area and the level of responsibility of their actions. The general public can greatly affect the company as any change in their attitude, whether positive or negative, can cause sales to go up or down because the general public is often the company’s customer base. And finally those who are employed within the company and deal with the organization and construction of the company’s product.

Functions performed by marketing intermediaries
Marketing intermediaries provide 3 major functions:
1. Maturity transformation
Converting short-term liabilities to long term assets (banks deal with large number of lenders and borrowers, and reconcile their conflicting needs)
2. Risk transformation
Converting risky investments into relatively risk-free ones. (lending to multiple borrowers to spread the risk)
3. Convenience denomination
Matching small deposits with large loans and large deposits with small loans.

Advantages of marketing intermediaries
There are 2 essential advantages from using financial intermediaries:
1. Cost advantage over direct lending/borrowing
2. Market failure protection the conflicting needs of lenders and borrowers are reconciled, preventing market failure
The cost advantages of using marketing intermediaries include:
1. Reconciling conflicting preferences of lenders and borrowers
2. Risk aversion intermediaries help spread out and decrease the risks
3. Economies of scale using financial intermediaries reduces the costs of lending and borrowing
4. Economies of scope intermediaries concentrate on the demands of the lenders and borrowers and are able to enhance their products and services (use same inputs to produce different outputs)

Types of f intermediaries
Marketing intermediaries include:
• Banks
• Building societies
• Credit unions
• Financial advisers or brokers
• Insurance companies
• Collective investment schemes
• Pension funds

There is a variety of intermediaries that may get involved before a product gets from the original producer to the final user. These are described briefly below:
Retailers
Retailers operate outlets that trade directly with household customers. Retailers can be classified in several ways:
• Type of goods being sold( e.g. clothes, grocery, furniture)
• Type of service (e.g. self-service, counter-service)
• Size (e.g. corner shop; superstore)
• Ownership (e.g. privately-owned independent; public-quoted retail group
• Location (e.g. rural, city-centre, out-of-town)
• Brand (e.g. nationwide retail brands; local one-shop name)

Wholesalers
Wholesalers stock a range of products from several producers. The role of the wholesaler is to sell onto retailers. Wholesalers usually specialise in particular products.

Distributors and dealers
Distributors or dealers have a similar role to wholesalers – that of taking products from producers and selling them on. However, they often sell onto the end customer rather than a retailer. They also usually have a much narrower product range. Distributors and dealers are often involved in providing after-sales service.

Franchises
Franchises are independent businesses that operate a branded product (usually a service) in exchange for a licence fee and a share of sales.

Agents
Agents sell the products and services of producers in return for a commission (a percentage of the sales revenues)

SOME OF THE EFFECTS OF THESE MARKETING INTERMEDIARIES ON FIRMS EFFECTIVENESS MAY INCLUDE;

1. If Retailers operate outlets that trade directly with household customers indirectly, this will cause inefficiency to a firm.
2. If agents sells products and services of producers in higher returns for a commissions not in line with best business practices.
3. If franchise firms fail to pay agreed license fees this will certainly affect other firm’s effectiveness.
4. An ineffective distribution chain or channel can cause ineffectiveness to a firm base on their narrower product range.
5. If whosaler decides to stock or hoard a firm’s product, this will affect their marking functions and its intermediaries.

Many producers do not sell products or services directly to consumers and instead use marketing intermediaries to execute an assortment of necessary functions to get the product to the final user. These intermediaries, such as middlemen (wholesalers, retailers, agents, and brokers), distributors, or financial intermediaries, typically enter into longer-term commitments with the producer and make up what is known as the marketing channel, or the channel of distribution. Manufacturers use raw materials to produce finished products, which in turn may be sent directly to the retailer, or, less often, to the consumer.

The natural environment is another important factor of the marketing intermediaries. This includes the natural resources that a company uses as inputs and affects their marketing activities. The concern in this area is the increased pollution, shortages of raw materials and increased governmental intervention. As raw materials become increasingly scarcer, the ability to create a company’s product gets much harder. Also, pollution can go as far as negatively affecting a company’s reputation if they are known for damaging the environment. The last concern, government intervention can make it increasingly harder for a company to fulfill their goals as requirements get more stringent.
The technological environment is perhaps one of the fastest changing factors in the macroenvironment. This includes all developments from antibiotics and surgery to nuclear missiles and chemical weapons to automobiles and credit cards. As these markets develop it can create new markets and new uses for products. It also requires a company to stay ahead of others and update their own technology as it becomes outdated. They must stay informed of trends so they can be part of the next big thing, rather than becoming outdated and suffering the consequences financially.
The political environment includes all laws, government agencies, and groups that influence or limit other organizations and individuals within a society. It is important for marketers to be aware of these restrictions as they can be complex. Some products are regulated by both state and federal laws. There are even restrictions for some products as to who the target market may be, for example, cigarettes should not be marketed to younger children. There are also many restrictions on subliminal messages and monopolies. As laws and regulations change often, this is a very important aspect for a marketer to monitor.
The final aspect of the macroenvironment is the cultural environment, which consists of institutions and basic values and beliefs of a group of people. The values can also be further categorized into core beliefs, which passed on from generation to generation and very difficult to change, and secondary beliefs, which tend to be easier to influence. As a marketer, it is important to know the difference between the two and to focus your marketing campaign to reflect the values of a target audience.
When dealing with the marketing environment it is important for a company to become proactive. By doing so, they can create the kind of environment that they will prosper in and can become more efficient by marketing in areas with the greatest customer potential. It is important to place equal emphasis on both the macro and microenvironment and to react accordingly to changes within them.

Meso-Environment
Marketing intermediaries help to sell, promote, and distribute goods. Intermediaries take �many forms. Resellers Physical �distribution firms Marketing services �agencies Financial �intermediaries Customer markets must be studied. Market types Consumer Business Government Reseller International Customer markets must be studied. Market types Consumer Business Government Reseller International Various publics must also �be considered Government Media Financial Local General Internal Citizen Action Groups.

One general type of intermediary is the “marketing intermediary.” The marketing intermediary is an agent of the seller or buyer, or both. These organizations obtain nonexclusive marketing rights from one or more federal labs to market their intellectual property. They may even obtain contracts with the labs for the marketing efforts. Examples of “marketing intermediaries” that represent the labs include:
• Navy Techmatch, http://www.navytechmatch.com
• EPA Techmatch, http://www.epatechmatch.com
• Firstlink for first responder technologies, http://www.dodfirstlink.com
• Techlink, http://www.techlinkcenter.org
• National Technology Transfer Center, http://www.nttc.edu
• The Technology Commercialization Center, Inc., operator of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Technology Transfer Center, http://www.teccenter.org
• TRSG, Inc., http://www.teamtrsg.com

A commercial example of a “marketing intermediary” that represents the user is the MEMS Exchange, http://www.mems-exchange.org, which helps users find MEMS equipment and facilities available for use.
Other intermediaries can be called “contractual intermediaries” because they are authorized by the labs to enter into formal agreements with companies under defined guidelines set by the labs or agencies. In these cases, the labs enter into a single, general agreement with the intermediary, which in turn can enter into multiple “sub” agreements with any number of private companies, universities or state/local governments. In other words, a “contractual” intermediary participates directly in the deal between government and user.
The advantages of “contractual intermediaries” to the government include:
• Resource leveraging. The intermediaries can promote, identify, negotiate, make agreements and manage many relationships with very little government cost and only government oversight involvement.
• The intermediary can gather values from multiple organizations and provide compensation directly to a lab in the form of “in-kind products and services.”
• A lab can orchestrate partnership development and task performance without direct involvement if it so chooses.
• Use of an intermediary under agreements such as an EUL can unlock the values of fixed government assets to apply them to contemporary government missions.
• Depending on the nature of the relationship, government costs can be reduced from rents, leases, or other consideration, including investment in buildings and infrastructure.

Advantages of the intermediary organizations to the organizations that commercialize government technologies include:
• Help identifying the technology/needs match.
• Reduction in confusion. Deals with the intermediary are more like conventional commercial deals, so companies do not have to learn complex government procedures before coming to a workable agreement.
• Swiftness. Typically, the intermediary can come to agreements with other organizations much faster than formation of a direct company/government relationship.
• The intermediary can receive and leverage private sector gifts to support economic development projects that coincide and are integrated with lab missions.
• Users can reduce capital and investments required to grow their activities by using government facilities and personnel.
• These programs save time and money for users and allow them to accelerate their growth.

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
Marketing institutions (intermediaries) perform the vital role of bringing together those economic agents with surplus funds who want to lend, with those with a shortage of funds who want to borrow.
In doing this they offer the major benefits of maturity and risk transformation. It is possible for this to be done by direct contact between the ultimate borrowers, but there are major cost disadvantages of direct finance.
Indeed, one explanation of the existence of specialist financial intermediaries is that they have a related (cost) advantage in offering financial services, which not only enables them to make profit, but also raises the overall efficiency of the economy. The other main explanation draws on the analysis of information problems associated with financial markets.

REFERENCES
1. ^ a b Siklos, Pierre (2001). Money, Banking, and Financial Institutions: Canada in the Global Environment. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson. p. 35. ISBN 0-07-087158-2.
2. ^ Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 272. ISBN 0-13-063085-3. http://www.pearsonschool.com/index.cfm?locator=PSZ3R9&PMDbSiteId=2781&PMDbSolutionId=6724&PMDbCategoryId=&PMDbProgramId=12881&level=4.
3. ^ Robert E. Wright and Vincenzo Quadrini. Money and Banking: Chapter 2 Section 5: Financial Intermediaries.[1] Accessed June 28, 2012
4. ^ Gahir, Bruce (2009). Financial Intermediation. Prague, Czech Republic.

THE SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS IN THE SOUTH-SOUTH REGION OF NIGERIA


INTRODUCTION
The South-South is strategically located at the mid point of Nigeria’s southern hemisphere where the Y tail of the river Niger joins the Atlantic Ocean through theGulf of Guinea. Though, the south-south geo-political zone represents about 7.5 percent of Nigeria’s land mass with a land mass area of 84,587km2; this relatively small stretch of land provides the economic mainstay of the Nigerian economy; Oil. The South-South region comprises of 6 unique states.
An entrepreneur is an enterprising individual who builds capital through risk and/or initiative. The term was originally a loanword from French and was first defined by the Irish-French economist Richard Cantillon. This term first appeared in the French Dictionary “Dictionnaire Universal de Commerce” of Jacques des Bruslons published in 1723. Entrepreneur in English is a term applied to a person who is willing to help launch a new venture or enterprise and accept full responsibility for the outcome.
The entrepreneur leads the firm or organization and also demonstrates leadership qualities by selecting managerial staff. Entrepreneurs emerge from the population naturally because they perceive opportunities and see themselves as well-positioned to take advantage of them, or because they observe a problem and see themselves as able to solve it. Joseph Schumpeter saw the entrepreneur as an innovator and popularized the use of the phrase creative destruction to describe the role of entrepreneurs in changing business norms.
The most significant influences on an individual’s decision to become an entrepreneur are workplace peers and the social composition of the workplace.
The ability of entrepreneurs to innovate relates to innate traits such as extroversion and a proclivity for risk-taking. According to Schumpeter (1934), the capabilities of innovating, introducing new technologies, increasing efficiency and productivity, or generating new products or services, are characteristics of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are catalysts for economic change. Research has found entrepreneurs to be highly creative with a tendency to imagine new solutions by finding opportunities for profit or reward.
Psychological studies show that the psychological propensities for male and female entrepreneurs are more similar than different. A growing body of work shows that entrepreneurial behavior is dependent on social and economic factors. For example, countries with healthy and diversified labor markets or stronger safety nets show a more favorable ratio of opportunity-driven rather than necessity-driven women entrepreneurs. Empirical studies suggest that men entrepreneurs possess strong negotiating skills and consensus-forming abilities.
Recent advances in entrepreneurship research indicate that the differences in entrepreneurs and heterogeneity in their behaviors and actions can be traced back to their the founder’s identity. For instance, Fauchart and Gruber (2011, Academy of Management Journal) have recently shown that -based on social identity theory – three main types of entrepreneurs can be distinguished: Darwinians, Communitarians and Missionaries. These types of founders not only diverge in fundamental ways in terms of their self-views and their social motivations in entrepreneurship, but also engage fairly differently in new firm creation
LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature has distinguished among a number of different types of entrepreneurs, for instance:
• Social: Motivated by a desire to help, improve and transform social, environmental, educational and economic conditions. Key traits and characteristics of highly effective social entrepreneurs include ambition and a lack of acceptance of the status quo or accepting the world “as it is”. The social entrepreneur is driven by an emotional desire to address some of the big social and economic conditions in the world, for example, poverty and educational deprivation, rather than by the desire for profit. Social entrepreneurs seek to develop innovative solutions to global problems that can be copied by others to enact change.[4] Social entrepreneurs act within a market aiming to create social value through the improvement of goods and services offered to the community. Their main aim is to help offer a better service improving the community as a whole and are predominately run as non profit schemes. Zahra et al. (2009: 519) said that “social entrepreneurs make significant and diverse contributions to their communities and societies, adopting business models to offer creative solutions to complex and persistent social problems”.
• Serial: Continuously comes up with new ideas and starts new businesses.[5] In the media, the serial entrepreneur is represented as possessing a higher propensity for risk, innovation and achievement.[6]
• Lifestyle: Places passion before profit when launching a business in order to combine personal interests and talent with the ability to earn a living. Many entrepreneurs may be primarily motivated by the intention to make their business profitable in order to sell to shareholders.[examples needed] In contrast, a lifestyle entrepreneur intentionally chooses a business model intended to develop and grow their business in order to make a long-term, sustainable and viable living working in a field where they have a particular interest, passion, talent, knowledge or high degree of expertise.[7] A lifestyle entrepreneur may decide to become self-employed in order to achieve greater personal freedom, more family time and more time working on projects or business goals that inspire them. A lifestyle entrepreneur may combine a hobby with a profession or they may specifically decide not to expand their business in order to remain in control of their venture. Common goals held by the lifestyle entrepreneur include earning a living doing something that they love, earning a living in a way that facilitates self-employment, achieving a good work/life balance and owning a business without shareholders.[further explanation needed] Many lifestyle entrepreneurs are very dedicated to their business and may work within the creative industries or tourism industry,[8] where a passion before profit approach to entrepreneurship often prevails. While many entrepreneurs may launch their business with a clear exit strategy, a lifestyle entrepreneur may deliberately and consciously choose to keep their venture fully within their own control. Lifestyle entrepreneurship is becoming increasing popular as technology provides small business owners with the digital platforms needed to reach a large global market.[9] Younger lifestyle entrepreneurs, typically those between 25 and 40 years old, are sometimes referred to as Treps.[10]
• Cooperative: Collaborates with other cooperative entrepreneurs to develop projects, particularly cooperative projects. Each cooperative entrepreneur might bring different skill sets to the table, but collectively they share in the risk and success of the venture.

SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS THAT INFLUENCES ENTREPRENEUR SUCCESS IN THE SOUTH-SOUTH REGION OF NIGERIA ARE;
INCOME:
The level of one’s income in the region goes a long way to influence an entrepreneur ability and success to achieve more in his business ventures. As a determinant, the level of one’s income goes a long way to boast or commences a business venture.
GOVERNMENT POLICY:
Government policies also play a key role and this will either shape the entrepreneur business drive or decline his interest. An entrepreneur will certainly look at the various laws and policies put in place for government in order to dive into a business venture here in the south-south region.
TYPE OF PRODUCTS:
The type of products an entrepreneur intends to sell or bring to the audience plays crucial role in its success in the south-south region. Numerous product abound in the region and it will take a good quality product to break the existing market.
MARKET/NETWORK:
The network and market rate and level an entrepreneur keep or have earmark for self will crave for success in his business ventures in the region. An entrepreneur will need a wide array of network and market reach to be succesfull.
CUSTOMER RELATIONS:
An entrepreneur will need to break into the -would -b -customers inorder to be successful in pursuit for entrepreneurial success. A strong background of customer relation and customer analysis would help build confidence and increase market access.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1. It is recommended that certain sociological determinants are always put in place not only by the entrepreneur but also by the relevant authorities’ inoder to drive entrepreneur drive in the region.
2. It is also recommended that an entrepreneur should avail self of all necessary facilities and tools to make the best out of the business ventures.
3. Government and relevant authorizes should put in place the necessary tools to make entrepreneurial drive in the region to grow to certain considerable heights and also boast investment and commerce in the region.

CONCLUSIONS
The entrepreneur leads the firm or organization and also demonstrates leadership qualities by selecting managerial staff. Entrepreneurs emerge from the population naturally because they perceive opportunities and see themselves as well-positioned to take advantage of them, or because they observe a problem and see themselves as able to solve it. Joseph Schumpeter saw the entrepreneur as an innovator and popularized the use of the phrase creative destruction to describe the role of entrepreneurs in changing business norms.
The most significant influences on an individual’s decision to become an entrepreneur are workplace peers and the social composition of the workplace.
Lastly, It is also important to note that an entrepreneur will have to be skillful and enterprise in his quest and drive for business success in the region.

REFERENCES
1. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entrepreneur
2. ^ See William J. Baumol, Robert E. Litan & Carl J. Schramm. Good capitalism, bad capitalism, and the economics of growth and prosperity 3 (2007), citing generally Peter F. Drucker. Innovation and entrepreneurship (1985) (attributing coining and defining of “entrepreneur” to Jean-Baptiste Say, a treatise on political economy (1834)); but see Robert H. Brockhaus, Sr., The Psychology of the Entrepreneur, in Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship 40 (Calvin A. Kent, et al. eds. 1982), citing J. S. Mill, Principles of political economy with some of their applications to social philosophy (1848). Note that, despite Baumol et al.’s citation, the Drucker book was published in 1986.
3. ^ Olakitan, O. (5 November 2011).
4. ^ “Harvard Business Publishing Presents: An interview with John Elkington – Key Traits of Social Entrepreneurs.”. http://sciencestage.com/v/13869/key-traits-of-social-entrepreneurs.html.
5. ^ Business dictionary definition
6. ^ Serial Entrepreneur Quotes
7. ^ Wadhwa, Vivek. “Is entrepreneurship just about the exit?”. http://techcrunch.com/2010/06/12/is-entrepreneurship-just-about-the-exit/. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
8. ^ Peters, M, Frehse, J, Buhalis, D, The importance of lifestyle entrepreneurship: A conceptual study of the tourism industry, PASOS Vol. 7, No. 2 p393-405, 2009
9. ^ Rural Entrepreneurs, Case Studies. “Ecommerce as a business strategy: lessons learned from rural and small town businesses”. http://www.ruraleship.org/site/images/research/cp/cs/cs7.pdf. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
10. ^ Goodman, Vivian. “TREPS: The Young Titans of the New Economy”. http://www.wksu.org/news/features/familyseries/treps_transcript.html. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
11. http://www.southsouth.com.ng/?q=node/68

A GEOGRAPHIC THEORY ON WHY ONE COUNTRY DEVELOPS MORE THAN ANOTHER.


A geography theory simply entails the comparative advantages and disadvantages the different locations or points where each nations of the world are situated or find. It could also be seen as a terms as in location and places in geography which are used to notice and or identify a point or an area on the Earth’s surface or elsewhere. The term ‘location’ generally implies a higher degree of certainty than “place” which often has an ambiguous boundary relying more on human/social attributes of place identity and sense of place than on geometry.
Why one country develop than the other.
There are three reasons:
The first is historical reasons-
This happened a long time ago when poorer countries were colonised by richer ones. They usually wanted raw materials from them.

Enviromental –
Some countries have higher climates more floods etc and also many materials may not bee available to them.

Socio-economic-
Money, certain corrupt officials in government etc.

REVIEW SUPPLIER RELATIONS MANAGEMENT & FIRM PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING FIRM IN RIVERS STATE


INTRODUCTION
Suppliers relations management and firms performance of some selected manufacturing firms in rivers state can be seen a holistic study where most manufacturing firms can be review. However, the state is blessed with much human and manpower resources. Rivers State is one of the 36 states of Nigeria. Its capital is Port Harcourt. It is bounded on the South by the Atlantic Ocean, to the North by Imo, Abia and Anambra States, to the East by Akwa Ibom State and to the West by Bayelsa and Delta states. Rivers state is home to three main ethnic groups: Igbo, Ijaw, and Ogoni.
The inland part of Rivers state consists of tropical rainforest; towards the coast the typical Niger Delta environment features many mangrove swamps.
Rivers state, named after the many rivers that border its territory, was part of the Oil Rivers Protectorate from 1885 till 1893, when it became part of the Niger Coast Protectorate. In 1900 the region was merged with the chartered territories of the Royal Niger Company to form the colony of Southern Nigeria.
The state was formed in 1967 with the split of the Eastern Region of Nigeria. Until 1996 the state contained the area which is now in the Bayelsa State.
Supplier relationship management (SRM) is the discipline of strategically planning for, and managing, all interactions with third party organizations that supply goods and/or services to an organization in order to maximize the value of those interactions. In practice, SRM entails creating closer, more collaborative relationships with key suppliers in order to uncover and realize new value, and reduce risk.
Supplier relationship management (SRM) is the systematic, enterprise-wide (1) assessment of suppliers’ assets and capabilities with respect to overall business strategy, (2) determination of what activities to engage in with different suppliers, and (3) planning and execution of all interactions with suppliers, in a coordinated fashion across the relationship lifecycle, in order to maximize the value realized through those interactions.The focus of SRM is to develop two-way, mutually beneficial relationships with strategic supply partners to deliver greater levels of innovation and competitive advantage than could be achieved by operating independently or through a traditional, transactional purchasing arrangement.
In many fundamental ways, SRM is analogous to CRM. Just as companies have multiple interactions over time with their customers, so too do they interact with suppliers – negotiating contracts, purchasing, managing logistics and delivery, collaborating on product design, etc. The starting point for defining SRM is a recognition that these various interactions with suppliers are not discrete and independent – instead they are accurately and usefully thought of as comprising a relationship, one which can and should be managed in a coordinated fashion across functional and business unit touch-points, and throughout the relationship lifecycle.
SRM necessitates a consistency of approach and a defined set of behaviours that foster trust over time. Effective SRM requires not only institutionalizing new ways of collaborating with key suppliers, but also actively dismantling existing policies and practices that can impede collaboration and limit the potential value that can be derived from key supplier relationships.[3] At the same time, SRM should entail reciprocal changes in processes and policies at suppliers.
Organizational structure
While there is no one correct model for deploying SRM at an organizational level, there are a set of structural elements that are relevant in most contexts:
1. A formal SRM team or office at the corporate level. The purpose of such a group is to facilitate and coordinate SRM activities across functions and business units. SRM is inherently cross-functional, and requires a good combination of commercial, technical and interpersonal skills. These “softer” skills around communication, listening, influencing and managing change are critical to developing strong and trusting working relations.
2. A formal Relationship Manager or Supplier Account Manager role. Such individuals often sit within the business unit that interacts most frequently with that supplier, or may be filled by a category manager in the procurement function. This role can be a full time, dedicated positions, although relationship management responsibilities may be part of broader roles depending on the complexity and importance of the supplier relationship (see Supplier Segmentation). SRM managers understand their suppliers’ business and strategic goals, and are able to see issues from the supplier’s point of view while balancing their own organization’s requirements and priorities.
3. An executive sponsor and, for complex, strategic supplier relationships, a cross-functional steering committee. These individuals form a clear link between SRM strategies and overall business strategies, serve to determine the relative prioritization among a company’s varying goals as they impact suppliers, and act as a dispute resolution body.

Governance
The SRM office and supply chain function are typically responsible for defining the SRM governance model, which includes a clear and jointly agreed governance framework in place for some top-tier strategic suppliers. Effective governance should comprise not only designation of senior executive sponsors at both customer and supplier and dedicated relationship managers, but also a face-off model connecting personnel in engineering, procurement, operations, quality and logistics with their supplier counterparts; a regular cadence of operational and strategic planning and review meetings; and well-defined escalation procedures to ensure speedy resolution of problems or conflicts at the appropriate organizational level.
Supplier engagement model
Effective supplier relationship management requires an enterprise-wide analysis of what activities to engage in with each supplier. The common practice of implementing a “one size fits all” approach to managing suppliers can stretch resources and limit the potential value that can be derived from strategic supplier relationships.Supplier segmentation, in contrast, is about determining what kind of interactions to have with various suppliers, and how best to manage those interactions, not merely as a disconnected set of siloized transactions, but in a coordinated manner across the enterprise.Suppliers can be segmented, not just by spend, but by the total potential value (measured across multiple dimensions) that can be realized through interactions with them. Further, suppliers can be segmented by the degree of risk to which the realization of that value is subject.

Joint activities
Joint activities with suppliers might include:
• Supplier summits, which bring together all strategic suppliers together to share the company’s strategy, provide feedback on its strategic supplier relationship management program, and solicit feedback and suggestions from key suppliers.
• Executive-to-executive meetings
• Strategic business planning meetings, where relationship leaders and technical experts meet to discuss joint opportunities, potential roadblocks to collaboration, activities and resources required, and share strategies and relevant market trends. Joint business planning meetings are often accompanied by a clear process to capture supplier ideas and innovations, direct them to relevant stakeholders, and ensure that they are evaluated for commercial suitability, and developed and implemented if they are deemed commercially viable.
• Operational business reviews, where individuals responsible for day-to-day management of the relationship review progress on joint initiatives, operational performance, and risks.

Value measurement
SRM delivers a competitive advantage by harnessing talent and ideas from key supply partners and translates this into product and service offerings for end customers. One tool for monitoring performance and identifying areas for improvement is the joint, two-way performance scorecard. A balanced scorecard includes a mixture of quantitative and qualitative measures, including how key participants perceive the quality of the relationship. These KPIs are shared between customer and supplier and reviewed jointly, reflecting the fact that the relationship is two-way and collaborative, and that strong performance on both sides is required for it to be successful. Advanced organizations conduct 360 degree scorecards, where strategic suppliers are also surveyed for feedback on their performance, the results of which are built into the scorecard.
A practice of leading organizations is to track specific SRM savings generated at an individual supplier level, and also at an aggregated SRM program level, through existing procurement benefits measurement systems. Part of the challenge in measuring the financial impact of SRM is that there are many ways SRM can contribute to financial performance. These include cost savings (e.g., most favoured customer pricing, joint efforts to improve design, manufacturing, and service delivery for greater efficiency); incremental revenue opportunities (e.g., gaining early or exclusive access to innovative supplier technology; joint efforts to develop innovative products, features, packaging, etc. avoiding stock-outs through joint demand forecasting); and improved management of risk. In a 2004 Vantage Partners study, respondents reported that on average, they could save just over $43 million to their bottom line by implementing supplier relationship management best practices.
Systematic collaboration
In practice, SRM expands the scope of interaction with key suppliers beyond traditional buy-sell transactions to encompass other joint activities which are predicated on a shift in perspective and a change in how relationships are managed, which may or may not entail significant investment. Such activities include:
• Joint research and development
• More disciplined and systematic, and often expanded, information sharing
• Joint demand forecasting and process re-engineering (has unlocked savings of 10-30 percent for leading organizations).
Technology & systems
There are a myriad of technology solutions which are purported to enable SRM. These systems can be used to gather and track supplier performance data across sites, business units, and/or regions. The benefit is a more comprehensive and objective picture of supplier performance, which can be used to make better sourcing decisions, as well as identify and address systemic supplier performance problems. It is important to note that SRM software, while valuable, cannot be implemented in the absence of the other business structure and process changes that are recommended as part of implementing SRM as a strategy.
Other Considersations: Challenges
• Creating the business case
• Executive sponsorship
• Calculating ROI
• Developing an SRM sales pitch

SRM and Supplier Performance Management
Some confusion may exist over the difference between Supplier performance management (SPM) and SRM. SPM is a subset of SRM. A simple way of expressing the difference between SPM and SRM is that the former is about ensuring the supplier delivers what has been promised in the contract, which suggests a narrow, one-way process. SRM, in contrast, is about collaboratively driving value for both parties, resulting in lower costs, reduced risk, greater efficiency, better quality, and access to innovation.This requires a focus on both negotiating the contract and managing the resulting relationship throughout implementation, as well as systematic joint value-discovery efforts.[10]

Firm performance of manufacturing firms in Rivers state comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs (or goals and objectives).
According to Richard et al. (2009) organizational performance encompasses three specific areas of firm outcomes: (a) financial performance (profits, return on assets, return on investment, etc.); (b) product market performance (sales, market share, etc.); and (c) shareholder return (total shareholder return, economic value added, etc.). The term firm effectiveness is broader.
Specialists in many fields are concerned with organizational performance including strategic planners, operations, finance, legal, and organizational development.
In recent years, many organizations have attempted to manage organizational performance using the balanced scorecard methodology where performance is tracked and measured in multiple dimensions such as:
• financial performance (e.g. shareholder return)
• customer service
• social responsibility (e.g. corporate citizenship, community outreach)
• employee stewardship
some of the manufacturing firms in Rivers state includes;
S/No. Names of companies and addresses Product Manufactured
1 Air Liquide Nigeria Plc
Plot 108, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Industrial and medical gases and welding equipment.
2 Almarine Limited
28, Kolokuma street Borokiri
Port Harcourt Outboard engine Boats
3 Crocodile Matchets Nig, Ltd
Plot 29, Trans Amadi layout
Port Harcourt Matchets
4 Eastern Bulkcem co. Ltd
Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt Eagle cement
5 Eastern Enamelware Factory Ltd
Plot 29, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Household cooking utensils
6 Rivers vegetable Oil Co. Ltd
Plot 80, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Vegetable edible oil
7 General Agro Ind. Limited
Plot 78/79, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Edible vegetable oil and palm kernel pellets
8 First Aluminum Nig. Ltd
Plot 19-21, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Aluminum coils, sheets & circle collapsible
9 Nigeria Bottling Co. Plc
Plot 126 , Trans Amadi layout
Port Harcourt Coca-cola, krest, Bitter lemon, sprite & fanta
10 Nigerian Engineering Work Ltd
Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Steel structure and pipes, pressure vessels, filling cabinets, cupboards, wardrobe, chairs and desk library shelving, storage shelving, industrial lockers and Fabrication.
11 PH Flour Mills limited
8A, Industry Road
Port Harcourt Flour and maizelina, semolina, bran
12 QR Manufacturing and trading limited
Plot 75Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Motor vehicle radiators
13 Sun Flower Manufacturing Company Ltd
Plot 70, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Plastic bags, containers and household utensils
14 Shower Limited
17, Ohaeto Street, D-line
Port Harcourt Safety and related uniforms & others
15 Polo Packaging Ind. Ltd
Plot 84 Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Polopropylene woven bags & packaging materials
16 Nikko Industries Nig. Ltd
Choba, Port Harcourt. Nylon Fishnets, Auto Trawl Net
17 Galba Limited
Plot 311, Trans Amadi layout
Port Harcourt Refurbished Flat 682 T3-N3 truck, Trailer axles flat 682 T3-N3 Engine refurbishing of Diesel & Gas, Turbine engine, power plant & truck spares.
18 Oil &Industrial Services Ltd
9A, Trans Amadi layout
Port Harcourt Gears, shafts, bolts & nuts, Flanges, bushings
19 Crushed Rock Nig. Ltd
PH/Aba Expressway
Port Harcourt Granite block & Aggregates
20 Danelec Limited
Plot 278, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt
Electrical/ Electronic Regulators
21 Dangote Bail Ltd
Onne
Port Harcourt Cement
22 Keedak Nig. Ltd
Plot 18, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Specialty chemical & water treatment application
23 West African Glass Ind.
Plot 134, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Hollow Glass containers
24 Boskel Nigeria Limited
PH/Aba Expressway
Port Harcourt Smokeless Flares for the oil 7 glass industry
255 Eastern Wrought Iron Limited
Plot 47, Trans Amadi layout
Port Harcourt Bunk beds, wrought iron furniture, hospital & school furniture, star foam, industry and domestic tanks
26 Dufil prima Foods Ltd.
Plot 29, Trans Amadi layout
Port Harcourt Indomie Instant Noodles brands
27 Far East Paint Lustre Ind. Ltd
Plot 170/171, Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt Paints & painting materials, ink, polish colouring & shading, mixture dyes, pigments, varnishes Resins
28 Hoison Energy & Resources Serv. Ltd.
Trans Amadi Layout
Port Harcourt High Density polyproethylene plastics & high density polypylene waste bags
29 Chief Ellah & Sons Nig. Ltd
13, Force Avenue
Port Harcourt Fish & animal products
30 Best Aluminum Mfg Co. Ltd
85, Aba Road
Port Harcourt Aluminum roofing sheets & cooking utensils
31 Grand Foods & Pharmaceutical Ltd
Aka – Ama Gboarian
Yenagoa Pharmaceutical
32 Eleme petrochemicals company Ltd
Eleme,
Port Harcourt
Polypropylene, polyprothylene
33 Delta plastic Ltd
Industrial complex, Apa Ogwu Road, off R.D road, Rumuodara,
Port Harcourt
Poly bags, Bopp brand wrappers, pure water films, shopping bags, pet bottles, disposals, plates
34 Grand petro-Allied Industries Ltd.
Plot 5, Aka Estate, Aka-Ama
P.O. Box 259, Yenegoa PVC pipes, plumbing fittings, Elbow, etc. performs, caps, Gerricans & other plastic materials
They are all members of the MANUFACTURERS
ASSOCIATION OF NIGERIA
SUMMARY.
Supplier’s relations management and firm’s performance of some the firms listed above shows three details structures that is peculiar to all business firms and enterprise. They include;
• financial performance (e.g. shareholder return)
• customer service
• social responsibility (e.g. corporate citizenship, community outreach)
• employee stewardship
Government incentive and policies also goes a long way to add value to most firm’s relations management in the state. This can be trace to the recent visit of Dufil foods, producers of indomie to the rivers state government house to akin the governor of their progress in the state and also solicitate his continued support.

CONCLUSION
• The study listed above detail suppliers relations management and firm performance of selected manufacturing firm in river state and came up with detail facts that are peculiar to the manufactuiring industry in rivers state. These structures includes financial performance (e.g. shareholder return)
• customer service
• social responsibility (e.g. corporate citizenship, community outreach)
• employee stewardship

References
1. ^ “Maximising the Value of Supplier Relationships”. CIO Leadership. 9. http://www.vantagepartners.com/researchandpublications/viewPublications.aspx?id=3150.
2. ^ a b c d Hughes, Jonathan (April 2010). “What is Supplier Relationship Management and Why Does it Matter?”. DILForientering. http://www.vantagepartners.com/ISM_DILF_What_is_SRM.aspx. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
3. ^ “From vendor to partner: Why and how leading companies collaborate with suppliers for competitive advantage”. Global Business and Organizational Excellence 27 (3): 21–37. March/April 2008. doi:10.1002/joe.20201. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joe.20201/abstract.
4. ^ “Strategies for Better Collaboration with your Asian Suppliers”. Supply Chain Asia. 21 August 2010. http://www.supplychainknowledge.asia/articles/20110122_9. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
5. ^ “Tiered Supply Chain Management”. LTD Management. http://www.ltdmgmt.com/tiered-supply-chain-management.asp%7C. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
6. ^ “The Changing View of Supplier Segmentation”. Inside Supply Management. October 2005. http://www.ism.ws/pubs/ISMMag/ismarticle.cfm?ItemNumber=12641.
7. ^ a b “Building the Case for SRM”. CPO Agenda. Autumn 2009. http://www.cpoagenda.com/previous-articles/autumn-2009/features/building-the-case-for-srm/.
8. ^ Gordon, Mark (2004). Negotiating and Managing Key Supplier Relationships.
9. ^ Day, Alan. “6 steps to better SRM”. Supply Management. http://www.supplymanagement.com/analysis/features/2009/6-steps-to-better-srm/.
10. ^ “Getting the Most Out of SRM”. Supply Chain Management Review. 19 January 2012. http://ww.scmr.com/article/Getting_the_Most_Out_of_SRM. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
11. ^ Richard et al. (2009): Measuring Organizational Performance: Towards Methodological Best Practice. Journal of Management.

REVIEW INTERNAL MARKETING AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS OF SOFT DRINKS PRODUCERS IN PORTHARCOURT.


INTRODUCTION
The city of portharcourt is abound with numerous soft drinks producers who produce many varieties and brands of soft drinks within and outside the metropolis. Thus A soft drink (also called soda, pop, coke, soda pop, fizzy drink, tonic, seltzer, mineral, sparkling water or carbonated beverage) is a beverage that typically contains water (often, but not always carbonated water), usually a sweetener, and usually a flavoring agent. The sweetener may be sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, or a sugar substitute (in the case of diet drinks).
A soft drink may also contain caffeine, fruit juice, or both.
Examples of beverages not considered to be soft drinks are: pure juice, hot chocolate, tea, coffee, milk, and milkshakes. Beverages like Gatorade and Powerade may meet the definition of a soft drink but are usually called sports drinks. Red Bull (and variations) also may meet the definition, but are usually called energy drinks.
Soft drinks are called “soft” in contrast to “hard drinks” (alcoholic beverages). Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic.
Widely sold soft drink flavors are cola, cherry, lemon-lime, root beer, orange, grape, vanilla, ginger ale, fruit punch, and sparkling lemonade.
Soft drinks may be served chilled or at room temperature. They are rarely heated.
However, in the process of reviewing the various producers internal marketing and organizational successes we would first extra the meaning of the subject matters, internal marketing and organizational success.
Internal marketing (IM) is a process that occurs within a company or organization whereby the functional process aligns, motivates and empowers employees at all management levels to deliver a satisfying customer experience. Over recent years internal marketing has increasingly been integrated with employer branding, and employer brand management, which strives to build stronger links between the employee brand experience and customer brand experience. According to Burkitt and Zealley, “the challenge for internal marketing is not only to get the right messages across, but to embed them in such a way that they both change and reinforce employee behaviour”. Nevertheless, some of the Key concepts of internal marketing include:
• IM functioning as a continual internal ‘upskilling’ process.
• Alignment of the organization’s purpose with employee behavior.
• Employees internalizing the core values of the organization.
• Motivation, reframing and empowerment of employee attitude.
• Inside-out management approach.
• Retaining a positive customer experience throughout the business objectives
Benefits of Internal Marketing:
• encourages the internal market (employees) to perform better;
• empowers employees and gives them accountability and responsibility;
• creates common understanding of the business organization;
• encourages employees to offer superb service to clients by appreciating their valuable contribution to the success of the business;
• helps non-marketing staff to learn and be able to perform their tasks in a marketing-like manner;
• improves customer retention and individual employee development;
• integrates business culture, structure, human resources management, vision and strategy with the employees’ professional and social needs;
• Creates good coordination and cooperation among departments of the business.
• Proper information flow within the organization.
• Proper guidelines to employee..(Retraining if needs).
• Periodic evaluation of employee performance.
Meanwhile organizational success entails the following concepts or drivers below;
When a serious attempt is made at improving organizational performance, it must be realized that change will take place. This change will not only affect the individuals in leadership roles. It will in addition touch those that the individual is charged to lead.
The leaders will begin to lead in a new way and with a new level of energy. This new style and energy will raise the overall expectations of both the leader and those they lead.
As a result of new insight gained, it can be expected as a minimum that the following drivers of organizational change will be affected to some or even to a great degree. A more highly energized leadership team will most often seek to build off of known organizational strengths mitigate weaknesses and to more precisely define and articulate:
1. A clear mission statement – Why do we exist? What is our organizational purpose?
2. A compelling vision – What clearly describes our future desired state? What fulfills the mission?
3. A solid strategy – What is the logic and tactics that will ensure the mission and vision will be achieved?
4. A reevaluation or restatement of organizational values – What are the values the organization will both espouse and live by, that will satisfy all stakeholders’ needs? What culture do we want to create?
5. A greater focus on sustainability, growth and talent – What do we need to be doing today for our survival? What do we need to be doing to ensure future growth? What talent do we need to do both?
6. A strong emphasis on creativity, innovation and implementation – What products, services or other deliverables will support personal and organizational growth? How do you take these from a dream to reality?
7. A possible structure change – How do we best organize to bring about the changes needed to facilitate new organizational demands, desires strategies and needs?
In recent times the soft drinks producers in the portharcourt metropolis have witness an increase in production cost which is associated with inefficient marketing mix. From irregular power supply to poor distributional channel their cost now lies with branding, advertisement and proper marketing. This now calls for the type of internal marketing structure each soft drink producers now adopt in order to drive their business to the desired consumer level. One thing to note here is that the type of marketing concepts to be adopted be it internal, advertising or external marketing solely depends on consumer acceptations and satisfaction. Here we are talking of value for money.
Due to competition in the fast growing soft drinks market, producers substantially increased their spending on advertising and promotional activities to attract consumers. In addition, there is a growing trend among producers to package their products in smaller packs (mostly Tetra Paks) to meet the demands of children and young adults as well as price-sensitive consumers. The PET bottle, which is a relatively new format in Nigerian soft drinks (other than in bottled water), is slowly becoming the packaging format of choice in carbonates, in which glass bottles were previously the only format present. The success of La Casera, which is exclusively sold in such bottles, is driving the trend among other producers, with Lucozade Boost in sports and energy drinks also offered in this format, having previously been dominated by can and Tetra Pak packaging.
In the portharcourt metropolis, Coca-Cola dominates but local companies putting up a strong challenge. Innovation in the soft drinks market has been led by local companies which are appearing to teach established names, such as Coca-Cola, how to adapt to local conditions. Chi Nigeria Ltd, which surprisingly leads Coca-Cola Nigeria Ltd in fruit/vegetable juice, is one such leader in terms of innovation, but other companies such as Classic Beverages Nigeria Ltd and Cway Food & Beverages Co Nig Ltd are also posing a challenge. Classic Beverages Nigeria Ltd’s La Casera brand has rapidly established a name for itself in carbonates via solely using PET bottle packaging as well as introducing a brand new apple flavour which has proved quite popular. Nevertheless, Coca-Cola Nigeria Ltd maintained its leading share in two categories – carbonates and bottled water – in 2011 thanks to its well-established name in Nigeria, strong distribution network and massive marketing expenditure.
Off-trade outlets dominate volume sales
Independent small grocers and other grocery retailers (in particular traditional open markets and the traffic channel) continued to dominate volume sales in Nigeria in 2011. Many consumers buy these drinks for consumption either at home or while on the go. They are also commonly purchased to serve to guests at parties and other events. The supermarket/hypermarket channel is increasing its presence, with strong competition between Shoprite and Spar, which have both been opening new outlets. Such outlets are aiding the growth of soft drinks as they are able to establish bulk buying arrangements with manufacturers and thus sell drinks at discounted prices. In addition, the recent boom in the fast food industry has resulted in dynamic growth of on-trade volume sales, although these remain just a fraction of off-trade sales.
Soft drinks to continue to enjoy positive growth over the forecast period
It is expected that over the forecast period total volume sales will grow but at a slower rate compared to the review period. As the economy gets stronger, population growth increases and disposable income improves, all soft drinks categories are expected to register positive growth over the forecast period. However, because of saturation and growing consumer consciousness of the dangers of excessive sugar intake, growth rates will be slower. Again, because of growing demand, major competition between brands will continue to be seen in bottled water where there is already a vast range of brands present, making further differentiation difficult to achieve. As health becomes a growing concern among consumers, the best opportunities in soft drinks will be for innovative products that are able to combine new types of fruit flavours with a perception that they are healthier.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Marketing focuses organizational attention on meeting consumer demand. To accomplish this goal a company must first anticipate consumer needs and then direct a flow of acceptable goods and services from producers to consumers (Perreault, Cannon, & McCarthy, 2009). This definition represents a practical application of marketing, which penetrates all functional disciplines within the organization. Everyone in the company has a vested interest in its success, so encouraging employees in all functional departments to think about meeting customer needs helps a company maintain and expand market share. The emphasis on consumer demand takes precedence over the older production era approach of make it first and sell it later.
When organizations incorporate marketing systemically it increases awareness in the minds of all employees. The benefits of this intentional practice translate to all stakeholders through multiple communication channels. For example, accounting department personnel, although not actively involved in selling a company’s goods or services, still interact with customers. An awareness of marketing strategies helps this department place greater emphasis on resolving issues to satisfy customer objectives and supports the organization’s mission.

Marketing Campaign Clarity
o No matter what product or service an organization is marketing, to be effective the campaign message must be clear. Without marketing clarity, perspective customers may be left wondering what the organization was trying to market. Worse, they may be left with the feeling that the organization really doesn’t understand their needs at all, souring them on the organization as a whole. Driving customer demand is the end goal of any marketing campaign. A confusing, misleading or vague marketing campaign defeats that purpose.
Know the Demographic
o Without knowing the demographic for the organization’s product or service, a marketing strategy cannot be effectively developed. The organization’s brand must be built to attract and retain a specific customer demographic. Therefore, understanding who is this demographic is Step One in the process. From there, the target demographic is the anchor point for all marketing strategies, from design to implementation. Knowing their customer base also allows organizations to more effectively and efficiently to develop new products and services.
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Demonstrate Differentiation
o Effective marketing will show customers how your product or service is different from the others on the market. Differentiation builds perceived value. It’s the reason why people will pay a lot more money for a BMW than a Kia, although both serve the same function and have many of the same features. A successful marketing strategy demonstrates to the customer why they should purchase specifically that organization’s product or service above all others. When done correctly, and that differentiation effectively builds value, the result is increased revenue and increased market share.

To describe the importance of marketing, one need not look further than this quote from Regis McKenna,
“Marketing is everything, and everything is marketing.”
Everyone is exposed to marketing everyday, even when they don’t know it. Billboards surround the nation’s roads. Logos appear everywhere from t-shirts to the center field of the “Tostitos” Fiesta Bowl. When a teenager is begging his dad to use the family car, he is in fact, marketing himself to his father for the exchange of the keys. And that is what marketing is about. Trying to create exchanges that satisfy and benefit both parties.
No consumer can escape from marketing campaigns, and no business should be operating without a marketing plan to identify potential customers, meet their needs and wants, and keep them coming back for more. This section gives you an introduction into the world of marketing and the different aspects of it. You will hear about the 4 “P’s” of the marketing mix. The important elements of a marketing plan. How your future customers are identified and place between the cross-wires with marketing research and target marketing. To get a specific message to a specific customer, one must be familiar with direct marketing. Internet marketing is one of more recent trends that many organizations are looking at. Overall this section should help you learn about the importance for small businesses to implement marketing plans
There are many text book definitions of marketing. It is very difficult to find two that are the same. The one constant in most of them are that marketing is a process that’s ultimate goal is to create exchanges that will satisfy and benefit both the customer and the organization. Marketing is the function of an organization that identifies their current and potential customers, creates products or services that meet the needs and wants of customers, informs and persuades the customers to purchases these products or services, and reinforces the customers confidence in the purchase that they made.
It is important for marketing efforts to be customer-oriented. When marketing a product or service, the organization must be certain that the product or service that they are providing is one that the customer wants. Quite often marketing efforts fail when the organization developed the product/service first, then tried to convince it’s customer to buy it. One of the greatest marketing flops of all time was when the Coca-Cola Company decided to change it’s formula in 1985 and introduced it as “New Coke.” It was a disaster. Sales of the New Coke were very low and the Coca-Cola Company was receiving many phone calls and letters from angry customers who demanded the old formula back. The Coca-Cola Company brought back the old formula two months later. Reintroduced as “Coca-Cola Classic,” it was sold along with New Coke and outsold it by two to one in supermarkets. The Coke case is a classic example of what happens when an organization fails to conduct proper marketing research.
The key for a successful marketing effort is maintaining a level of customer satisfaction while at the same time, creating a profit for the organization. Profits must be made in order for the organization to continue to do business.
Marketing is a concept that is always evolving. New definitions of marketing are being written everyday. You’ll find trends in marketing at the end of this page.
PROBLEMS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNAL MARKETING IN THE PORTHARCOURT METROPOLIS BY SOFT DRINKS PRODUCERS.
The following are the problems affecting effective implementation of internal marketing.
1. Managerial incompetence in interpersonal, technical and conceptual skills is some of the stumbling blocks against successful internal marketing.
2. Poor understanding of internal marketing concept.
3. Individual conflict and conflict between departments makes the implementation of internal marketing difficult.
4. Rigid organisational structure coupled by bureaucratic leadership hinders success of internal Marketing.
5. Ignoring and not listening to subordinate staff.
6. The tendency of ignoring employees’ importance and treating them like any other tools of the business.
7. Unnecessary protection of information against employees.
8. Resistance to change.
9. Poor road network
10. Lack of accessibility
11. Ineffective government policy
12. High tax incentives
13. High cost of production materials.
14. Epileptic power supply to most industrial centers in portharcourt.
THE TRENDS
Most of the soft drinks producer in the city adopts the following process and methods in order to attain organizational success for their brand or products. Some of this trend includes;
• Innovative employer branding
• Effective employer brand management
• Motivation, reframing and empowerment of employee attitude.
• Alignment of the organization’s purpose with employee behavior.
• Advertising
• Street and marketing campaigns
• Branding and rebranding of their products.
• Consumer or product promo
• Establishment of sales outlet and centers..

CONCLUSION
Internal marketing is inward facing marketing. Internal marketing is used by marketers to motivate all functions to satisfy customers. With internal marketing the marketer is really extending and developing the foundations of marketing such as the marketing concept, the exchange process and customer satisfaction to internal customers.
Internal customers would be anybody involved in delivering value to the final customer. This will include internal functions within business with which marketing people interact including research and development, production/operations/Logistics, human resources, IT and customer services.
Producers of soft drinks in portharcourt rely so much on effective advertisement and persuasive customer branding in order to sell their various soft drinks and reach organizational targets. This has propelled a lot of activities in the soft drink industries which so much success has been attain especially in consumer acceptance and satisfaction. However the key leader here is still the soft drink giant of coca-cola which owns about 1/3 of the producers marking mix in the region.

REFERENCES
1. ^ Hugh Burkitt and John Zealley (2006). Marketing Excellence: Winning companies reveal the secrets of their success. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-470-06027-8.
• Jeff Pervaiz (2005). Internal Marketing. Butterworth-Heineman, an imprint of Elsevier. ISBN 0-7506-4838-4. http://books.elsevier.com/marketing/?isbn=0750648384. Being an employee-oriented business is one of the features of internal marketing oriented business. A business that is an employee oriented sees employee as the number one asset of the Business.
• Pervaiz K. Ahmed, Mohammed Rafiq (2004). Internal marketing: tools and concepts for customer-focused management.. Elsevier.
• • ^ Vaux, Bert. “105. What is your generic term for a sweetened carbonated beverage?”. Harvard Dialect Survey. http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_105.html. Retrieved 6/3/2011.
• • ^ Funny Irish Words and Phrases
• • ^ “Electronic Code of Federal Regulations”. United States Government. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr;sid=33fc0c0194b58b6fe95208945b5c637a;rgn=div5;view=text;node=27%3A1.0.1.1.5;idno=27;cc=ecfr#27:1.0.1.1.5.8.41.1. Retrieved 25 February 2011. See §7.71, paragraphs (e) and (f).
• • ^ What Is Meant By Alcohol-Free? : The Alcohol-Free Shop
• • ^ Bangor Daily News, April 8, 2010. http://www.bangordailynews.com/detail/126224.html
• • ^ Mary Bellis (2009-03-06). “Joseph Priestley – Soda Water – Joseph Priestly”. Inventors.about.com. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blJosephPriestley.htm. Retrieved 2009-06

DISCUSS EXPRESS AND IMPLIED WARRANTIES


Warranty In business and legal transactions, a warranty is an assurance by one party to the other party that specific facts or conditions are true or will happen; the other party is permitted to rely on that assurance and seek some type of remedy if it is not true or followed. The two sources of risk that warranty covers are: the risk of malfunctioning of the product (covered by the warranty of malfunctioning) and the risk of making a wrong purchase decision regarding the product (covered by the warranty of misinforming). A warranty may be express or implied. There are several types of warranties recognized under the law. Warranties are generally divided into two main groups: express warranties and implied warranties. Express warranties, as their name suggests, are expressly made by the seller or manufacturer of a product. Generally, express warranties are made in writing, but they need not be in order to be considered express warranties.
Implied warranties, on the other hand, are warranties that arise either from the sale itself or the circumstances of the sale. There are two main types of implied warranties: implied warranties of merchantability and implied warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. The implied warranty of merchantability simply states that a product will reasonably perform the purpose for which it was designed. The implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, on the other hand, warrants that a product will perform a specific purpose for which the consumer has bought the product. While this might sound similar to the implied warranty of merchantability, it differs in that the particular purpose for which a consumer buys a product might not be that for which it was designed.
Implied warranties of fitness for a particular purpose usually arise when the seller knows or has reason to know the particular purpose for which the consumer is buying the product, whereas an implied warranty of merchantability does not require such knowledge on the part of the seller. For example, an implied warranty for a particular purpose might arise in a case where a customer tells a sales representative that he is going to be scuba diving, and would like a watch that will continue to perform at depths 50 feet below the surface of the ocean. If the seller suggests a specific watch for this purpose, there is an implied warranty that the watch will continue to perform under the specified conditions.
Written express warranties on consumer products are governed by the Magnuson Moss Warranty Act, a federal law, as well as a number of state laws. The Magnuson Moss Act sets forth a number of requirements for the content of written warranties, including limitations on warranty disclaimers. The full text of the law can be found here. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an executive agency charged with issuing specific regulations under the Magnuson-Moss Act. Those regulations can be found here.
The Magnuson Moss Act does not limit consumer remedies or rights under state law. Many state laws include provisions governing both express and implied warranties. However, plaintiffs bringing suit under the Magnuson Moss Act may have additional remedies not always available under state law, such as the recovery of attorney’s fees.
EXPRESS WARRANTIES.
Express warranties, as their name suggests, are expressly made by the seller or manufacturer of a product. Generally, express warranties are made in writing, but they need not be in order to be considered express warranties

IMPLIED WARRANTIES
An implied warranty is one that arises from the nature of the transaction, and the inherent understanding by the buyer, rather than from the express representations of the seller.