The following are ten definition of the subject matter with different authors.

1. a curriculum ( /kəˈrɪkjʉləm/; plural: curricula /kəˈrɪkjʉlə/ or curriculums) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. By wikipeadia site
2. A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. By Jackson, Philip W.
3. In formal education or schooling (cf. education), a curriculum is the set of courses, course work, and content offered at a school or university. By Pinar, William F.,
4. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults.
By John Franklin Bobbitt
5 A set of courses constituting an area of specialization by William M. Reynolds,
6. The courses offered by an educational institution by Peter M. Taubman.
7. A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. By Patrick Slattery,
8. 4 way definition of curriculum
Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted.
Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students – product.
Curriculum as process.
Curriculum as praxis. By Smith, M. K. (1996, 2000) ‘Curriculum theory and practice’ the encyclopedia of informal education,
9. The aggregate of courses of study given in a school, college, university, etc.: The school is adding more science courses to its curriculum. By World English Dictionary- Collins.
10. Curriculum is all planned learning’s for which the school is responsible. By (From Marsh, C. J. & Willis, G. (2003). Curriculum: Alternative approaches, ongoing issues. (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.)


A bank is a financial institution and a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and channels those deposits into lending activities, either directly or through capital markets. A bank connects customers that have capital deficits to customers with capital surpluses.
Due to their critical status within the financial system and the economy generally, banks are highly regulated in most countries. Most banks operate under a system known as fractional reserve banking where they hold only a small reserve of the funds deposited and lend out the rest for profit. They are generally subject to minimum capital requirements which are based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords.
The definition of a bank varies from country to country. In most common law jurisdictions there is a Bills of Exchange Act that codifies the law in relation to negotiable instruments, including cheques, and this Act contains a statutory definition of the term banker: banker includes a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who carry on the business of banking’ (Section 2, Interpretation). Although this definition seems circular, it is actually functional, because it ensures that the legal basis for bank transactions such as cheques does not depend on how the bank is organized or regulated.
The business of banking is in many English common law countries not defined by statute but by common law, the definition above. In other English common law jurisdictions there are statutory definitions of the business of banking or banking business. When looking at these definitions it is important to keep in mind that they are defining the business of banking for the purposes of the legislation, and not necessarily in general. In particular, most of the definitions are from legislation that has the purposes of entry regulating and supervising banks rather than regulating the actual business of banking. However, in many cases the statutory definition closely mirrors the common law one. Examples of statutory definitions:
• “banking business” means the business of receiving money on current or deposit account, paying and collecting cheques drawn by or paid in by customers, the making of advances to customers, and includes such other business as the Authority may prescribe for the purposes of this Act; (Banking Act (Singapore), Section 2, Interpretation).
• “banking business” means the business of either or both of the following:
1. receiving from the general public money on current, deposit, savings or other similar account repayable on demand or within less than [3 months] … or with a period of call or notice of less than that period;
2. paying or collecting checks drawn by or paid in by customers[7]
Since the advent of EFTPOS (Electronic Funds Transfer at Point Of Sale), direct credit, direct debit and internet banking, the cheque has lost its primacy in most banking systems as a payment instrument. This has led legal theorists to suggest that the cheque based definition should be broadened to include financial institutions that conduct current accounts for customers and enable customers to pay and be paid by third parties, even if they do not pay and collect checks.[8]

The oldest bank still in existence is Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy, which has been operating continuously since 1472.
Thus a A customer (also known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is the recipient of a good, service, product, or idea, obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplier for a monetary or other valuable consideration.[1][2] Customers are generally categorized into two types:
• An intermediate customer or trade customer (more informally: “the trade”) who is a dealer that purchases goods for re-sale.
• An ultimate customer who does not in turn re-sell the things bought but either passes them to the consumer or actually is the consumer.
A customer may or may not also be a consumer, but the two notions are distinct, even though the terms are commonly confused.[3][1] A customer purchases goods; a consumer uses them.[4][5] An ultimate customer may be a consumer as well, but just as equally may have purchased items for someone else to consume. An intermediate customer is not a consumer at all.[3][1] The situation is somewhat complicated in that ultimate customers of so-called industrial goods and services (who are entities such as government bodies, manufacturers, and educational and medical institutions) either themselves use up the goods and services that they buy, or incorporate them into other finished products, and so are technically consumers, too. However, they are rarely called that, but are rather called industrial customers or business-to-business customers. Similarly, customers who buy services rather than goods are rarely called consumers.
In the present banking system, excellence in customer service is the most important tool for sustained business growth. Customer complaints are part of the business life of any corporate entity. This is more so for banks because they are service organizations. As a service organiza-tion, customer service and satisfaction should
be the prime concern of any bank. The bank believes that providing prompt and efficient service is essential not only to attract new customers, but also to retain existing ones. However, banks minimize instances of customer complaints and grievances through proper service delivery and review mechanism and to ensure prompt
redress of customer complaints and grievances. The review mechanism should help in identifying shortcomings in product features and service delivery. Customer dissatisfaction can ruin the name and image of a bank. As such, bank policy on grievance redress is as follows:
1. Customers are to be treated fairly at all times.
2. Complaints should be raised by customers with
courtesy and on time.
3. Customers should be fully informed of avenues to
escalate their complaints/grievances within the
organization and their rights to alternative remedies, if
they are not fully satisfied with the response of the bank
to their complaints.
4. Bank to treat all complaints efficiently and fairly as they
can damage the bank’s reputation and business if
handled otherwise.
5. The bank employees must work in good faith and
without prejudice to the interests of the customer.

Some of the sources of customers complains in the banking industry includes;

1. sky high ATM charges
2. abitiary charges on sms charges
3. fees on passbook.cheque issuance
4. non response to debit orders
5. daily withdrawal limits
6. high charges on deposites


Foot fault
• One foot not in the service box
• Walking out of the service box before hitting the service.
Not up
• The server makes an attempt but fails to hit the ball.
• The ball is not struck correctly.
• The ball is served “out”.
• The ball does not hit the front wall first.
• The ball is served onto or below the “cutline”.
• The ball does not land in the correct service box.
• The ball hits the board.
• The ball, before being struck, hits a player’s clothes or anything he wears or carries.
• A player’s request to the Referee to consider an on or off court situation.
• Appeal is used throughout the rules in two contexts, ie where the player requests the Referee to consider varying a Marker’s decision, and where the player requests the referee to allow a let.
• The correct form of appeal by a player is “appeal please” or “let please”
• The Referee shall decide what an attempt to play the ball is.
• An attempt is made when, in the opinion of the Referee, the striker has moved his racket towards the ball from his backswing position with the intention of making a good return.
Box (Service)
• A square area in each quarter court bounded by part of the short line, part of the side wall, and by two other lines and from within which the server serves.
Hit Correctly
• The ball being hit by the racket (held in the hand), not more than once, nor with prolonged contact on the racket
• Part of a match, commencing with a service and concluding when one player has scored or been awarded nine or ten points (in accordance with the rules)
• The period from the time a player becomes Server until he becomes Receiver

Hand Out
• A term used when change of server occurs. Hand out is also used as a Marker’s call to indicate that a change of hand has occurred
• The complete contest between two players commencing with the warm-up and concluding when both players have left the court at the end of the final rally
Match Ball
• The state of the score when the server requires one point to win the match
Not Up
• The expression used to indicate that a ball has not been struck in accordance with the rules.
• Not up covers all services or returns which are not good and are neither down nor out – with the exception of faults and foot faults.
• Not Up is also used as a Marker’s call
• The expression used to indicate that a ball has struck the out line or a wall above such line or the roof, or has passed over any part of the roof, eg crosses bars.
• Out is also used as a Marker’s call
• A unit of the scoring system. One point is added to a player’s score
• A series of returns of the ball, comprising one or more such returns

• The call Fault by the Marker indicates that the service is a fault
Foot Fault
• The call Foot Fault by the Marker indicates that the Service is a foot fault
Set 1
• The Markers call to indicate that the game in progress is to be played to nine points after the score has reached 8-all. Called once only in any game
Set 2
• The Markers call to indicate that the game in progress is to be played to ten points, after the score has reached 8-all. Called once only in any game
• A call made by the Marker, after the Referee has ruled that a rally is to be replayed


Squash is a high-speed racquet sport played by two players (or in doubles 4 players on court at a time) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball. Squash is recognized by the IOC and remains in contention for incorporation in a future Olympic programme. The game was formerly called squash racquets, a reference to the “squashable” soft ball used in the game (compared with the fatter ball used in its parent game racquets (or rackets; Squash is a sport developed from at least five other sports involving racquets, gloves, and balls having roots in the early 12th century in France. It is stated that “Squash, with its element of hitting balls against walls, was for entertainment.
The next major development of squash took place in England where the game of “racquets” was developed in Fleet Prison, a debtor’s prison. Similar to tennis, it involved racquets and balls, but instead of hitting over a net as in tennis, players hit a non-squeezable ball against walls. A variation of rackets that also led to the formation of squash was called fives, similar to handball. Fives was essentially the game of racquets, without racquets. (The ball was hit with the hand.)
In the 20th century the game increased in popularity with various schools, clubs and even private citizens building squash courts, but with no set dimensions. In 1904 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the earliest national association of squash in the world was formed as the United States Squash Racquets Association, (USSRA), now known as US-Squash. In April 1907 the Tennis, Rackets & Fives Association set up a sub committee to set standards for squash. Then the sport soon formed, combining the three sports together called “Squash”. It was not until 1923 that the Royal Automobile Club hosted a meeting to further discuss the rules and regulations and another five years elapsed before the Squash Rackets Association was formed to set standards for squash in Great Britain.
Some of the factors which have militated against the development of the game of squash include;
1. The non inclusion of the game into the Olympic Games by the IOC has indeed stalled the development of the game world wide.
2. There are no generally acceptable rules and standard for the game worldwide.
3. The lack of homogeneity between the Professional Squash Association (PSA) and the Women’s International Squash Players Association (WISPA)and also(WSA) as regards to setting rules for the sport.
4. , some studies have implicated squash as a cause of possible fatal cardiac arrhythmia and argued that squash is an inappropriate form of exercise for older men with heart disease
5. The game of squash is yet to gain popularity around the world, despite being recognized and developed in the western world and Asian countries


Yogurt is a widely enjoyed dairy product that is essentially an altered form of milk containing waste products from fermentation. The lactic acid that is produced from the fermentation of lactose contributes to the sour taste of yogurt by decreasing pH and allows for the characteristic texture by acting on the milk proteins (Zourari, Accolas, & Desmazeaud, 1992). Yogurt has been continually studied for its health benefits, particularly from the addition of probiotics. Current research has been investigating how to improve yogurt both in terms of its potential as a healthy food and as an appetizing product that appeals to the general population.
The role of lactic acid bacteria (BAL) are widely applied in various fields, including agriculture, especially the field of food.
In the manufacture of this paper describes the role of lactic acid bacteria (BAL) on the processing of fermented foods. The scope limitations discussed issues such as species of lactic acid bacteria and fermented food sector lactic acid bacteria, refined products fermented by lactic acid bacteria and the role and the positive impact generated by the fermentation by lactic acid bacteria such.
We could describe cow milk yoghurt production as a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as “yogurt cultures”. Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang.
Worldwide, cow’s milk is most commonly used to make yogurt, but milk from water buffalo, goats, sheep, horses, camels, and yaks is also used in various parts of the world.
Dairy yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermopiles bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt.
The milk is first heated to about 80 °C (176 °F) to kill any undesirable bacteria and to denature the milk proteins so that they set together rather than form curds. The milk is then cooled to about 45 °C (112 °F).The bacteria culture is added, and the temperature is maintained for 4 to 7 hours to allow fermentation.
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprise a clade of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally non-sporulating, non-respiring rod or cocci that are associated by their common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and lactic products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evinced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weisella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.

The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are rod-shaped bacilli or cocci characterized by an increased tolerance to a lower Ph range. This aspect partially enables LAB to outcompete other bacteria in a natural fermentation, as they can withstand the increased acidity from organic acid production (e.g., lactic acid). Laboratory media used for LAB typically include a carbohydrate source, as most species are incapable of respiration. LAB are catalase negative. LAB are amongst the most important groups of microorganisms used in the food industry.
Lactic Acid Bacteria. The term lactic acid bacteria (BAL) originally intended only for the group of bacteria that cause acidity in the milk (milk-souring organisms). BAL is generally defined as a group of gram-positive bacteria, does not produce spores, round or rod that produces lactic acid as the main metabolic end product during fermentation of carbohydrates. BAL grouped into several genera such as Streptococcus (including Lactococcus), Leuconostoc, Pediococcus Lactobacillus.
Identification of lactic acid bacteria based on morphology, physiology and biochemical properties of bacteria. Identification method according to Holzapfel and Schillinger (1992 in Widodo 2003), which states that the genus Streptococcus has characteristics that is, the final pH in MRS medium <4.6, negative catalase test, colony-shaped cocci, coccus-shaped tetrad is not, and did not grow at temperatures 100C.
Lactic acid bacteria (BAL) in the physiology of bacteria classified as Gram positive, rod shape or not kokkus berspora with lactic acid as the main product of carbohydrate fermentation. Traditionally, BAL is comprised of four genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus. For example the genus Streptococcus have been reorganized into Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Vagococcus (Yang, 2000).
Among the BAL genus and species that have potential for use as probiotics can be seen in Table 2.
Lactic acid bacteria have an essential role in almost every food and beverage fermentation processes. The main role of these bacteria in the food industry is to marinade the raw material to produce the majority of lactic acid (homofermentatif bacteria) or lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol and CO2 (bacteria heterofermentatif) (Desmazeaud, 1996). Lactic acid bacteria are widely used in dairy products like yogurt, sour cream (sour milk), cheese, butter and pickle production, and pickles (Lindquist, 1998).

III. Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Fermentation is the process of aerobic and anaerobic, both which produce various products involving microbial activity or the extract is controlled by microbial activity (Dervish and Sukara, 1989). Fermentation is a process that has long been known to man. Fermentation is the process of converting a material into useful products for humans, such as fermented milk goat, camel in Sumaria and Babylon in Mesopotamia era. Until now, the process has undergone perbaikanperbaikan ferementasi terms of the fermentation process to produce a better product (Tamime and Robinson, 1999).

The Biochemistry Behind Yogurt

Fig. 3. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway proposed to be used by Streptococcus thermophilus with the homolactic fermentation of pyruvate into lactic acid. This diagram also outlines the conversion of galactose into glucose to be used in the EMP pathway. Courtesy of Zourari et al., 1992.
Yogurt is a product of the acidic fermentation of milk. The lactose in the milk is converted to lactic acid, which lowers the pH. When pH drops below pH 5, micelles of caseins, a hydrophobic protein, loses its tertiary structure due to the protonation of its amino acid residues. The denatured protein reassembles by interacting with other hydrophobic molecules, and this intermolecular interaction of caseins creates a structure that allows for the semisolid texture of yogurt (Zourari, Accolas, & Desmazeaud, 1992).

Yogurt production begins with the breakdown of lactose into glucose and galactose (Fig. 2), a process catalyzed by β-galactosidase. The glucose produced from this catabolic step then enters glycolysis, producing pyruvate. It has been proposed that yogurt bacteria utilize the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway of glycolysis (Fig. 3). Pyruvate then enters lactate fermentation, also known as homolactic fermentation, as it produces only lactic acid molecules. In other types of fermentation, such as ethanolic or heterolactic fermentation, the production of ethanol leads to other fermented foods and beverages such as sauerkraut, kimchi, and wine.

The production of lactic acid forms the basic structure and texture of yogurt. However, other molecules contribute to the taste of yogurt. These include acetaldehyde, an important flavor substance in yogurt, and tyrosine, a product of proteolytic activity, but can cause bitterness when the concentration is above 0.5 mg/ml (Guzel-Seydim, Sezgin, & Seydim, 2005).

Fig. 2. Lactose catabolism into glucose and galactose. Courtesy of Thomas M. Terry at the University of Hamburg

Benefits of Yogurt
The benefits of yogurt have been recognized even before microbes were discovered. The use of yogurt to treat body ailments are mentioned in the Bible, and scientists of the early ages like Hippocrates considered fermented milk to be a medicine, prescribing sour milk for curing stomach and intestinal disorders (Oberman, 1985 as cited in Lourens-Hattingh and Vilijoen, 2001). A scientific explanation for the beneficial effects of yogurt was first proposed by Eli Metchnikoff, a Russian bacteriologist at the beginning of the 20th century. Metchnikoff suggested that the lactobacilli in yogurt are responsible for the healthy and long lifespan of Bulgarian people. This led to the naming of one of the species in the starter culture as Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Lourens-Hattingh & Vilijoen, 2001).
Yogurt has also been found to protect against growth retardation in rats that are fed diets high in phytic acid, which disrupts zinc absorption, a mineral needed for normal growth (Gaetke et al., 2010). However, the level of zinc was low regardless of whether yogurt was added to the diet or not, suggesting that yogurt protects against growth retardation not by increasing zinc but by some other mechanism. Additionally, a variant of traditional yogurt, soy yogurt, has been found to help prevent hepatic lipid accumulation in rats (Kitawaki et al., 2009). Specifically, the rats fed soy yogurt had lower liver weight and hepatic triglyceride content, and their plasma cholesterol levels were also lower compared to control rats that were fed a standard rat diet without soy yogurt. Furthermore, ingestion of soy yogurt down-regulated the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) and other lipogenic enzymes, while upregulating β-oxidation-related genes, which produce enzymes that are involved in the catabolism of fatty acids cholesterol in the rat liver.
In general, there is a consensus that yogurt has beneficial effects for gastrointestinal health, as shown in both animal and human studies. Some studies also suggest that yogurt not only helps maintain a healthy gut, but can also help with certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as lactose intolerance, constipation, diarrheal diseases, colon cancer, Helicobacter pylori infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergies (Adolfsson, Meydani, & Russell, 2004). The benefit of yogurt seems to extend to the reproductive system as well. In diabetic women, it has also been suggested that yogurt consumption reduces the risk of vaginal yeast infection, caused by Candida, by regulating pH and suppressing Candida overgrowth (Chauncey et al., 1999). However, the bacteria responsible for these beneficial effects are not necessarily the bacteria that produced the yogurt, as discussed below.

The health benefits of yogurt for the most part can be directly attributed to probiotics (Fig. 8). Probiotics are defined as a mono- or mixed culture of live microorganisms which benefits the host by improving the host’s microflora (Lourens-Hattingh & Vilijoen, 2001). Common probiotics added to yogurt are Lactobacillus casei (Fig. 9), Lactobacillus acidophilus, and species of Bifidobacterium (Fig. 10).

The designation of starter culture bacteria, L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, as probiotics is a topic of debate. The majority of the gastrointestinal benefits are attributed to the probiotics that are added after the yogurt is produced by the starter culture. However, some argue that the starter culture bacteria should also be called probiotics because they improve lactose digestion and eliminate symptoms of lactose intolerance when consumed in yogurt without any added probiotics (Guarner et al., 2005). In the rat colon, it has been found that the starter culture bacteria inactivate carcinogens, thus avoiding carcinogen-induced lesions, and also prevent DNA damage, which in effect prevents tumors (Wollowski et al., 1999). In summary, there is some research implicating that the starter cultures do confer some benefits that may deem them to be classified as probiotics, but it may take a while before this idea is accepted by the majority.

Improving Yogurt
Current Problems
Though the benefits of yogurt are recognized, what is not really understood is if the functionality of yogurt is at its maximum. The most obvious and heavily researched area is increasing the viability of the probiotics that provide the health benefits. However, increasing viability extends to the starter cultures as well, as they have also been documented to contribute some benefits and more importantly, need to be alive in order to be able to produce yogurt even in the presence of other chemicals. Viable cell count/density is the reason not all yogurt brands are equal. Those with live active cultures are indeed healthier than the pasteurized version in which the yogurt is heated, thus killing any live bacteria. However, some brands of yogurt have a higher concentration of live cultures compared to others, though for marketability reasons and overall difficulty in assessing live culture concentration, these numbers are often undisclosed. Improving yogurt by increasing or enhancing bacterial viability is a large field on its own, and is thus discussed below.

Yogurt has a long history and its benefits have been valued by many people, particularly those with gastrointestinal problems. The production behind yogurt is well understood, allowing for improvements and advancements in both the quality and efficient manufacturing of the product. Improving the health potential of yogurt has become a popular field, and for industrial reasons, enhancing the taste and texture, as well as storage life of yogurt is an appealing advancement for yogurt consumers. Yogurt in its basic form is a very eco-friendly product, as humans are essentially consuming the waste products of acidic fermentation. Additionally, the unique taste, texture, and potential for even better health benefits make yogurt an attractive food for people of many cultures.

Adolfsson, O., S. N. Meydani, & R. M. Russell. 2004. Yogurt and gut function. Am J Clin Nutr. 80:245–256.
Akalin, A. S., G. Unal., & M. C. Dalay. 2009. Influence of Spirulina platensis biomass on microbiological viability in traditional and probiotic yogurts during refrigerated storage. Ital. J. Food Sci. 21: 356-364.
Akalin, A. S., S. Gonc, G. Unal, & S. Fenderya. 2007. Effects of fructooligosaccharide and whey protein concentrate on the viability of starter culture in reduced-fat probiotic yogurt during storage. Journal of Food Science. 72: M222-M227.
Alvaro, E., C. Andrieux, V. Rochet, L. Rigottier-Gois, P. Lepercq, M. Sutren, P. Galan, Y. Duval, C. Juste, & J. Dore. 2007. Composition and metabolism of the intestinal microbiota in consumers and non-consumers of yogurt. British Journal of Nutrition. 97: 126–13. Chauncey, K. B., L. M. Boylan, L. Thompson, R. M. Ragain, and R. Cook. 1999. Effects of yogurt with and without active cultures on vaginal Candidal infection in women with diabetes mellitus. Journal of the A


Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals including meat, vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, eggs, and milk.

Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which are chemicals made in the lab from D-pantothenic acid.

Pantothenic acid

IUPAC name[hide]
3-[(2,4-Dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanoyl)amino]propanoic acid
Molecular formula
Molar mass
219.23 g mol−1
1.266 g/cm³
Melting point
183.83 °C, 457 K, 363 °F
Boiling point
551.5 °C, 825 K, 1025 °F

Pantothenic acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations. Vitamin B complex generally includes vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do not contain all of these ingredients and some may include others, such as biotin, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), choline bitartrate, and inositol.

Pantothenic acid has a long list of uses, although there isn’t enough scientific evidence to determine whether it is effective for most of these uses. People take pantothenic acid for treating dietary deficiencies, acne, alcoholism, allergies, baldness, asthma, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, burning feet syndrome, yeast infections, heart failure, carpal tunnel syndrome, respiratory disorders, celiac disease, colitis, conjunctivitis, convulsions, and cystitis. It is also taken by mouth for dandruff, depression, diabetic nerve pain, enhancing immune function, improving athletic performance, tongue infections, gray hair, headache, hyperactivity, low blood sugar, trouble sleeping (insomnia), irritability, low blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, muscular cramps in the legs associated with pregnancy or alcoholism, neuralgia, and obesity.

Pantothenic acid is also used orally for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, nerve pain, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), enlarged prostate, protection against mental and physical stress and anxiety, reducing adverse effects of thyroid therapy in congenital hypothyroidism, reducing signs of aging, reducing susceptibility to colds and other infections, retarded growth, shingles, skin disorders, stimulating adrenal glands, chronic fatigue syndrome, salicylate toxicity, streptomycin neurotoxicity, dizziness, and wound healing.

How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for PANTOTHENIC ACID (VITAMIN B5) are as follows:

Effective for…
• Treating or preventing pantothenic acid deficiency.
Possibly ineffective for…
• Treating or preventing skin reactions from radiation therapy.
How does it work?
Pantothenic acid is important for our bodies to properly use carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids and for healthy skin.

Other names

Acide D-Pantothénique, Acide Pantothénique, Ácido Pantoténico, Alcool Pantothénylique, B Complex Vitamin, Calcii Pantothenas, Calcium D-Pantothenate, Calcium Pantothenate, Complexe de Vitamines B, D-Calcium Pantothenate, D-Panthenol, D-Panthénol, D-Pantothénate de Calcium, D-Pantothenic Acid, D-Pantothenyl Alcohol, Dexpanthenol, Dexpanthénol, Dexpanthenolum, Pantéthine, Panthenol, Panthénol, Pantothenate, Pantothénate, Pantothénate de Calcium, Pantothenol, Pantothenylol, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B-5, Vitamina B5, Vitamine B5.


Biotin is relatively stable when exposed to heat, light, and oxygen. Strongly acidic conditions can, however, denature this vitamin. In raw eggs, biotin is typically bound to a sugar-protein molecule (the glycoprotein called avidin), and cannot be absorbed into the body unless the egg is cooked, allowing the biotin to separate from the avidin protein.
The deficient dietary intake of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) can contribute to a functional biotin deficiency since B5 works together with biotin in many metabolic situations. Intestinal problems should also be considered as a possible course of biotin deficiency. The connection between biotin and intestinal problems centers on the role of intestinal bacteria. Under appropriate circumstances, bacteria in the large intestine can produce biotin. When intestinal problems create bacterial imbalance, the body is deprived of this alternative source of biotin. Consumption of raw egg whites can also contribute to biotin deficiency since avidin, a glycoprotein substance in egg white, can bind to biotin and prevent its absorption. The cooking of egg whites disables this binding of biotin by avidin.

Other names
Biotinyl-L-lysine; Nε-(+)-Biotinyl-L-lysine

Molecular formula
Molar mass
372.48 g mol−1
Melting point
~245 °C


Biotin is involved in the metabolism of both sugar and fat. In sugar metabolism, biotin helps move sugar from its initial stages of processing on to its conversion into usable chemical energy. For this reason, muscle cramps and pains related to physical exertion, which may be the result of the body’s inability to use sugar efficiently as fuel, may signal a biotin deficiency. The role of biotin in fat metabolism is discussed below under the heading “Synthesis of Fat (Fatty Acids).”
One of the least well-known of the B-complex vitamins, biotin was originally referred to as “vitamin H.” Biotin was discovered in late 1930s and early 1940s research when chicks fed diets high in raw egg white consistently developed skin rashes and lost the hair around their eyes. When egg yolk was added to the chicks’ diet, these symptoms disappeared.
Today, we know why. Researchers have identified a substance in raw egg white – a sugar and protein-containing molecule (glycoprotein) called avidin – that can bind together with biotin and prevent its absorption. Food scientists have also identified the egg yolk as one of the most dense sources of biotin in the diet.

IUPAC name
5-[(3aS,4S,6aR)-2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl]pentanoic acid
Other names
Vitamin B7; Vitamin H; Coenzyme R; Biopeiderm

Molecular formula
Molar mass
244.31 g mol−1
Appearance White crystalline needles
Melting point
232-233 °C
Solubility in water
22 mg/100 mL

Synthesis of Fat (Fatty Acids)
Many of the classic biotin deficiency symptoms involve skin-related problems, and the role of biotin in fat synthesis is often cited as a reason for this biotin-skin link. Biotin is required for function of an enzyme in the body called acetyl Co-A carboxylase. This enzyme puts together the building blocks for the production of fat in the body. Fat production is critical for all cells in the body since the membranes of all cells must contain the correct fat components to function properly. Fat production is especially critical for skin cells since they die and must be replaced very rapidly, and also because they are in contact with the outside environment and must serve as a selective barrier. When cellular fat components cannot be made properly due to biotin deficiency, skin cells are among the first cells to develop problems. In infants, the most common biotin-deficiency symptom is cradle cap – a dermatitis (skin condition) in which crusty yellowish/ whitish patches appear around the infant’s scalp, head, eyebrows and the skin behind the ears. In adults, the equivalent skin condition is called seborrheic dermatitis, although it can occur in many different locations on the skin.

Deficiency Symptoms
Skin-related problems, including cradle cap in infants and seborrheic dermatitis in adults, are the most common biotin deficiency-related symptoms. Hair loss can also be symptomatic of biotin deficiency. Nervous system-related problems provide the second most common set of biotin-related symptoms, including seizures, lack of muscle coordination (ataxia), and lack of good muscle tone (hypotonia). Muscle cramps and pains related to physical exertion can be symptomatic of biotin deficiency, reflecting the body’s inability to use sugar efficiently as a fuel.
Toxicity Symptoms
What are toxicity symptoms for biotin?
Reports of biotin toxicity have not surfaced in the research literature, despite the use of biotin over extended periods of time in doses as high as 60 milligrams per day. For this reason, in its 1998 recommendations for intake of B-complex vitamins, the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences chose not to set a tolerable upper limit (UL) for intake of biotin.
Biotin may play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of the following health conditions:
• Hair loss (alopecia)
• Intestinal imbalances, including inflammatory bowel syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and chronic diarrhea
• Neuromuscular-related conditions, including seizures, ataxias (movements characterized by lack of muscle coordination), and hypotonias (posture and movement characterized by lack of muscle tone)
• Skin conditions, including cradle cap in infants and seborrheic dermatitis in adults
• Pregnancy, as there is an increased demand for nutrients placed upon the mother by the growing fetus.


Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. Unlike most mammals and other animals, humans do not have the ability to make their own vitamin C. Therefore, we must obtain vitamin C through our diet. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body doesn’t store it. We have to get what we need from food, including citrus fruits, broccoli, and tomatoes.
You need vitamin C for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It helps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Vitamin C is needed for healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth.
Vitamin C is an antioxidant, along with vitamin E, beta-carotene, and many other plant-based nutrients. Antioxidants block some of the damage caused by free radicals, substances that damage DNA. The build-up of free radicals over time may contribute to the aging process and the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and arthritis.
It’ s rare to be seriously deficient in vitamin C, although evidence suggests that many people may have low levels of vitamin C. Smoking cigarettes lowers the amount of vitamin C in the body, so smokers are at a higher risk of deficiency.
Signs of vitamin deficiency include dry and splitting hair; gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and bleeding gums; rough, dry, scaly skin; decreased wound-healing rate, easy bruising; nosebleeds; and a decreased ability to ward off infection. A severe form of vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy.
Low levels of vitamin C have been associated with a number of conditions, including high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, stroke, some cancers, and atherosclerosis, the build-up plaque in blood vessels that can lead to heart attack and stroke. Getting enough vitamin C from your diet — by eating lots of fruit and vegetables — may help reduce the risk of developing some of these conditions. There is no conclusive evidence that taking vitamin C supplements will help or prevent any of these conditions.
Biosynthesis in different species

Model of a vitamin C molecule. Black is carbon, red is oxygen, and white is hydrogen.
Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of collagen, an important structural component of blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, and bone. Vitamin C also plays an important role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters are critical to brain function and are known to affect mood. In addition, vitamin C is required for the synthesis of carnitine, a small molecule that is essential for the transport of fat into cellular organelles called mitochondria, where the fat is converted to energy. Research also suggests that vitamin C is involved in the metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids, which may have implications for blood cholesterol levels and the incidence of gallstones.
Vitamin C is also a highly effective antioxidant. Even in small amounts vitamin C can protect indispensable molecules in the body, such as proteins, lipids (fats), carbohydrates, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species that can be generated during normal metabolism as well as through exposure to toxins and pollutants (e.g., cigarette smoke). Vitamin C may also be able to regenerate other antioxidants such as vitamin E. One recent study of cigarette smokers found that vitamin C regenerated vitamin E from its oxidized form.
Severe vitamin C deficiency has been known for many centuries as the potentially fatal disease, scurvy. By the late 1700s the British navy was aware that scurvy could be cured by eating oranges or lemons, even though vitamin C would not be isolated until the early 1930s. Symptoms of scurvy include bleeding and bruising easily, hair and tooth loss, and joint pain and swelling. Such symptoms appear to be related to the weakening of blood vessels, connective tissue, and bone, which all contain collagen. Early symptoms of scurvy like fatigue may result from diminished levels of carnitine, which is needed to derive energy from fat, or from decreased synthesis of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Scurvy is rare in developed countries because it can be prevented by as little as 10 mg of vitamin C daily . However, cases have occurred in children and the elderly on very restricted diets.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
In the U.S., the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin C was revised in 2000 upward from the previous recommendation of 60 mg daily for men and women. The RDA continues to be based primarily on the prevention of deficiency disease, rather than the prevention of chronic disease and the promotion of optimum health. The recommended intake for smokers is 35 mg/day higher than for nonsmokers, because smokers are under increased oxidative stress from the toxins in cigarette smoke and generally have lower blood levels of vitamin C.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Vitamin C
Life Stage Age Males (mg/day) Females (mg/day)
Infants 0-6 months 40 (AI)
40 (AI)
Infants 7-12 months 50 (AI) 50 (AI)
Children 1-3 years 15 15
Children 4-8 years 25 25
Children 9-13 years 45 45
Adolescents 14-18 years 75 65
Adults 19 years and older 90 75
Smokers 19 years and older 125 110
Pregnancy 18 years and younger – 80
Pregnancy 19 years and older – 85
Breast-feeding 18 years and younger – 115
Breast-feeding 19 years and older – 120

Disease Prevention
The amount of vitamin C required to prevent chronic disease appears to be more than that required for prevention of scurvy. Much of the information regarding vitamin C and the prevention of chronic disease is based on prospective studies, in which vitamin C intake is assessed in large numbers of people who are followed over time to determine whether they develop specific chronic diseases.


The Mission School (sometimes called “New Folk” or “Urban Rustic”) is an art movement of the 1990s and 2000s, centered in the Mission District of San Francisco, California. Thus the missionary school can be describe as a type of school system that is own and controlled by religious institutions be it private or public which offers educational and moral services to the communities within there domain. There are two types of schools (at least) that are often called “missionary schools”. I am speaking within the context of Christian missions.

1. The most common use of the term is an elementary or high school started and run by missionaries. In some parts of the world (historically, and even to this day) there are places where education, (reading, writing, math, etc.), are not taught or taught so poorly that local children are at a disadvantage. Christian missionaries would set up schools for the children. Often they would teach, but may also utilize the services of local teachers. As missionaries, they would typically incorporate the Holy Bible into the training, as well as Christian doctrine and ethics.

2. In some cases the term can be used as a short form for “missionary training school.” In this case, it describes a school or training program designed to train people in the theory and practice of mission work.
This movement is generally considered to have emerged in the early 1990s around a core group of artists who attended (or were associated with) San Francisco Art Institute. The term “Mission School”, however, was not coined until 2002, in a San Francisco Bay Guardian article by Glen Helfand.
Some notable organizations that carried out missionary activities in the country in the pre-independence were those of the Baptist church, Methodist church, Anglican Church as well as the Roman Catholic Church.
Thus the major problems of early missionary schools in Nigeria can be highlighted below;
1. Resistance and hostility from the local communities.
2. Denominational conflicts among the Christian groups themselves.
3. Hostile weather conditions.
4. Strange and dangerous diseases such as malaria and sleeping sickness.
5. Shortage of finance and other material resources.
6. Inadequate manpower to facilitate their work.
7. Difficult terrain and other hardships in transport and communication, etc.

Note that the above challenges delayed the Christian groups in their mission, not only of evangelization but also in the promotion of education.

However, to solve these problems the response of the government and other international relations can be noted below;
Note that the Christian groups in Africa were preoccupied with several activities in the area of formal education. They established schools of different grades. In many areas they were the first to venture into this field. In such cases they pioneered formal education in those communities. This entailed mobilizing there sources necessary for education, training and paying the teachers, developing the curriculum, among others. They also sensitised the masses and encouraged them to embrace formal education.
The government at the centre as well as those of the regional and local district levels provided support in form of scholarship grants and provision of text materials etc. while their international partners provided aid and grants for the continued support and strengthening of the missionary engagements.

Francis Alonge, the Bishop of Ondo in Nigeria, has called for the return of former missionary schools taken over by the government. He criticized the fall in standards of Nigerian education, claiming the decline was due to the government takeover. He further asserted that the takeover had “wiped out completely the teaching of morals which the Church is known for.”
Speaking to reporters on the 45th anniversary of his priestly ordination, he said the takeover is “the first major blow to the educational sector in this country,” the Catholic Information Service for Africa reports. Financial assistance should accompany the desired return of the schools to their original owners, Bishop Alonge argued, because of the schools’ poor infrastructure and limited manpower.
The return of moral standards set by the missionaries, he maintained, would restore the standard of education in the country.
The Nigerian government took over all private and parochial schools in the mid-1970s.however some states government have started to return some of this schools to their former original missionary owners.

Adangha owolabi (2004): missionary societies in Nigeria.
Mission schools -wikipeadia