The continuous depletion of the ozone layer has resulted to increasing sun exposure which has affected millions worldwide especially those living near the equator and the tropics has caused numerous skin diseases notably cancer. How does sunlight damage your skin? The most common and best known acute effect of overexposure to the sun is sunburn, or erythema. Its immediate effects can last for days and may include blistering and peeling. When sunburn occurs, UV radiation kills most of the cells in the outer layer of the skin and damages deeper layers. Any change in the colour of a person’s skin as a result of sun exposure is a sign of damage. Cancer can result when damage occurs to the DNA of genes that control the growth and division of skin cells. Sunlight also alters the texture of the skin and weakens its elasticity. This leads to premature wrinkling and sagging, as well as easy bruising.
Studies have shown that when the skin absorbs too much UV radiation, the activities of certain parts of a person’s immune system are adversely affected. This may reduce the body’s ability to defend itself against some diseases. Even moderate exposure has been known to increase the risk of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections. Many people notice that being in the sun causes them recurrent eruptions of cold sores, or herpes simplex. One medical report explains that one category of ultraviolet light, known as UVB, ‘appears to reduce the effectiveness of the immune system-in the case of the cold sores it can longer keep the virus Herpes simplex under control which result in re-activation of the infection’.
Hence, when it comes to cancers, sunlight can deliver a devastating one-two punch. First, by directly provoking DNA damage and then by reducing the immune system’s natural ability to deal with such damage.
The following are simple ways to protect yourself from sun exposure;
1. Limit your exposure during the midday hours between 10.00am and 3.00pm, when UV radiation is particularly intense.
2. Try to stay in the shade.
3. Cover your arms and legs with tightly woven, loosely-fitting clothes.
4. Wear a wide-brimmed hat to protect your eyes, ears, face, and the back of your neck.
5. Never fall asleep in the sun.
6. be careful to protect babies and young children, whose skin is particularly delicate.
7. Since sunlamps, sun beds, and tanning parlors use UV radiation, which may damage the skin, WHO recommends you avoiding them.
8. use- and liberally reapply every two hours-a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor of at least 15.
9. Good – quality wraparound sunglasses, or sunglasses with side panels, that provide 99 to 100 percent UVA and UVB (categories of ultraviolet light) protection will greatly reduce the risk of eye damage.
10. If you develop a mole, a freckle, or a spot that you are concerned about, sees your doctor.
Wisely, one needs to take precautions so that we do not overexpose ourselves to the sun. Our health, and indeed our very lives, may be at stake.
This simple ways have work for millions that have read this piece of article and you too can benefit from it!


Statements from other churches.
Christendom has become so confusing and conflicting about the actual date to celebrate the holy Sabbath day. While some say it’s Saturday, others argues its Sunday. This raging argument has continue to contrast millions of followers, while conflict statements have been heard from acclaimed scholars. Even Jesus Christ said of the Pharisees, ‘in vein they worship me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men’, for laying aside the commandment of God, that you may keep the tradition’ (mark 7:7-9). Yet notice what other churches admit regarding their observance of Sunday instead of Saturday.

Stephen Keenan, a Doctrinal Catechism, p. 174:
“Question: have you any other way of proving that the church has power to institute festivals of precept?
“answer: had she not such power, she could not have done that which all modern religionists agree with her-she could not have substituted the observance of Sunday, the first day of the week, for the observance of Saturday, the seventh day, a change for which there is no scriptural authority…
The convert’s catechism of catholic doctrine, 3rd ed., p.50:
Question: which is the Sabbath day?
Answer: Saturday is the Sabbath day.
Question: why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday?
Answer: we observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church, in the council of Laodicea (c.363) transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday.”
Catholic press, Aug. 25, 1900:
“Sunday is a catholic institution, and… can be defended only on catholic principles … from the beginning to end of scripture there is not a single passage that warrants the transfer of weekly public worship from the last day of the week to the first.”
: Charles buck, A theological dictionary, “Sabbath”
“Sabbath in Hebrew language signifies rest, and is the seventh day of the week… and it must be confessed that there is no law in the new testament concerning the first day.”

Clovis Chappell, ten rules for living, p.61:
“The reason we observe the first day instead of the seventh is based on no positive command. One will search the scriptures in vain for authority for changing from the seventh day to the first.”
The Christian at work:
“some have tried to build the observance of Sunday upon apostolic command, whereas the apostles gave no command on the matter at all… the truth is, so soon as we appeal to the literal scripta (literal writing) of the bible, the sabbatarians have the best of the argument.”
Isaac William, D.D., plain sermons on the catechism, vol. 1:
“Where are we told in scripture that we are to keep the first day at all? We are commanded to keep the seventh; but we are nowhere commanded to keep the first day… the reason why we keep the first day of the week holy instead of the seventh is for the same reason that we observe many other things, not because the bible, but because the church, has enjoined it.”
Philip Carrington, Toronto daily, oct. 26, 1949:
“The bible commandment says on the seventh day thou shalt rest. That is Saturday. Nowhere in the bible is it laid down that worship should be done on Sunday.”
Harold lindsell (editor), Christianity today, Nov. 5, 1976:
“There is nothing in scripture that requires us to keep Sunday rather than Saturday as a holy day.”

To conclude, a Sunday morning resurrection could not be the reason for changing the weekly day of worship from Saturday to Sunday. But even if Christ resurrected on Sunday, why would his disciples-who had kept the seventh-day Sabbath with him-have abandoned his example of keeping the Ten Commandments and switched to Sunday-keeping? And why would they have picked Sunday, a day already associated with pagan sun worship? Saturday still remains the authentic day of worship for all true worshippers of Christ as commanded in the bible. For a broader term, log unto the article ‘WAS JESUS RESURRECTED ON SUNDAY’ by me. Therefore, Christ’s true disciples would certainly not have kept Sunday as the “lord’s day”!


Vitiligo, also called leukoderma, is triggered by the loss of pigment-producing cells in the skin. This result in the formation of white spots and patches on the skin. With some patients the condition never progresses beyond the appearance of one patch. With others, however, it spreads over the body quickly. Still others may suffer a slower form of vitiligo that continues to spread over many years. Vitiligo is neither physically painful nor contagious.
Not all cases of vitiligo may be as obvious as too alarming, for it is mostly noticeable on dark-skinned people. But there are many people afflicted to one degree or another. Statistics show that between 1 and 2 percent of world population maybe affected. Vitiligo knows no racial boundaries and affects men and women equally. It cause is still unknown.
While there is no sure cure for vitiligo, there are many ways of dealing with it. For instance, in light-skinned patients, the condition is more evident when the unaffected skin is suntanned. Hence, avoiding exposure to the sun can make the condition less noticeable. With dark-skinned people, special cosmetics can help disguises the contrasts in skin colour. Some patients have responded well to a process known as repigmentation. This treatment involves many months of medication and the use of special ultra-violet equipment. In some cases this treatment has caused normal colour to return to parts of the afflicted skin. Other patients choose depigmentation. The goal of this treatment is to even out the skin tone by destroying the remaining pigment-producing cells with the use of medication.
Vitiligo can cause emotional distress to those afflicted, especially when it spread to the face. In one recent study a woman afflicted by vitiligo explains, “two children looked at me and ran away screaming. Others are hesitant to speak with me, thinking that I may have a contagious disease or that I have been cursed”. People cannot catch vitiligo by touch or through the air.


What is meant by the word ‘terrorism’? Just a few years ago terrorism seemed to be restricted to a few isolated places, such as northern island, the Basque country in northern Spain, and some areas in the Middle East. Now especially after September 11 2001, with the destruction of the twin towers in New York- it has mushroomed into a worldwide phenomenon, springing up in paradisiacal Bali, Madrid, Spain; London, England; sri lanka; Thailand, Indonesia, and even Russia. Yet terrorism is not a new development.
Terrorism has been defined as ‘the unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons.’ Nevertheless, terrorism exhibits certain characteristic. First, terrorism aimed at non-combants. Secondly, terrorism used violence for dramatic purpose; instilling fear in the target audience is often more important than physical result. This deliberate creation of dread is what distinguishes terrorism from simple murder or assault.
In the first century Judea, a violent group called the zealots pushed for Jewish independence from Rome. Some of their most ardent adherents become known as sicarii, or dagger men, a name that comes from the short swords they hid under their garments. Mingling in Jerusalem’s festival crowds, the sicarii slit the throats of their enemies or stabbed them in the back.
In 66 C.E., a group of zealot seized the fortress of Masada near the Dead Sea. They butchered the roman garrison and made the mountaintop fastness their base of operations. For many years they sortied from there and harassed the imperial authorities. In 73 C.E, the roman tenth legion led by Governor Flavius Silva retook Masada, but they did not conquer the zealots. A contemporary historian claims that rather give in to Rome, 960 of them-everyone up there except two women and five children-committed suicide.
Some view the zealot revolt as the start of terrorism as we know it. True or not, since then terrorism has left deep tracks in the history’s path.

From 1095 through two centuries, crusade armies repeatedly crossed between Europe and the Middle East. Opposing them were Muslim forces from Asia and North Africa. The issue was the control of Jerusalem, and each side tried to gain the advantage. In their many battles, those ‘holy warriors’ hacked one another to pieces. They also used their swords and battle axes on mere bystanders.
In the later centuries, terrorist began using explosives and firearms with gruesome, fatal results.
June 28, 1914, is viewed by historians as a turning point in European history. A young man, regarded by some as a hero, shot the Austrian crown prince. Archduke Francis Ferdinand. That event brought mankind into World War 1. Twenty million deaths later, the Great War ended. World War 1 had its sequel in world war 11. With its concentration camps, slaughter of civilians in bombing raids, and acts of retribution on innocent people. After the war, murders continued. Over a million people died on Cambodia’s killing fields in the 1970’s. And the people of Rwanda are still reeling from the massacre or over 800,000 in the 1990 genocide.
From 1914 to our time, mankind has suffered from terrorist activity in many countries. Yet, some people today act as if history had no lessons for modern man. Daily, terrorist attacks kill hundreds, maim thousands, and rob millions of their right to peace of mind and safety. Bombs explode in marketplaces, villages’ burn to the ground, women are raped, children go to war or some times into captivity, people die. In spite of laws and universal condemnation, this sadistic routine does not stop. Is there hope that terrorism will end? Only time will tell.


Weight loss has become a booming industry and industry watchers are taken advantage of desperate obese person to lure them into buying their products aimed at reducing their weight gains. However, trying to reduce weight depends on the individual. Your share determination and design programme to follow will eventually pay for you. I have read series of books and documents on weight lose and decided to provide these useful hints below.
To lose weight, some have tried these tips:
1. Beware of calories in what you are eating and drinking. Note: drinks can be a major source of calories, especially sweetened juices. Alcoholic drinks are also high in calories. And beware of those advertised soft drinks. Check the calorie count on the label. You might be shocked.
2. Avoid temptation. If chips, chocolates, or cookies are on hand, you will in evidently eat them! Replace them with low – calorie snacks, such as apples, carrots, whole -grain wafers.
3. Have a snack or an appetizer before eating a meal. It will take the edge off your appetite and may induce you to eat less.
4. Don’t eat everything put in front of you. Be selective. Reject what you know will give you too many calories.
5. Slow down. Why hurry? Enjoy your meal by noticing what you are eating- the colour, the flavours, the interaction of foods. Listen to the body’s signals that say, ‘I am full. I don’t need any more.’
6. Stop eating before you feel full.
7. Restaurants in some countries are notorious for serving excessive portions. Leave half of your entrée behind, or share the plate with someone else.
8. Desserts are not essential to complete a meal. It is better to finish off with fruit or another low-calorie item
9. Food manufacturer wants you to eat more. Profit is their bottom line. They will try to exploit your weaknesses. Don’t be taken in by their clever advertising and pretty pictures. You can say no!
After all this measures, it is best you know and determine your BMI- body mass index. Find out more by searching the web or hyattractions.wordpress to read more about BMI.


Millions of people today are in serious ‘debt’. This debt can be a major factor in wrecking their cars, damaging their careers, and even ruining their marriages. It can adversely affect their health and life span. It is a deficit that contributes to immune suppression, creating susceptibility to various infections. Conditions as different as diabetes, heart disease, and extreme obesity, as well as other health problems have been linked to it. Yet, most victims are oblivious of this debt.
The culprit is sleep debt, which develops when a person does not get the amount of healthful sleep needed for a well being. This can be caused by voluntary sleep deprivation resulting from a person’s life-style or by involuntary sleep deprivation because of illness.
Medical researchers estimate that earth’s population is now getting, on average, an hour less sleep per night than what is needed. While this may seem slight, a nightly six-billion-hour debt has become the focus of research into both the variety of sleep-related illnesses and their impact on the quality of life.
The medical world once viewed the chronic inability to sleep as just one disorder, commonly called insomnia. However a commission created by the US congress recognized 17 distinct sleep disorders. At any rate, insomnia has many causes that it is often considered to be a symptom of other problems, much as fever suggests some sort of infection. Even occasional deprivation of sleep can be disastrous. Consider, too, the occupational dangers of being around a sleepy coworker.
“After 17 to 19 hours without sleep (participants) performance on some tests was equivalent or worse than that at (a blood-alcohol concentration of) 0.05%”. In other words, subjects functioned as if at or beyond the legal limit in some countries of alcohol permitted in a driver’s bloodstream! With hundreds of thousands of sleep-related auto and job-site accidents happening annually, the worldwide cost to productivity and family is enormous.
What factors may contribute to sleep debt? One is the social phenomenon often called 24/7- operating 24hours a day, seven days a week. USA today describes this as “a cultural earthquake that is changing the way we live”, noting that a new wave of round-the-clock retailers and services is profiting by mocking the clock.” In many lands people watch all night television programs and access the internet when they should be sleeping. Then there is the toll taken by emotional disorders, often involving anxieties heightened by stress and pace of life. Finally, there are a variety of physical diseases that can contribute to sleep debt.
Reversing this sleep debt is a complex challenge. But understanding how a healthful sleep cycle works and learning to identify the signs of sleep debt can provide the motivation to change. Recognizing the symptoms of a serious sleep disorder can save lives.


A normal night’s sleep is mostly divided into two types: what is commonly called REM (rapid eye movement, or dream) sleep and non- REM (non dream) sleep. You can tell that a person is in REM sleep when the bulge of his eyeballs can be seen rapidly moving under his eyelids.
Non-REM sleep can further be divided into four stages. After lying down, you gently enter stage one-drowsiness or shallow sleep. During this stage your muscles relax and your brain waves are irregular and rapid. Its first occurrence each night typically last between 30 seconds and 7 minutes. When you move to stage two-true sleep-where you will usually spend 20 % of the night, brain waves becomes larger. You may have fragmented thoughts or images passing through your mind, but you are unaware of your surroundings and cannot see even if your eyes are open.
Next comes stages three and four-deeper to deepest sleep. Here, in what is also called delta sleep, your brain produces large, slow waves. It is now that your body is most difficult to rouse, as most of the blood is directed to the muscles. During this time usually about 50% of the night, body recovery and repair take place, and it is during delta sleep that young bodies grow. It is important to note that anyone, youth or adult, who does not experience the deeper delta stages, will likely feel fatigued, apathetic, or even depressed the next day.
Finally, each cycle is completed by the radically different REM stage. During this dreaming stage (typically occurring about every 90 minutes), more blood is directed to the brain and your brain waves are almost the same as if you were awake. However, you cannot move your muscles. This immobility apparently keeps you from acting out dreams and hurting yourself or others.
These REM, or dream, cycles get longer each time they occur during the night and appear to be crucial to mental health. In computer like fashion, the brain sorts through short-term memory storage, deleting unimportant data and retaining what is desired for long-term memory. Abnormally infrequent dream cycles are known to result in emotional difficulties. Insomniacs, for example, speed less time than average in REM sleep, contributing to a vicious downward spiral of increasing anxiety.
So what happens when we are regularly deprived (voluntarily or involuntarily) of these repeated cycles, thus creating a sleep debt? If we get fewer consecutive hours of sleep than we need, we won’t get as much of the last and longest REM sleep period, which is vital to mental health. If our sleep patterns become irregular, consisting of a series of naps, we often don’t get to the deep delta sleep that is necessary to mend our bodies. Those in serious debt suffer from shortened attention spans, memory and vocabulary loss, a lessened ability to think analytically, and diminished creativity.
What triggers the body to sleep? A number of factors evidently combine to create a circadian (daily) rhythm, or wake-sleep pattern. Brain chemistry appears to play a role. Also, there is a nucleus of nerve cells located in the brain that evidently helps control the sleep cycle. This ‘clock’ is situated close to where the optic nerves come together. Light thus influences how sleepy we feel. Bright light wakes you up, while darkness induces sleep.
Your body temperature is also involved. When you temperature is highest-typically midmorning and midevening-you are the most alert. As your body temperature drops, you become increasingly drowsy. Researchers agree that the pattern of wakefulness versus sleepiness varies with individuals.


The significance and the roles played by glucose, pancreas and sugar are often associated with the word, DIABETES. The term “diabetes mellitus” comes from a Greek word meaning “to siphon” and a Latin word meaning “sweet like honey”. These words aptly describe the disorder, for water passes through the person who has diabetes as if it were being siphoned from the mouth through the urinary tract and right out of the body.
Furthermore, the urine is sweet with sugar. Infact, prior to the discovery of more efficient techniques, one test for diabetes was to pour a patient’s urine near an anthill. If the insects were attracted, this indicated the presence of sugar.
To help our learners or readers who may be diabetes sufferers, it is important they become aware of the roles of these three important substances in there body system.

Glucose fuels the body trillion’s of cells. To enter the cells, however, it needs a “key”-insulin, a chemical released by the pancreas. With type 1 diabetes, insulin is simply not available. With type 2, the body makes insulin but usually not enough. Moreover, the cells are reluctant to let insulin in-a condition called insulin resistance. With both forms of diabetes, the result is the same: hungry cells and dangerous levels of sugar in the blood.
In type 1 diabetes, a person’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Hence, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease and is sometimes called immune-mediated diabetes. Factors that can trigger an immune reaction include viruses, toxic chemicals, and certain drugs. Genetic makeup may also be implicated, for type 1 diabetes often runs in families, and it is most common among Caucasians.
With type 2 diabetes, the genetic factor is even stronger but with a greater occurrence among non-Caucasians. Australian aborigines and Native Americans are among the most affected, the latter having the highest rate of type 2 diabetes in the world. Researchers are studying the relationship between genetics and obesity, as well as the way excess fat seems to promote insulin resistance in genetically susceptible people. Unlike type 1, type 2 diabetes occurs mainly in those who are over 40 years of age.

About the size of banana, the pancreas lies just behind the stomach. According to the book the unofficial guide to living with diabetes, “the healthy pancreas performs a continuous and exquisite balancing act, managing to sustain smooth, stable blood sugar levels by releasing just the right amount of insulin as glucose levels wax and wane throughout the day”. Beta cells within the pancreas are the source of the hormone insulin.
When beta cells fail to produce enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, causing hyperglycemia. The opposite-low blood sugar-is called hypoglycemia. In concert with the pancreas, the liver helps manage blood-sugar levels by storing excess glucose in a form called glycogen. When commanded by the pancreas, the liver converts glycogen back into glucose for use by the body.

It is a common misconception that eating a lot of sugar causes diabetes. Medical evidence shows that getting fat-regardless of sugar intake – increases the risk among genetically susceptible individuals. Still, eating too much is unhealthy, since it provides poor nutrition and contributes to obesity.
Another misconception is that people with diabetes have an abnormal craving for sugar. In reality, though, they have the same desire for sweet as most others. When it is not controlled, diabetes can lead to hunger-but not necessarily for sugar. People with diabetes can eat sweets, but they must factor their sugar intake into their overall diet plan.
Recent studies have shown that a diet high in fructose-sugar derived from fruits and vegetables-can contribute to insulin resistance and even diabetes in animals, regardless of their weight.

insomnia, practical guides to follow

When occasional insomnia occurs, it is best one follows some practical steps to help overcome such habits. However there are things you must do or avoid to help you sleep well. What about occasional insomnia? Some of these practical steps will help:

1. Avoid alcohol as well as stimulants such as tea or coffee near bedtime.
Many people mistakenly believe that alcoholic beverages will help put them to bed. However, clinical studies show that alcohol can have rebound effect and keep you awake.
2. Quit smoking.
One authority notes; “smokers have greater difficulty falling asleep, because cigarettes raise blood pressure, speed up heart rate, and stimulate brain-wave activity. Smokers also tend to wake up more in the middle of the night, possibly because their body is experiencing withdrawal symptoms”.
3. Avoid extreme mental or physical stimulation just before bedtime.
Exercise promotes proper rest but not if done immediately before trying to sleep. Tackling big problems or mental challenges just before you go to bed can interfere with the relaxed mood often needed to drift off to sleep.
4. Make sure that your bed-room is quiet, dark and where possible, relatively cool.
Regarding noise, considered one famous study of people living near an airport who claimed that they no longer heard the airplanes. When their sleep patterns are tested, their brain waves recorded each landing and take off! The researchers concluded that the test subjects averaged about one hour less of quality sleep each night than those in a quieter zone. Earplugs or other devices of reducing noise would have greatly assisted them in getting restful sleep. Some find that white noise (defined as any low-frequency, steady, and monotonous hum), such as made by an electric fan, is especially helpful if there is a need to mask street sounds.
5. Be cautious about taking sleep-inducing medications.
There is growing evidence that many drugs prescribed to induced sleep are habit-forming, lessen in effectiveness with prolonged use, and have damaging side effects. At best, such drugs may be useful for short term therapy.
Since insomnia can be brought on by stress, it is thought that one key to healthy sleep is making the time the time just before to bed a quiet, pleasant period. It may be helpful to set aside the cares of the day and to do something enjoyable, such as reading. So when next you want to avoid occasional insomnia, why not try the above practical steps.