The book of Philippians is a powerful letter of encouragement. Paul prays for the church to grow in knowledge and depth of insight so we will be filled with the fruit of righteousness. He then shares several key things on how to do this. The main themes that run through Philippians are imitating Christ’s example and rejoicing in every circumstance.

The Letter to Philippians

Philippians was one of the last letters Paul wrote, having penned it from Roman custody sometime around 61 AD. Paul’s house arrest in Rome is chronicled in Acts 28:14-31, and this seems to be the circumstances in which the Philippians came to Paul’s aid, and the circumstances in which Paul wrote his letter. He wrote it to encourage them in the middle of their suffering. Paul’s primary motivation for writing this letter to the church at Philippi was to thank them for their generous financial gift they had sent to him while he was imprisoned in Rome. Like modern support letters, he includes not only his gratefulness, but also a report on his own condition and greetings to his close friends among them. However, as an apostle in the church, he takes this opportunity to encourage them as they faced persecution, internal struggles, and heretical teachers. To further these hopes, he recommends to them the faithful brothers—Timothy and Epaphroditus—who could ministry to them in a more specific and ongoing fashion.

Paul showed his gratitude to the Philippians for their generous gift to him (1:3-11), and then demonstrated through his own example why the Philippians should be thankful and joyful as well, no matter what their circumstances, because of God’s generosity toward them (2:12-18; 4:4-19).

Importantly, the church at Philippi was not filled with the kind of sin that we see in such places as Corinth or heresy that we see in such places as Galatia. Paul briefly addresses a particular instance of discord within the body: two women, Eudioa and Syntyche, are at odds with each other. Paul emphasizes the importance of reconciliation and agreement among God’s people for the sake of the Gospel. For the most part, the church at Philippi was doing well. In his absence, Paul’s loving and gracious pastoral tone of affection warns them against a possible slide into heresy and is markedly different than his terse tone in some other New Testament letters.

Philippians 1 – The Advancing Gospel

Philippians 1 is a personal and affectionate letter.  Paul opens with a prayer of thanksgiving, praying for us to abound in love, knowledge and depth of insight. Encouraging us that through his circumstances the gospel of Christ is continually advancing. He shares intimate thoughts about his desire to be with Christ, and encourages believers to stand firm in the faith until the end.

Philippians 2 – Imitate Christ

Philippians 2 encourages us to be like-minded and one in spirit. Paul exhorts us to follow the example of Christ, who humbled himself and became obedient to the point of death. He reminds us to have the same attitude as Christ, encouraging us that we shine like stars in the universe.

Thanksgiving for the Philippians’ Gift and a Final Greeting (Philippians 4:10-23)

I have great joy in the Lord because now at last you have again expressed your concern for me (now I know you were concerned before but had no opportunity to do anything). 4:11 I am not saying this because I am in need, for I have learned to be content in any circumstance. 4:12 I have experienced times of need and times of abundance. In any and every circumstance I have learned the secret of contentment, whether I go satisfied or hungry, have plenty or nothing. 4:13 I am able to do all things through the one who strengthens me. 4:14 Nevertheless, you did well to share with me in my trouble. 4:15 And as you Philippians know, at the beginning of my gospel ministry, when I left Macedonia, no church shared with me in this matter of giving and receiving except you alone. 4:16 For even in Thessalonica on more than one occasion you sent something for my need. 4:17 It is not that I am seeking the gift. Rather, I seek the credit that abounds to your account. 4:18 For I have received all things, and I have plenty. I have all I need because I received from Epaphroditus your gifts—a fragrant offering, an acceptable sacrifice, very pleasing to God. 4:19 And my God will supply all that you need according to the riches of his glory in Christ Jesus. 4:20 May glory be given to God our Father forever and ever. Amen.

4:21 Give greetings to all the saints in Christ Jesus. The brothers with me here send greetings. 4:22 All the saints greet you, especially those from the emperor’s household. 4:23 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.

Thanksgiving for the Philippians’ Gift and a Final Greeting (4:10-23)

A. Paul’s Thanksgiving for Their Gift (4:10-20)

  1. Paul’s Thanksgiving Proper (4:10)
  2. Is Not Because He Lacks Contentment (4:11-14)
  3. Paul’s Various Circumstances (4:11-12)
  4. Paul’s Secret to Contentment (4:13)
  5. Is Because He Wants Them To Be Blessed (4:14-20)
  6. Paul’s Commendation of the Philippians (4:14-16)
  7. For Their Present Gift (4:14)
  8. For Their Past Faithfulness (4:15-16)
  9. The Blessing of the Philippians (4:17)
  10. Paul’s Plenty Because of Their Gift (4:18-20)
  11. The Nature of Their Gift (4:18)
  12. The Promise of Needs Met (4:19)

iii. The Glory to God (4:20)

  1. Final Greeting (4:21-23)

In 4:10-20 Paul brings to a conclusion the issue of their gift hinted at throughout the letter (1:5-6; 2:25-30) and stresses their friendship in the midst of rejoicing over their generosity.

Thanksgiving for the Philippians’ Gift and a Final Greeting (4:10-23)

Paul’s Thanksgiving for Their Gift (4:10-20)

1. Paul’s Thanksgiving Proper (4:10)

Paul says he has great joy (ecarhn) in the Lord because now at last the Philippians have again expressed their concern for him. But it wasn’t that the Philippians didn’t care and only recently decided to do something about Paul’s needs. On the contrary, Paul acknowledges their desire, but understands that they had had no opportunity to do anything.

Paul’s great rejoicing (ecarhn…megalws) could be taken (wrongly) as his eager desire to get money from the church. But this is not the case, as he goes on to make clear in the rest of the paragraph, especially in 4:11 and 4:17-18. Thus he is walking a thin line between expressing his gratitude for the gift sent by Epaphroditus (4:18) and having the church misunderstand his intentions. Paul was simply overjoyed due to their generous response to him. But he was so, more because of what such a response demonstrated spiritually about them, than he was because of any benefit he might have received (see v. 17).

One cannot miss the imagery here implied in the use of the verb again expressed …concern (aneqalete). It is a rare term meaning “grow up again,” “bloom again” as used with plants. Paul is therefore saying that like the new bloom of flowers in the spring so is the Philippians’ blossoming interest in his welfare.237 The imagery is picturesque and connotes a deep and growing friendship.



The most famous phrase in the Declaration of Independence is “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.” Happiness is not guaranteed, but the pursuit of it is. And we are all on the hunt for joy and happiness. Psalm 16:11 says: “In your presence there is fullness of joy, at your right hand are eternal pleasures.” But rather than look to God, we tend to look in a few others places (Rom 3:10-18). Our contemporary culture and some religious types tell us that joy can be found in processes or principles. We are told that we can find joy if we follow “5 Steps to Being a Better Lover” or “7 Principles to Perfect Parenting” or “10 Rules for a Happy Retirement.” Some of these processes and principles come in religious packaging. Pop-spirituality encourages you to “Figure out what your heart wants” and to “Find some inspiration” and to “Give yourself permission to be enjoy life.” But be sure you “Don’t confuse joy and fun with

irresponsibility.” These are 4 of Paris Hilton’s “7 Spiritual Lessons.” Joel Osteen’s Your Best Life Now offers “7 Steps to Living at Your Full Potential.” To achieve joy you must 1) enlarge your visions, 2) develop a healthy self-image, 3) discover the power of your thoughts and words, 4) let go of the past, 5) find strength in adversity, 6) live to give, and 7) choose to be happy. Where we rely on processes and principles, Paul offers thanksgiving. Thanksgiving is passive, not active. It responds to a gift. Thanksgiving reacts to grace; it doesn’t proactively procure it.

In his final word the apostle commands that greetings be given to all the saints. By the term saints he means God’s holy people as set apart by Him to be a new covenanted community—a new commonwealth as it were (cf. Eph 2:11-22).

The reference to saints from Caesar’s household in v. 22 is important and somewhat ironic. The very Romans who were persecuting the church in Philippi (cf. 1:27-30) had within their ranks, back home in Nero’s house, Christians to whom Paul refers as saints! This stands as an encouragement to the Philippians concerning the power of the gospel to change lives. After all, probably much to the surprise of many of them, the gospel had penetrated into the very heart of their “opponents!”

Philippians is a letter which stresses joy, humility, and unity. Paul provided many living examples of these qualities in order to flesh out what “the concepts looked like in action.” He talks about his own life, as well as that of Timothy, Epaphroditus, and the example par excellence of Jesus Christ himself. It is fitting, therefore, since Christ in his condescension is at the heart of the letter (2:6-11), to conclude with: The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. For Paul, everything was focused in Christ as God’s plan for the universe (3:20-21).



Cf. BAGD, s.v., anaqallw.

The rapidly emerging post-modern culture of the 20th and 21st centuries will have serious implications for the profile of the corporate person.

So Martin, Philippians, 181.

Cf. O’Brien, Philippians, 534.

O’Brien, Philippians, 539.

O’Brien, Philippians, 545; cf. Fee, Philippians, 452; Hawthorne, Philippians, 207.

Kent, “Philippians,” 157.




Conflict refers to some form of friction, or discord arising within a group when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group. Conflict can arise between members of the same group, known as intragroup conflict, or it can occur between members of two or more groups, and involve violence, interpersonal discord conflict. Conflict in groups often follows a specific course. Routine group interaction is first disrupted by an initial conflict, often caused by differences of opinion, disagreements between members, or scarcity of resources. At this point, the group is no longer united, and may split into coalitions. This period of conflict escalation in some cases gives way to a conflict resolution stage, after which the group can eventually return to routine group interaction once again.


Conflict is rarely seen as constructive; however, in certain contexts (such as competition in sports), moderate levels of conflict can be seen as being mutually beneficial, facilitating understanding, tolerance, learning, and effectiveness.[10] Sophia Jowett differentiates between content conflict, where individuals disagree about how to deal with a certain issue, and relational conflict, where individuals disagree about one another, noting that the content conflict can be beneficial, increasing motivation and stimulating discussion, whereas the relational conflicts decreases performance, loyalty, satisfaction, and commitment, and causes individuals to be irritable, negative and suspicious. Irving Janis proposed that conflict is beneficial in groups and committees to avoid the error of “group think“.

Jehn and Mannix have proposed a division of conflicts into three types: relationship, task, and process. Relationship conflict stems from interpersonal incompatibilities; task conflict is related to disagreements in viewpoints and opinion about a particular task, and process conflict refers to disagreement over the group’s approach to the task, its methods, and its group process. They note that although relationship conflict and process conflict are harmful, task conflict is found to be beneficial since it encourages diversity of opinions, although care should be taken so it does not develop into process or relationship conflict.

Task conflict has been associated with two interrelated and beneficial effects. The first is group decision quality. Task conflict encourages greater cognitive understanding of the issue being discussed. This leads to better decision making for the groups that use task conflict. The goal is to train your team to better solve problems.

The second is affective acceptance of group decisions. Task conflict can lead to increased satisfaction with the group decision and a desire to stay in the group. Encourage the group members to respect each other’s opinions and to listen carefully. The goal is to train your team to better work together.

Amason and Sapienza in turn differentiate between affective and cognitive conflict, where cognitive conflict is task-oriented and arises from differences in perspective or judgment, and affective conflict is emotional and arises from personal differences and disputes


Conflict is a social process that is exacerbated when individual members of a group take sides in the debate. Among the methods to resolve conflict is mediation of the dispute by a group member not currently involved in the dispute. More specifically, a mediator is defined as a person who attempts to resolve a conflict between two group members by intervening in this conflict. Put simply, the mediator can be thought of as a disinterested guide directs the disputants through the process of developing a solution to a disagreement (Forsyth, 2006).

Although the tendency will be for group members who are uninvolved in the dispute to remain uninvolved, in some cases, the sheer intensity of the conflict may escalate to the point where mediation is unavoidable. Third party mediation of the conflict opens avenues for communication between group members in conflict. It allows members to express their opinions and request clarification of other member’s standpoints while the mediator acts as a form of protection against any shame or “loss of face” that either disputant may experience. This can be done by shedding a positive light on the reconciliation that was made during the mediation process. For instance, if it was negotiated that two cashiers will rotate the weekends they work, the mediator might point out that now each worker gets a weekend off every two weeks (Forsyth, 2006).

The mediator can also offer assistance in refining solutions and making counter-offers between members, adjusting the time and location of meetings so that they are mutually satisfying for both parties (Forsyth, 2006).

According to Forsyth (2006), there are three major mediation approaches: Inquisitorial procedure- Using this procedure, the mediator asks each of the disputants a series of questions, considers the two sets of responses, and then selects and imposes a mandatory solution on the members. The inquisitorial procedure is the least popular approach to mediation.

Arbitration- Here, mediation involves the two disputants explaining their arguments to the mediator, who creates a solution based on the arguments presented. Arbitration is best for low intensity conflict, but is the most favored mediation style overall.

Moot- The moot approach involves an open discussion between disputants and the mediator about the problems and potential solutions. In the moot approach, the mediator cannot impose a mandatory solution. After arbitration, a moot is the most preferred mediation style.

In practice, conflict resolution is often interwoven with daily activities, as in organizations, workplaces and institutions. Staff and residents in a youth care setting, for instance, interweave everyday concerns (meals, lessons, breaks, meetings, or other mundane but concerted projects) with interpersonal disputes.

CASPER MILQUETOAST: Shy, wallflower type. Sits back, says little, let’s the parties run the show. Believes mediator’s presence is sufficient by itself and shines forth—in a bright circle above the head.

PSYCHIATRIST: A telepathist. Has a high school major in psychology. Reads minds and believes knows what the parties are going to do before they do it. What’s fun is when they don’t!

BULLDOZER: Aggressive type. Pushes parties to settle—whether they want to or not! Settle or not, they may leave a little unhappy, but figures what else is new?

SHERMAN TANK: The Bulldozer plus Weapons. Blasts away to get parties to settle. Takes no prisoners. They settle—or else!

PREVARICATOR: Creative. A great story teller to his children—and to mediating parties. In caucus, weaves positions out of whole cloth to get parties to settle. Everyone’s happy—until parties’ counsel compare notes the day after.

POLITICIAN: Nobody is left unhappy. Settling parties leave the proceeding bewildered and talking to themselves: “What happened? What did I do? Why did I do it?”

CHAMELEON: “What do you want me to be?” Changes with the mood of the environment. Unpredictable. Reacts and adapts to the unique personalities of the parties. Has no identifiable style—or personality.

GROUCH: Nothing seems to make this mediator happy. Miserable if you impasse. If you settle, you’re not sure you did right—but you enjoy seeing the glimmer of a smile, however short-lived, on the mediator’s face!

FRANKENSTEIN’S MONSTER: Rants and raves. Parties settle out of sheer terror, uncertain of the measure of this demon’s wrath.

I-DOTTER/T-CROSSER: Exacting to a fault. Step one inch over mediation’s statutory or regulatory line, and you will hear chapter and verse from this mediator’s bible. Foreheads bounce off the table during his interminable opening statements.

STYLIST: A frustrated actor. Believes the mediator must have a unique style and tries to dazzle you with the uniqueness. Has forgotten different strokes for different folks. Sometimes works, if the right combination of personalities are present.

AGNOSTIC: “Why am I here, and what am I doing?” Milquetoast’s first cousin. True believer in letting the parties reach their own decision—dubious about the whole process, still trying to figure out what to do and why.

PREACHER: “We are here for a reason, and we are doing God’s will.” Has no doubt about the virtues of The Process. When all else fails and negotiations are going south, resorts to silent prayer—but only if group won’t join.

LEGAL EAGLE: The lawyer-mediator. Knows he shouldn’t render a legal opinion but can’t help it, bursts with enthusiasm to do so. Walks a thin line, sometime gets the job done, but won’t see the loser of the legal argument again.

SLEEPWALKER: Hello! We’re here. Are you? Never seems to connect with the group. Ambulates wearily through the process. Probably had a tough night before. Always there on pay day, however.

COMEDIAN: Doesn’t know much about the process but tells damned good stories. Amidst the humor, parties settle, if only to maintain the levity of the moment. What’s fun is when they don’t laugh!

GREENHORN: Watch this mediator’s eyes as they bounce repeatedly off the checklist clipped to the corner of the mediation file. Stressed but thorough. Gets the job done—among yawns around the table. Eventually learns to relax—or becomes I-DOTTER/T-CROSSER’s prime student.

CLICHÉ MONGER: Doesn’t have an original thought, just worn clichés, which are driven into parties’ heads like nails into a new roof. The approach often works—probably because parties and counsel compete with mediator for the same worn clichés.


Conflict mediators are uninvolved third parties who assist individuals or groups in conflict with each other to resolve disputes. Conflict mediation is used to resolve disputes in a wide variety of circumstances from disagreements between landlords and tenants to multi-million-dollar lawsuits, and sometimes even to ease international tensions that could otherwise lead to war. Conflict mediators are employed by law offices, corporations, political organizations and the government, or may form their own private mediation practices. While requirements for aspiring mediators may vary, most hold at least a bachelor’s degree and have completed some form of mediation-specific training.


  1. Afzalur Rahim (31 October 2010). Managing Conflict in Organizations. Transaction Publishers. p. 15. ISBN978-1-4128-1456-0. Retrieved 11 October 2012.


  1. Afzalur Rahim (31 October 2010). Managing Conflict in Organizations. Transaction Publishers. p. 16. ISBN978-1-4128-1456-0. Retrieved 11 October 2012.


Robert A. Baron (1 July 1990). “Conflict in Organizations”. In Kevin R. Murphy; Frank E. Saal. Psychology in Organizations: integrating Science and Practice. Psychology Press. pp. 197–216. ISBN 978-0-8058-0477-5. Retrieved 11 October 2012.


Michael Nicholson (27 March 1992). Rationality and the Analysis of International Conflict. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-521-39810-7. Retrieved 11 October 2012.


Michael Nicholson (27 March 1992). Rationality and the Analysis of International Conflict. Cambridge University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-521-39810-7. Retrieved 11 October 2012.

  1. Afzalur Rahim (31 October 2010). Managing Conflict in Organizations. Transaction Publishers. p. 17. ISBN978-1-4128-1456-0. Retrieved 11 October 2012.


Michael Nicholson (27 March 1992). Rationality and the Analysis of International Conflict. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-39810-7. Retrieved 11 October 2012.



Conflict analysis is an initial stage of conflict resolution in which parties seek to gain a deeper understanding of the dynamics in their relationship. For instance, in Darfur, conflict analysis of the Fur-Arab War in 1987 noted that:

‘From time immemorial, seasonal fluctuations in water and grazing land had led to conflict over natural resources in Darfur’.

When there is a disagreement in the methods used to achieve an end result, and there is a disparity between a unified vision and direction, opposing sides are subject to conflict. If these sides consistently misinterpret one another, a problematic situation can spiral out of control rapidly. Conflicts are not always linear in nature. Members of multiple organizational levels with varying statuses can all partake in conflict. When undergoing analysis, it is integral to understand the reasons that spark such disagreement to effectively reach its resolution. Many schools, such as Eastern Mennonite University’s Center for Justice and Peacebuilding, George Mason University, Nova Southeastern University, University of the Rockies, and Wayne State University have programs related to conflict analysis and resolution. There are also various subsets of conflict analysis such as environmental conflict analysis, which deal with specific types of disputes.[4] In certain occasions a conflict atlas is used to show graphically the analysis of the conflict. The prefixes macro- and micro- are used in conjunctions with conflicts to denote the scale of the conflict, macro referring to a larger scale conflict and micro referring to a conflicting situation on a smaller scale. Conflicts can arise at different levels, from intrapersonal to interpersonal issues as well as between two individuals or between two countries as a whole. The outcome dictates how we refer to a given conflict. When a result is the change in the status quo, that conflict is now referred to as a revolution.

Conflict analysis is the systematic study of the profile, causes, actors, and dynamics of conflict. It helps development, humanitarian and peacebuilding organisations to gain a better understanding of the context in which they work and their role in that context.

Conflict analysis is not an “objective” art. It is influenced by different world-views. The Harvard Approach, the Human Needs Theory and the Conflict Transformation approach are frequently used:

  1. The Harvard Approach emphases the difference between positions (what people say they want) and interests (why people want what they say they want). It argues that conflicts can be resolved when actors focus on interests instead of positions, and when they develop jointly accepted criteria to deal with these differences.
  2. The Human Needs Theory argues that conflicts are caused by basic “universal” human needs that are not satisfied. The needs should to be analyzed, communicated and satisfied for the conflict to be resolved.
  3. The Conflict Transformation approach sees conflicts as destructive or constructive interactions, depending on how conflicts are dealt with or “transformed”. Conflicts are viewed as an interaction of energies. Emphasis is given on the different perceptions, and the social and cultural context in which reality is constructed. Constructive conflict transformation seeks to empower actors and support recognition between them.-



Like we noted earlier, Conflict analysis is the systematic study of the profile, causes, actors, and dynamics of conflict It helps development, humanitarian and peacebuilding organisations to gain a better understanding of the context in which they work and their role in that context. Conflict analysis can be carried out at various levels (eg local, regional, national, etc) and seeks to establish the

linkages between these levels (see Fig 1). Identifying the appropriate focus for the conflict analysis is crucial: the issues and dynamics at the national level may be different from those at the grassroots. But while linking the level of conflict analysis (eg community, district, region or national) with the level of intervention (eg project, sector,

policy), it is also important to establish systematic linkages with other interrelated levels of conflict dynamics. These linkages are important, as all of these different levels impact on each other.


Given the difficulties of obtaining reliable information for undertaking conflict analysis, it is often useful to use a mix of data gathering methods (“triangulation”) – for example a desk study, quantitative surveys, expert interviews, stakeholder consultations, and feedback workshops to present and discuss conclusions.

The aim of triangulation is to verify each piece of information with at least two corroborative or complementary sources, to obtain data that eventually “matches up” and clarifies differing perspectives.

Conflict analysis requires a great deal of care and sensitivity due to the highly political nature of the information gathered. A participatory process can become transformative by helping participants to define their own conflict – an important step towards addressing it. Because

conflict analysis touches on sensitive issues such as power, ownership, and neutrality, however, it can also provoke conflict by bringing sensitive issues to the fore.

For this reason, the conflict analysis itself needs to be carried out in a conflict sensitive manner. It is thus good practice to get stakeholders on board early on and avoid antagonising potential spoilers.

In particular, when undertaking the conflict analysis, it is important to show respect for people’s ownership and feelings, to include a wide range of actors and perspectives, to be transparent about the goals of the process and to link the analysis to demonstrable action. In many contexts, it is fundamental to ensure that staff, partners and communities are not at risk through the

analysis process, for example as a result of insensitive questions being asked in public or researchers being sent to insecure areas. In such situations, the commitment to transparency may need to be restricted by the need to ensure security for some sensitive elements of the analysis.


This section synthesises the key elements of conflict analysis as they emerge from the various conflict analysis tools documented in Annex 1. Looking at each of these elements will help to develop a comprehensive picture of the context in which you operate. Depending on your specific interest, however, you may want to emphasise particular aspects of key importance. For example, if the

emphasis is on the identification of project partners and beneficiaries, a good understanding of conflict actors and how potential partners and beneficiaries relate to them will be the primary requirement. (See Box 2 above).

Generally, “good enough” thinking is required. This means accepting that the analysis can never be exhaustive, nor provides absolute certainty. Conflict dynamics are simply too complex and volatile for any single conflict analysis process to do them justice. Nevertheless, you should trust your findings, even though some aspects may remain unclear. Do not be discouraged; some analysis, no matter how imperfect, is better than no analysis at all.




The various  ways of understanding conflict analysis are in numerous stages and we have literally identified some. We earlier noted that Conflict analysis is the systematic study of the profile, causes, actors, and dynamics of conflict (see Section 2). It helps development, humanitarian and peace building organisations to gain a better understanding of the context in which they work and their role in that context Conflict analysis is the systematic study of the profile, causes, actors, and dynamics of conflict (see Section 2). It helps development, humanitarian and peacebuilding organisations to gain a better understanding of the context in which they work and their role in that contex




Pruitt, edited by Dennis J.D. Sandole … [et al.] ; foreword by Dean G. (2009). Handbook of conflict analysis and resolution (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 339. ISBN 0203893166.


Environmental Conflict Analysis


Schellenberg, James A. (1996). Conflict resolution : theory, research, and practice. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 10. ISBN 0791431029.


Bercovitch, Jacob; Jackson, Richard (1997). International conflict : a chronological encyclopedia of conflicts and their management 1945-1995. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly. p. 1. ISBN 156802195X.


Kriesberg, Louis (1998). Constructive conflicts : from escalation to resolution. Lanham, MD [u.a.]: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 20. ISBN 9780847688913.


Pruitt, edited by Dennis J.D. Sandole … [et al.] ; foreword by Dean G. (2009). Handbook of conflict analysis and resolution (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-203-89316-6.





The Yoruba nation of nearly three hundred ethnic groups is one of the three largest in Nigeria, with a population of well over 40 million indigenes. The populace is spread over 10 of the 36 states in Nigeria: Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo, Ekiti (Southwest); Delta, Edo (South); Kwara and Kogi (Middle-belt). Yorubas can also be found in Benin Republic, Brazil, Cuba, and Trinidad and Tobago. The ethnic group is renowned for its bravery and entrepreneurship, and in contemporary Nigeria for its educational achievements and advancement. Oduduwa, who is believed to have migrated southward from ancient Egypt about a thousand years ago, is often referred to as the Yoruba’s progenitor. The impetus for various intra-tribal conflagrations which swept through the entire Yorubaland between 1817 and 1893 was fundamentally the control of trade routes within the region. The massive Yoruba empire of Oyo was renowned as an extraordinary exporter of slaves in the eighteenth century, and also as the seat of government for millions of citizens. The empire was to collapse shortly before the invasion of the Fulani Jihadists during a period of civil strife in the years following 1817. By the mid–1830s the ensuing uprisings had engulfed the entire Yorubaland.



By the middle of the 19th century, Oyo empire had disintegrated and on its ruins rose the successor states of Ibadan, Abeokuta, Ijaye, Ogbomosho, Egba, Ijebu, Egbado, Ekiti and New Oyo. Ilorin, though made up of Yoruba people, was now a Fulani Kingdom or emirate. The first three- Ibadan, Abeokuta and Ijaye were the leading Yoruba states and their rivalry for supremacy forms one of the main topics of Yoruba history in the 19th century.


The collapse of the Oyo empire in the 19th century was brought about by several factors – some internal and other external. One of the internal factors was an inherent weakness arising from the size and nature of the empire.

Like the Sudanese empires of Mali, Songhai and Kanem-Bornu, the Oyo empire was quite extensive and this made central control of the provinces difficult. One reason for this was that Oyo the capital was situated on the northern fringes of the empire and this made it difficult for her to control effectively the provinces most which lay to the south of the empire. And because of the political instability and unrest resulting from the constitutional breakdown, the central government could no longer regain effective control of the provinces.

The decline and collapse of Oyo was brought about not only by political and military impotence but also by economic weakness. The fact was that the economic basis of Oyo itself had been undermined by the shift in the economic axis of the empire from the north to the coastal south.


Though the Oyo empire finally collapsed in the first half of the 19th century, we should not fail to recognize the significant achievements of this great Negro forest state.

In the first place, Oyo rose from a small and insignificant Yoruba town on the northern borders of Yorubaland to a great empire. By the middle of the 18th century, this empire stretched from Benin in the east to the western frontiers of Togo in the west and from Nupe in the north to the mangrove swamps to the south. It was the largest of the forest states of west Africa.

The empire achieved a high degree of efficient imperial administration based upon well-fashioned political institutions. With the collapse of the empire, these institutions were inherited as a legacy by the Yoruba successor states.

Secondly, the Oyo empire achieved a high standard of military efficiency. She owed her rise to a great empire, no doubt, to her well-organized army which was her effective instrument for expansion and suppression of internal revolts.

Thirdly, the Oyo empire achieved a sound economy based on very productive agriculture, trade with the Sudan, lucrative industries and wealth from taxes and tribute. This sound economy enabled the Alafins to maintain the elaborate imperial administration and also to maintain and equip its large army.

Finally, it should not be forgotten that the Oyo empire achieved remarkable longevity, having lasted from the 15th century to the 19th century. It was, with the exception of the Bornu empire, the most long-lived of the kingdoms of West Africa.


The final breakdown of the Oyo empire following the Fulani conquest of Ilorin. In 1817 resulted in a long period of civil wars in Yorubaland. These wars which lasted from 1821 to about 1893 are too complex to be easily understood.

Causes of the Wars

One of the political causes of the wars was the collapse of the central authority and army of Oyo following the successful revolt of Afonja the Kakanfo in 1817. The consequent establishment of an independent state of Ilorin by him marked the beginning of the civil wars in Yorubaland in the 19th century.

As the strong controlling and uniting hand of the central authority was no more, Yorubaland was thrown into confusion and strife as the Obas or provincial governors following the example of Afonja began to carve out kingdoms for themselves and the traditional hostilities between the various town were let loose.

The Fulani menace on Yorubaland was another important cause of the civil wars. The Fulani pressure on the northern Yoruba states with the consequent conquest of Old Oyo in 1837 generated a southward population movement which accentuated the civil wars as refugees fleeing south from the Fulani onslaught sought new settlements but were resisted by the resident inhabitants.

The Fulani contributed to the civil wars not only by warring on the northern Yoruba states, but also by the skill with which they set one king against another in order to increase the area under their control. The state of civil strife in Yorubaland was aggravated by the struggle for supremacy among the provincial kings or Obas to the south. They seized the opportunity of the confused situation to expand their states at the expense of each other.

The Owu war (1821-25) is a typical example. The Ijebu allied with Ife to destroy Own town whose inhabitants fled into Egba territory. Then the Ijebu in alliance with Ife and Oyo destroyed several Egba towns. It was refugees from these wars that founded Ibadan in 1829 and Abeokuta in 1830.

These two towns soon developed into powerful city-states and joined in the struggle for supremacy. Some of the wars were caused by disputes over constitutional issues. The Ibadan-Ijaye war (1860-1864) was a typical example.

Coastal trade at this time was very important for the export of slaves and for the import of firearms and salt. Inland states like Ibadan, Ogbomosho, New Oyo and Osogbo wanted direct access to the coast. But the Egba and Ijebu insisted on controlling the trade routes and collecting tolls from inland traders and often closed the routes to effect payment of tolls. The result was the long struggle between Abeokuta and Ibadan for Abeokuta lay on Ibadan’s trade route to Lagos.

End of the Civil wars

The long wars in the interior were no doubt affecting trade in Lagos adversely. In 1861, Lagos had become a British colony and the British Governor there depended on customs duties from trade to maintain the Lagos administration.

In 1892, a punitive expedition was sent against Ijebu. As Crowder put it, “The speedy defeat of The Ijebu was the most significant step in the British occupation of Yorubaland”. In 1893, Abeokuta entered into a treaty with the British Governor Gilbert Carter. She agreed to submit all disputes between the Egba and The British to the Governor’s arbitration, allow free trade and abolish human sacrifice provided her independence was guaranteed.

These treaties in effect made Yorubaland a British protectorate and undermined the sovereignty of the Alafin. However, they restored peace to Yorubaland and with it legitimate trade prospered.

Results Of the Civil Wars

The Yoruba civil wars which lasted for over seventy years (1821-1893) no doubt had important consequences for Yorubaland in particular and West Africa in general. One of the results for Yorubaland was the consequent destruction of Old Oyo by the Fulani in 1837 and the absorption of metropolitan Oyo into the Fulani emirate of Ilorin.

Today nothing remains of that former great metropolis of Yorubaland as the Alafin Atiba was forced to move a hundred miles south to Ago Oja to found the present site of New Oyo. The civil wars were partly responsible for the fate of Old Oyo, for they made it impossible for the Yoruba chiefs to rally round the Alafin to defend the metropolis. Had they done so, they might perhaps have halted the southward march of the Fulani and saved Old Oyo for Yorubaland.

The civil wars not only completed the break up of the Oyo empire into a large number of rival states but also led to the foundation of a number of new towns and states.


Ijbu-the 19th Century Power in Yorubaland.

Ijẹbu Yoruba live in the thick-forest/mangrove belt–south of Ọyọ Empire. A highly urbanized and entrepreneurial group- whose economic dexterity is a common knowledge. There are several claims on the origin of Ijẹbu nation, the most popular of these stories is the Ọbanta (the king outside)version, the Ifẹ man; other historical versions are the “Biblical Jebusites” the Waddai story, and the Kingdom of Owodaiye of Ethiopia. Each version of these stories has been intellectually presented to the public- for instance, the oral historians believed that Ijebu migrated to their present abode from Waddai, in Sudan, several millennia ago; even before King Solomon of Israel and the “famous Makida” the Queen of Sheba.

Protagonists have cited cultural and historical similarities between the Ijebus, the Nubians and the Southern Sudan/Ethiopia- in names resemblance, such as (Saba/Shaba, Esiwu, Meleki/Menelik); tribal marks, and household items with socio-political significance. Obanta version as presented by Samuel Johnson in his book “History of the Yorubas” is different totally from the traditional/oral historians’ presentation.

However, these three fundamental and incontrovertible issues make Ijebu history very interesting:

One, Ijebu people have been part of Yoruba history for centuries,
Two, Ijebu people had undergone several transformational stages over the centuries- that could have affected their history.
Three, Ijebu like other sub-groups within Yoruba nation- has contributed significantly to the greatness of Yoruba- through culture, education, Christianity, nationalism, and above all, its unequal entrepreneur spirit.

There are several Ijebu towns, communities and village today; Ijẹbu-Ode is the political/cultural headquarters of all Ijẹbu, and the paramount ruler in Ijẹbuland is Awujalẹ. Awujale is produced by any of these four ruling houses: Tunwase, Fidipote, Ogbagba and Gbelegbuwa.

After the king there are three civil authorities in Ijebu, these are:

The Osugbo or Ogboni,

The Ipampa, and

the Lamurin.

These three bodies were so powerful, and should they enact laws, no human (even the king) could repeal or annul them. By tradition, Oba should be a member of Osugbo.

Ijebu land has a unique political system within Yoruba nation; there are over two hundred Ijebu towns, villages and communities (called “Egure”) with individual obas and baales, and their individual socio-cultural/political structures; yet, these communities are still part of a larger Ijebu kingdom under Awujale. Ijebu-Ode is the capital of Ijebu land, where Awujale lives. Olisa is the traditional head of Ijebu-Ode.

Agẹmọ is a major traditional festival, there are sixteen Agẹmọ in all Ijẹbu land, and in every July, these Agẹmọ masquerades meet at Ijẹbu-Ode, before moving to Imodi-Mosan where the Agẹmọ festival holds. Other Ijẹbu towns are Ijẹbu-Igbo, Ijebu-Ife, Agọ-Iwoye, Ọsọsa, Ikenne etc.

Ijẹbu played a major role in the history of Yoruba during the 19th century, because of its geographical location. It became trade routes for Yoruba towns and villages to do business with Europeans who stayed and lived in Lagos. Unlike other Yoruba towns and kingdoms, Ijẹbu did not have strong military; rather it relied on “mercenaries”.



The most striking of the economic development of Yourbaland in the 19th century is the shift in the direction of its trade from north to south. Before the 19th century, the greater bulk of the trade of the Oyo empire went to The north.  This trade consisted of the import of such commodities as horses, rocksalt, potash, shea butter, wool and milk and the export of kola nuts and livestock. Trade with the south was only growing and consisted mainly of the export of slaves.

But the conquest and occupation of Nupe and northern Yorubaland by the Fulani at the beginning of the 19th century resulted in the dislocation of the traditional trade with the north.

Increasing attention was therefore given to the trade with the coast, and the Yoruba civil wars provided a steady supply of slaves sold in exchange for firearms mainly and a few other European goods.

In spite of the civil wars however, a good deal of economic activity went on in Yorubaland. Farming continued to some extent, and it is interesting to note that Alafin Atiba the founder of New Oyo encouraged the growing of yams and kola nuts.

In Abeokuta, the missionaries encouraged agriculture especially the growing of cotton and oil palm. Domestic slaves were now increasingly diverted to the farms to cultivate these crops and prepare them for export.

Palm oil export was thus becoming important. In 1856, 15,000 tons of palm oil was exported from Egbaland alone. Lagos was the chief port of Yorubaland.

There were five routes from Lagos to the interior but the three most important were the Egba route (Lagos via Abeokuta to Ibadan); the Remo route (Lagos via Ikorodu to Ibadan) and the Ijebu Ode route (Lagos via Ijebu Ode to Ibadan). These routes were controlled by the Egbas, the Ijebus and the Ijeshas who were the middlemen between Ibadan the chief exporter of slaves in the interior and the European and Lagos traders on the coast.

These middlemen often fell out with Ibadan which wanted direct trade with the coast for the sale of their slaves and especially for the import of firearms. The struggle over the control of the routes became the most fertile cause of the civil wars throughout the century.

Now, after the British occupation of Lagos in 1861, it became clear that the prosperity of Lagos and growth of British commerce depended on the free flow of trade to and from the interior, and that peace in Yorubaland was necessary for this purpose.

This made British intervention in Yoruba politics necessary in order to create peaceful conditions for free trade with the interior. British treaties and occupation of some Yoruba towns mentioned above achieved this objective.



Yorubaland is the cultural region of the Yoruba people in West Africa. It spans the modern day countries of Nigeria, Togo and Benin, and covers a total land area of 142,114 km² or about the same size as the combined land areas of Greece and Montenegro, of which 106,016 km², representing about 74.6% within Nigeria, 18.9% in Benin, and the remaining 6.5% in Togo. The geocultural space contains an estimated 55 million people; the overwhelming majority of them are ethnic Yorubas. About 5.3 million people are estimated to practice Yoruba religion worldwide with the largest numbers found in Nigeria




Defence Language Institute, Curriculum Development Division: Yoruba Culture Orientation, 2008

Article: Oduduwa, The Ancestor Of The Crowned Yoruba Kings Archived February 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.

William R. Bascom:The Yoruba of Southwestern Nigeria, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1969. page 42. ISBN 0-03-081249-6

Gat, Azar. “War in human civilization” Oxford University Press, 2006, pg 275.

Ishokan Yoruba Magazine, Volume III No. I, Page 7, 1996/1997

Betting Secrets for Football Games and How to Win Most Prediction soccer Games- check here now

Am writing this online betting secret for all those who are interested in winning online soccer games be it online or offline. I know this will come as a surprised to many but am not here to deceive you a I have been in the game of betting on soccer since September 1st, 2011 and with various leagues seasons come and gone, I have known and master the act. Some of you may say their is no such thing as luck in betting game but my dear there is. It will take your dedication, purposefulness and discipline to master the act.

The secret to wining games online is simple if you follow what I have detail down for you here but the truth is that you have to be dedicated and see that only the very best of games and leagues you place bets from. I have streamline the number of leagues from where you can get the best possible returns for your bets and those leagues includes;

-The English lower and amateur leagues

-The Scottish leagues except it premiership

-The France Ligue 2 and France national

-The Spanish segunda

-The Holland second division league

-The Wales leagues

-The Northern Island League

From the above you can see that these leagues I have mention above all have no much attention and their pattern of games can be read in few games if you know how to study and follow them. I have followed each that I feel I know their back room staff. I remember it was the French national and ligue that I made history with nairabet when I won N321, 456 with N50 on March 28, 2014. The Spanish segunda gave me N149, 000 with just N100 on may 30th, 2014. You can check all this facts online when you Google Valentine Uwakwe betwins for 2014’.

Well the facts are their for you to see and all this have been won using my nairabet online account. Am not promoting them but I feel they are sincere and open in their payment system. I want you to pay attention to the feel tips I have outline down for you here as you read as it will be of help while expecting the the list of games to win includes;

Handicap 2 goals ahead

This is one of the games I used to double my bet games whenever I won large sums from the betting company. It’s simply a game where you give the best side or teams 2 goals ahead. The odds here are low as 1.04 or 1.03. But with a minimum of 5 or 6 games, it can give a total odd of 2.5. So taking into consideration I start my bet from N8, 000 until I won N200, 000. You will say how but, this is how I did it and turn my nairabet account to a daily withdrawal bank. The first game saw me use N8, 000 with an odd of 2.5 to win N20, 000. Then I withdrew 10k and use the remaining 10k to place another bet again and won 25,000. It continues until I won a total of N200, 000. All this was hard work and years of being in the game.

My Advice on this Type of Bet is to play this game with a sum above N5, 000. And it can be found in Egyptian, Morocco, Brazilian and the French leagues.

Over 0.5 goals in first half

This has been the game am using to get week end money at hand as I do play it offline and collect my winning by Sundays after for my Sunday grooves and relaxation. It means any team scoring just a goal within the first 45 minutes of play. With just 5 games you get a odd of 4.2 or 5.2. Let your game not exceed 4 or worst 5 games. I have been going for even 4 games of late. It can be found in the English lower leagues, and Scottish leagues.

Over 0.5 goals in second half

This game is similar to the above but just that the number of games here will have to be much as the odd is smaller as you will have to increase your stake in the bet. You will need to make it as from 7 or 10 games to be sure of a good odd. It can be found in the English lower leagues only.

2nd half most scoring half

Both teams to score

Over 1.5 goals in full time

Full time draws

Straight chance games

To get the full betting manual it’s N3, 000. I will send you wining games for two weeks which can make you gain back the amount you used in buying the manual and win for yourself. You will need to send me your email address to send the manual to you and you must give me a functional number to always send games to you, you must play as instructed. This is not a scam but a sure thing others have been doing. My contact on facebook is there to see.

Valentine uwakwe,






1.1       BACKGROUND

Deregulation has been a blessing to all Nigerians because it makes private investors to establish their own television station in Nigeria. Deregulation in the broadcast media of television could be said to begin in 1992 when Nigeria Broadcasting Commission (NBC) was set up.    This brought an end to government (State and Federal) Monopoly. Since then, Nigerian Broadcasting Commission gave license to many private radio and television stations.  Oketunmbi, E. (2006 & 2007)

The television broadcasting, one could say it is properly deregulated with the Nigeria Broadcasting Commission performing some roles. There is freedom of entering for anybody willing to participate in the industry. One important aspect is that of deregulation in television broadcasting.

Deregulation as a notion is borrowed from the capitalist west. It is a system of free trade, because activity from rules and controls of government selling off her shares to major companies and control private participation. Oketunmbi, E. (2006 & 2007)


Over the years, Nigerian television broadcasting industry was in the hand of government control. However, upon deregulation of television broadcast in Nigeria, media have risen so far.

Local television stations would rather in time and money, procuring Mexicans soap Operas. This project work will examine the statutory regulatory and institutional provision as contained in the NBC Act; the National Broadcasting Commission could perform in line with the constitution respectively. It could be observed that constitutional freedoms are not absolutely and Nigeria broadcast regu1ation, as they currently provide justification for the NBC action.


The study examined if various private broadcast media has reduced government media monopoly. It also x-ray if the arrival of private broadcasting media is beneficial to the public or not. The research as well highlighted some of the challenges facing the private media today and the public perception of government media.


  1. To examine Impact of the emergency and growth of private broadcasting media on broadcasting station in Nigeria.
  2. To study whether private broadcasting station serve as watchdog on government activities in Nigeria.

iii.        To know the extent which privatization and deregulation has brought an end to government monopoly of broadcasting media.


In what ways is the emergency and growth of private broadcasting media improved broadcasting station in Nigeria?

How have private broadcasting stations serve as watchdog on government activities in Nigeria?

In what ways can privatization and deregulation bring an end to government monopoly in broadcasting media?


The research as being narrowed down to AIT, Lagos and Splash F.M, Ibadan. Since it is not only difficult but also impossible to study the impact of privatization and use all broadcasting station in all the 36 state of the federation, looking at to the time available for this work and other necessary logistics such as fund.


The work is significance because it benefits the general public to know the reason and benefit of privatization of broadcasting media.

Government: It enables the government through NBC/BON to sanitize and regulate multitude of broadcasting stations.

Government Media House: Broadcast media owned by government will see the need to repackage their programmes and other activities as there are competition for both audience and advert between private broadcast media and government media.

Private Media House: Broadcast media owned by private individuals will realize the need to come up with new innovative and attention catching programme and approach to gain the audience of the existing government media and ensure their independent.

Student Journalists: Students of mass communication is expected to benefit from the work by knowing their basic responsibility and opportunity available for them in both public and government media

Students as a Whole: It forms part of the academic work that can serve as reference materials in all related field.


Time: There is a limited time in carrying out this work.

Material: A relevant material on this work is relatively scarce as many previous researchers do not focus much attention on privatization of media.

Finance: At the time of carrying out this research work there was no enough money to explore internet and travel as many as possible to the study area.


Impact: This means effect, role or functions of something on something or somebody.

Deregulation/privatization: Is the act of allowing private investors into broadcasting industry to set up either radio or television station.

Broadcast media: These are electronic media of communication to larger and wider audience receiving the signal simultaneously.

NBC: National Broadcasting Commission

Osun State: This is one of the 36 states of the federation located in southwest geopolitical zone. It is a Yoruba main state which was founded in August 1991.


Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) Massive Job Recruitment 2017-2018

The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) has been implementing the international Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)- assisted Value Chain Development Programme since 2014 in six (6) participating States of Anambra, Benue, Ebonyi, Niger, Ogun and Taraba and in five (5) Local Government Areas each in all the States. In keeping with the provisions of the financing agreement between IFAD and Federal Ministry of Finance, the FMARD is implementation the programme through the national programme management unit.

Based on the progressive increase in workload of Staff and the need to further improve on Programme implementation, part of the credit will be applied to engage the services of an additional officer to enhance technical assistance at the state level.

Conditions of Service

  • Successful candidates will be engaged for a period of one year ONLY
  • Candidates engagement is subject to renewal, which will be based on satisfactory performance upon evaluation and availability of funds.

Application Closing Date
14th December, 2017.

Method of Application
Interested and qualified candidates should submit their Applications accompanied with detailed Curriculum Vitae and copies of credentials to:
FGN/IFAD-Value Chain Development Programme (VCDP) National Office,
No. 4 Batna Close,
Off Agadez Crescent,
Off Aminu Kano Crescent,
Wuse 2,


  • Applicants should please indicate the position they are applying for at the top right hand corner of the envelope.
  • The position is open to qualified persons including from the serving public Officers


Applications are therefore invited from suitably qualified candidates for the following positions below:

1.) Market Development Officer – Taraba

2.) Market Development Officer – Ogun

3.) Market Development Officer – Niger

4.) Market Development Officer – Ebonyi

5.) Senior Agricultural Officer – Anambra

6.) Senior Agricultural Officer – Benue

7.) Market Development Officer – Benue

8.) Senior Agricultural Officer – Ebonyi

9.) Senior Agricultural Officer – Niger

10.) Market Development Officer – Anambra

11.) Senior Agricultural Officer – Ogun

12.) Senior Agricultural Officer – Taraba

13.) Rural Infrastructure Engineer – Taraba

14.) Rural Infrastructure Engineer – Ogun

15.) Rural Infrastructure Engineer – Niger

16.) Rural Infrastructure Engineer – Ebonyi

17.) Rural Infrastructure Engineer – Benue

18.) Rural Infrastructure Engineer – Anambra

19.) Planning Officer – Anambra

20.) Planning Officer – Taraba

21.) Planning Officer – Ogun

22.) Planning Officer – Niger

23.) Planning Officer – Ebonyi

24.) Planning Officer – Benue

25.) Rural Finance Officer – Niger

26.) Rural Finance Officer – Ogun

27.) Rural Finance Officer – Taraba

28.) Rural Finance Officer – Anambra

29.) Rural Finance Officer – Benue

30.) Rural Finance Officer- Ebonyi

31.) Management Information System Officer (MIS) – Taraba

32.) Management Information System Officer (MIS) – Ogun

33.) Management Information System Officer (MIS) – Niger

34.) Management Information System Officer (MIS) – Ebonyi

35.) Management Information System Officer (MIS) – Benue

36.) Management Information System Officer (MIS) – Anambra

37.) Assistant Accountant – Anambra

38.) Assistant Accountant – Benue

39.) Assistant Accountant – Ebonyi

40.) Assistant Accountant – Niger

41.) Assistant Accountant – Ogun

42.) Assistant Accountant – Taraba

43.) Accountant – Taraba

44.) Accountant – Ogun

45.) Accountant – Niger

46.) Accountant – Ebonyi

47.) Accountant – Benue

48.) Accountant – Anambra

49.) Procurement Assistant – Anambra

50.) Procurement Assistant – Benue

51.) Procurement Assistant – Ebonyi

52.) Procurement Assistant – Niger

53.) Procurement Assistant – Ogun

54.) Procurement Assistant – Taraba



The 5 Dimensions of Knowledge

Knowledge is something that we all possess in varying amounts on a wide range of subjects. For some reason, there is a tendency to view knowledge in a rather linear way. As if all knowledge should be considered in the same light.

I think this is a shortsighted approach that can prevent us from properly prioritizing how we learn. If we waste our time learning about things that don’t really matter, we won’t have time to take in knowledge that has real value in our life.

Filling the desire

Humans have an insatiable desire to learn. It’s a lifelong quest that begins at infancy and follows us to the grave. Learning makes life interesting, exhilarating, and even challenging. We were born to learn and we possess a seemingly limitless capacity and curiosity for knowledge.

The biggest limitation to learning does not stem from our ability to take in knowledge. It stems from having only a limited amount of time available for learning. Our lifespan is only so long, and it determines our window of opportunity for taking in knowledge.

All Knowledge is not created equal

Having a limited window of opportunity suggests that it would be appropriate to set some priorities. We could talk about priorities from the standpoint of which subjects are most important, but I think that is more of an individual choice.

Instead, let’s take a more dimensional approach. This is a concept that I’ve been working on for a few months. It has to do with the relevance of certain categories of knowledge as regards there actual value in our life. I have come up with five different types of knowledge that we are exposed to. I call them…

The 5 Dimensions of Knowledge.

To begin with, here’s a list of all five.

1) What we actually know.
2) What we think we know.
3) What we would like to know.
4) What we don’t need to know.
5) What we used to know.

Let’s work our way down the list so we can have a closer look at each one. As we do, I invite you to inventory your own knowledge base as a reference.

1) What we actually know.  Because this category is influenced by our perception, it is difficult, or impossible, to be completely objective here. With that in mind, let’s divide this one into 2 subcategories.

  1. Truths that are absolute for everyone. – This includes things like gravity and other natural forces that are basically undeniable. We all have knowledge of thousands of facts that fit into this category. They form a solid foundation for additional learning. The scientifically sound and universally accepted facts in this category are unshakable. For example, new research will never disprove gravity. It may increase our understanding of it, but gravity is here to stay.
  2. Things that are true for us right now. – These are truths that are subject to change. For example, it’s a fact that I am alive right now. That could change in the blink of an eye; I hope it doesn’t but it could. This subcategory requires periodic evaluation to stay up to date.

2) What we think we know.  This category reaches its peak around age eighteen, and then it begins to shrink. That’s because lack of real knowledge can create the illusion of knowledge. This happens when awareness of the vast unknown has not yet developed. Knowledge in this category can be backed by impressive research data and intelligent sounding speculation. Just remember, the speculation of many experts is still nothing more than an educated guess. It can go either way.

3) What we would like to know.  This is a very important category because it helps determine the direction of our ongoing education. We all have a mental list of things we want to learn more about. For me the list is huge. The bigger your list is, the greater the need for some organization and a systematic approach.

We can only learn so much during any given period of time. If you try to learn 10 topics at once, your rate of learning for each topic will be fairly slow. If you concentrate on just one subject at a time, your learning rate will increase dramatically.

By prioritizing the topics we want to learn more about, and focusing on only a few at a time, we will make faster progress. This will also allow us time to assimilate the new knowledge more completely.

4) What we don’t need to know.  This is a rapidly increasing category. Information overload gets in the way of learning because it spreads our attention so thin that we can’t focus enough to really learn anything. The human mind is not built for multitasking. It may seem like the way to accomplish more, but beyond walking and chewing gum at the same time, multitasking is a myth.

With learning, focus is the name of the game. Any attempt to divide our attention only compromises our ability to focus. By definition focus means to fix our attention on a single thing. To do that our mind must filter out anything that represents a distraction. Information overload and noise pollution are very distracting to the learning process.

5) What we used to know. We forget things, but much of it is just the way our mind filters and prioritizes information. Unused data keeps getting shuffled further back in our mental file cabinet. It’s never really gone, we just have a reduced degree of immediate access to it as time goes by.

This doesn’t mean that we are losing it, even though it may feel that way. Prioritizing is a built in program for keeping pertinent information close at hand and easily accessible. This process assures that we are always the most updated and upgraded version of ourselves. Don’t worry about what you used to know, that was then and this is now.




Human resource (or simply HR) is a function in organizations designed to maximize employee performance in service of their employer’s strategic objectives.[1] HR is primarily concerned with how people are managed within organizations, focusing on policies and systems.[2] HR departments and units in organizations are typically responsible for a number of activities, including employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems).[3] HR is also concerned with industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with regulations arising from collective bargaining and governmental laws.[4]

In our part of the world, HR in the private sector has the Labor Code as its basic premise and legal reference. In the public or government sector, there is a Civil Service Code that enunciates guidelines relative to government workers.

Although the Labor Code and the Civil Service Code are quite similar in spirit, there are differences that one can easily notice, like the requiremetns for employment such as “civil service eligibility”.

But if you refer to the ILO (International Labor Organization) provisions, you will notice that both the Labor Code and the Civil Service Code has taken them into very serious considerations. Maybe this is due to the fact that our country is a member and signatory to the ILO.



Human Resources Development (HRD) is a process which facilitates acquisition of skills and development of competencies of individuals for better performance in their present and future jobs. HRD is now being considered as the key to greater productivity and enhanced economic growth.
Recent trends like rapid scientific and technological advancements, ever-expanding computerisation and information technology, policies of liberalisation and globalisation of economy etc. have drastically transformed the sphere of activity of business organisations and corporate houses the world over. Organisations in order to be effective and growth-oriented, must be responsive to these forces of change and challenges. HRD is getting increasingly important for organisations to develop a “competitive advantage” for their success and survival in the context of global changes.




  Johnason, P. (2009). HRM in changing organizational contexts. In D. G. Collings & G. Wood (Eds.), Human resource management: A critical approach (pp. 19-37). London: Routledge.

  Collings, D. G., & Wood, G. (2009). Human resource management: A critical approach. In D. G. Collings & G. Wood (Eds.), Human resource management: A critical approach (pp. 1-16). London: Routledge.

  Paauwe, J., & Boon, C. (2009). Strategic HRM: A critical review. In D. G. Collings & G. Wood (Eds.), Human resource management: A critical approach (pp. 38-54). London: Routledge.

  Klerck, G. (2009). Industrial relations and human resource management. In D. G. Collings & G. Wood (Eds.), Human resource management: A critical approach (pp. 238-259). London: Routledge.

  “Human Resource Management Strategy”. ADP Research Institute. Retrieved 2011.

  Merkle, Judith A. Management and Ideology. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03737-5.

  Mayo, Elton (1945). “Hawthorne and the Western Electric Company”. Harvard Business School. Retrieved 28 December 2011.

  “About CIPD”. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Retrieved 22 December 2011.

  “About Cornell ILR”. Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations. Retrieved 2010-01-29.

  “About SHRM”. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved 22 December 2011.