Track and field is a sport comprising various competitive athletic contests based on running, jumping, and throwing. The name of the sport derives from the competition venue: a stadium with an oval running track around a grass field. The throwing and jumping events generally take place in the central enclosed area.
Track and field falls under the umbrella sport of athletics, which also includes road running, cross country running, and race walking. The two most prestigious international track and field competitions are held under the banner of athletics: the athletics competition at the Olympic Games and the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for track and field.
Track and field events are generally individual sports with athletes challenging each other to decide a single victor. The racing events are won by the athlete with the fastest time, while the jumping and throwing events are won by the athlete who has achieved the greatest distance or height in the contest. The running events are categorised as sprints, middle and long-distance events, relays, and hurdling. Regular jumping events include long jump, triple jump, high jump and pole vault, while the most common throwing events are shot put, javelin, discus and hammer. There are also “combined events”, such as heptathlon and decathlon, in which athletes compete in a number of the above events.
Runners must develop a full range of fundamental athletic skills in order to perform at their highest levels and avoid injury.
Sprints are short running events in athletics and track and field. Races over short distances are among the oldest running competitions. The first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event—the stadion race, which was a race from one end of the stadium to the other. There are three sprinting events which are currently held at the Summer Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the 100 metres, 200 metres, and 400 metres. These events have their roots in races of imperial measurements which were later altered to metric: the 100 m evolved from the 100 yard dash, the 200 m distances came from the furlong (or 1/8 of a mile), and the 400 m was the successor to the 440 yard dash or quarter-mile race.
The sprinter should be focus and train hard at all times.
Relay races are the only track and field event in which a team of runners directly compete against other teams. Typically, a team is made up of four runners of the same sex. Each runner completes their specified distance (referred to as a leg) before handing over a baton to a team mate, who then begins their leg upon receiving the baton. There is usually a designated area where athletes must exchange the baton. Teams may be disqualified if they fail to complete the change within the area, or if the baton is dropped during the race. A team may also be disqualified if its runners are deemed to have wilfully impeded other competitors.
The basic skill here for a relax sprint runners is to be fast, focuses and run against the wind. Also, baton exchange should be properly look into and the practice carried on ofenly.
By far the most common events are the 100 metres hurdles for women, 110 m hurdles for men and 400 m hurdles for both sexes. The men’s 110 m has been featured at every modern Summer Olympics while the men’s 400 m was introduced in the second edition of the Games. Women’s initially competed in the 80 metres hurdles event, which entered the Olympic programme in 1932. This was extended to the 100 m hurdles at the 1972 Olympics, but it was not until 1984 that a women’s 400 m hurdles event took place at the Olympics (having been introduced at the 1983 World Championships in Athletics the previous year). The basic skills here is to put the eyes up and straight, proper timing of when to take a leap over the hurdles and being able to maintain your strength and stamina.
1 LONG JUMP
The athletes would take a short run up and jump into an area of dug up earth, with the winner being the one who jumped furthest. Small weights (Halteres) were held in each hand during the jump then swung back and dropped near the end to gain extra momentum and distance. The modern long jump, standardized in England and the United States around 1860, bears resemblance to the ancient event although no weights are used. Athletes sprint along a length of track that leads to a jumping board and a sandpit. The athletes must jump before a marked line and their achieved distance is measured from the nearest point of sand disturbed by the athlete’s body. Some of the skills include One explosive movement Maximum controlled approach speed One must run TALL! One must run FAST! One must ATTACK the board with ACTIVE foot strikes LONG strides – until the last stride PROGRESSIVE AGGRESSION through the board.
2 HIGH JUMP
Athletes have a short run up and then take off from one foot to jump over a horizontal bar and fall back onto a cushioned landing area. The men’s high jump was included in the 1896 Olympics and a women’s competition followed in 1928.
Jumping technique has played a significant part in the history of the event. High jumpers typically cleared the bar feet first in the late 19th century, using either the Scissors, Eastern cut-off or Western roll technique. The straddle technique became prominent in the mid-20th century, but Dick Fosbury overturned tradition by pioneering a backwards and head-first technique in the late 1960s – the Fosbury Flop – which won him the gold at the 1968 Olympics. This technique has become the overwhelming standard for the sport from the 1980s onwards. The standing high jump was contested at the Olympics from 1900 to 1912, but is now relatively uncommon outside of its use as an exercise drill.
The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as evidenced by the fifth-century-B.C. Myron statue, Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient pentathlon, which can be dated at least to 708 BC. To achieve maximum distance in the Discus the athlete will have to balance three components – speed, technique and strength.
1. Holding the discus
• Place discus in your throwing hand
• Spread fingers out with index finger inline with wrist
• Place fingers first knuckles over the disc
2. Release the discus
• When releasing the discus have your palm down
• Squeeze the discus out (bar of soap)
• The disc will come off the index finger
• The disc will spin in a clockwise direction for a right handed thrower
3. Drills used to teach the grip and release – excellent time for a competition
Arm swings – Use this drill to teach about centrifugal force
a) The thrower stands with feet shoulder width apart
b) Place the disc into throwing hand
c) Swing the disc level with the shoulders back and forth catching it in your left hand
d) The athlete should feel the discus pushing out on the hand
4 SHOT PUT
Shot Putters are generally the largest and most explosive athletes on a team. The shot put is a track and field event involving “throwing”/”putting” (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object —the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, and women’s competition began in 1948.
There are two basic methods for throwing the shot put. The “spin” or “rotational” technique is the more complex method. The “glide” technique is more commonly-used and, with its linear movement through the throwing circle, is easier for beginners to learn. The following guide offers the basic elements of the glide technique.
The shot put is a track and field event involving “throwing”/”putting” (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object —the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, and women’s competition began in 1948.
N.B Coaching points varies and depends on different individual sporting events.
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