The biological approach to psychology is an approach that looks at our genetics to build a reason as to why we act the way we do and why we develop abnormal behaviours. It is studied by biological psychologists who normally rely more on medication and medical procedures and try to relate behaviour to the functions of the brain and the nervous system. Some of the authors includes Charles Darwin, Jane Goodall, Edward Wilson, Harlow, Tooby & Cosmides.
The behavioural approach explains psychological phenomena such as disorders etc as being ‘learned’. It’s the study of behaviour and what mental/cognitive mechanisms cause and control behaviour and how that behaviour can be understood, manipulated, changed and controlled.
the behaviourist approach sees human behaviour as being determined by learning primarily acquired through interactions with the environment. the main processes by which learning occurs are seen to be through classical and operant conditioning. behaviourism was influenced by the functionalist school of psychology and empiricism; the key authors here are J.B.Watson, regarded as founder of behaviourism and B.F. Skinner.
The psychodynamic approach includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious, and between the different structures of the personality.the main author here is Sigmund Freud.
With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes an individual’s inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. The key author here is Carl Rogers.
As its name implies, the cognitive approach deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving. Cognitive approach is a field of psychology that focuses on mental processes, perception, and language as a mode of explaining and understanding human behaviour. Psychotherapy that is based on the cognitive approach tries to modify behaviour by attempting to alter the behaviour’s underlying cognition, or thought processes. The main authors are Tolman, George Miller and Norbert wiener.
SOCIAL CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
The socialcultural perspective is based on the belief that our beliefs, attitudes and personalities are based on what we learn from others. It also states that it is not possible to fully understand a person without understanding his culture, gender identity and ethnic identity. Overall, socialcultural perspective implies that we are all shaped by our culture.
The socio-cultural approach is based on the idea that society and culture shape cognition. Some of the authors includes Natalia Keritsis, Lev Vygotsky.