THE CONCEPT OF ATHEISM AND DEISM


INTRODUCTION

The concept of atheism and deism has long being associated with the belief in deities. This has always had some contracting doctrines with that of Christianity. Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists, while  Deism is derived from the Latin word “deus” meaning “god“, is a theological/philosophical position that combines the rejection of revelation and authority as a source of religious knowledge with the conclusion that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator of the universe.

ORIGIN OF ATHEISM AND DEISM

The term atheism originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning “without god(s)”, used as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope. The first individuals to identify themselves using the word atheist lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its “unprecedented atheism,” witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason.

Deism gained prominence among intellectuals during the Age of Enlightenment—especially in Britain, France, Germany and the United States—who, raised as Christians, believed in one God but became disenchanted with organized religion and notions such as the Trinity, Biblical inerrancy and the supernatural interpretation of events such as miracles.[8] Included in those influenced by its ideas were leaders of the American and French Revolutions.

THE CONCEPT: DEISM AND ATHEISM

In George H. Smith’s book ATHEISM – THE CASE AGAINST GOD, it is stated that rationality will not lead to God. That instead, God can only be brought about by rationalization. The book describes rationality as first finding evidence, then arriving at the idea, like Newton seeing the apple fall to the ground and then discovering the law of gravity. It then describes rationalization as first accepting an idea and then searching for evidence to support it, like someone inventing the idea of God and then saying God created the universe. Deism says it is rationality and reason that leads to God. To the Deist, the evidence is the creation and the idea of what brought about the evidence is the Creator. There is absolutely nothing known to man that created itself. For example, if someone shows us a computer, and tells us that all the individual parts that make up the computer just came about by chance, that they somehow just formed into a perfectly working computer system all by themselves, we would be foolish to believe that person. Reason, if we use it, won’t let us believe a statement like that. Likewise, if someone tells us the ever growing creation and its perfect order “happened” by pure chance, we are under no obligation to believe them. From our own experience we know everything created has a creator. Why then should the creation itself be different? There is, however, one quality the creation has that makes leaving its existence to chance even more remote. That quality is motion.

Turning again to Thomas Paine we find the following pertinent observation he made regarding atheism in a speech to the Society of Theophilanthropists in Paris, France, shortly after the French Revolution:

“In the first place, admitting matter to have properties, as we see it has, the question still remains, how came matter by those properties? To this they will answer, that matter possessed those properties eternally. This is not solution, but assertion; and to deny it is as impossible of proof as to assert it.

“It is then necessary to go further; and therefore I say – if there exist a circumstance that is not a property of matter, and without which the universe, or to speak in a limited degree, the solar system composed of planets and a sun, could not exist a moment, all the arguments of atheism, drawn from properties of matter, and applied to account for the universe, will be overthrown, and the existence of a superior cause, or that which man calls God, becomes discoverable, as is before said, by natural philosophy.

“I go now to show that such a circumstance exists, and what it is.

“The universe is composed of matter, and, as a system, is sustained by motion. Motion is not a property of matter, and without this motion, the solar system could not exist. Were motion a property of matter, that undiscovered and undiscoverable thing called perpetual motion would establish itself.

“It is because motion is not a property of matter, that perpetual motion is an impossibility in the hand of every being but that of the Creator of motion. When the pretenders to atheism can produce perpetual motion, and not till then, they may expect to be credited.

“The natural state of matter, as to place, is a state of rest. Motion, or change of place, is the effect of an external cause acting upon matter. As to that faculty of matter that is called gravitation, it is the influence which two or more bodies have reciprocally on each other to unite and be at rest. Everything which has hitherto been discovered, with respect to the motion of the planets in the system, relates only to the laws by which motion acts, and not to the cause of motion.

“Gravitation, so far from being the cause of motion to the planets that compose the solar system, would be the destruction of the solar system, were revolutionary motion to cease; for as the action of spinning upholds a top, the revolutionary motion upholds the planets in their orbits, and prevents them from gravitating and forming one mass with the sun. In one sense of the word, philosophy knows, and atheism says, that matter is in perpetual motion.

“But the motion here meant refers to the state of matter, and that only on the surface of the Earth. It is either decomposition, which is continually destroying the form of bodies of matter, or recomposition, which renews that matter in the same or another form, as the decomposition of animal or vegetable substances enters into the composition of other bodies.

“But the motion that upholds the solar system, is of an entirely different kind, and is not a property of matter. It operates also to an entirely different effect. It operates to perpetual preservation, and to prevent any change in the state of the system.

“Giving then to matter all the properties which philosophy knows it has, or all that atheism ascribes to it, and can prove, and even supposing matter to be eternal, it will not account for the system of the universe, or of the solar system, because it will not account for motion, and it is motion that preserves it.

“When, therefore, we discover a circumstance of such immense importance, that without it the universe could not exist, and for which neither matter, nor any nor all the properties can account, we are by necessity forced into the rational conformable belief of the existence of a cause superior to matter, and that cause man calls GOD.

“As to that which is called nature, it is no other than the laws by which motion and action of every kind, with respect to unintelligible matter, are regulated. And when we speak of looking through nature up to nature’s God, we speak philosophically the same rational language as when we speak of looking through human laws up to the power that ordained them.

“God is the power of first cause, nature is the law, and matter is the subject acted upon.”

In addition to motion acting as a perpetual preserver, it also acts as a continual source for the universe’s constant expansion. Every second the universe is expanding at the speed of light (186,282 miles per second). According to Astronomy Magazine, 2/14/92, page 49, “Astronomers presently believe there isn’t enough mass in the universe, even with dark matter, to stop its expansion.” This exciting realization should fill everyone with unlimited appreciation when we realize we are a part of this amazing and spectacular universe! The Creator is immeasurably generous!

 

CONCLUSION

Many things were not knowable in the past that are knowable today. At one time Europeans believed it was impossible to know what was on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean: but they were wrong. As we learn more about the sciences, we are learning more about the Power that put those principles in place. An eternal Being, as Thomas Paine said, “whose power is equal to His will.”

Deism is a theological theory concerning the relationship between the Creator and the natural world. Deistic viewpoints emerged during the scientific revolution of 17th Century Europe and came to exert a powerful influence during the 18th Century Enlightenment. Deism stood between the narrow dogmatism of the period and skepticismToday, deism is considered to exist in two principal forms: classical and modern where the classical view takes what is called a “cold” approach by asserting the non-intervention of deity in the natural behavior of the created universe, while the modern deist formulation can be either “warm” (citing an involved deity) or cold, non-interventionist creator. These lead to many subdivisions of modern deism which tends, therefore, to serve as an overall category of belief. Despite this classification of Deism today, classical Deists themselves rarely wrote or accepted that the Creator is a non-interventionist during the flowering of Deism in the 16th and 17th centuries; using straw man arguments, their theological critics attempted to force them into this position.

 

REFERNCES

  • Armstrong, K. (1999). A History of God. London: Vintage. ISBN 0-09-927367-5
  • Berman, D. (1990). A History of Atheism in Britain: from Hobbes to Russell. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04727-7
  • Buckley, M. J. (1987). At the origins of modern atheism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Drachmann, A. B. (1922). Atheism in Pagan Antiquity. Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1977 (“an unchanged reprint of the 1922 edition”). ISBN 0-89005-201-8
  • McGrath, A. (2005). The Twilight of Atheism: The Rise and Fall of Disbelief in the Modern World. ISBN 0-385-50062-9
  • Thrower, James (1971). A Short History of Western Atheism. London: Pemberton. ISBN 1-57392-756-2
  •   US dict: dē′·ĭzm. R. E. Allen (ed) (1990). The Concise Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  •  “Deist – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary”. Merriam-webster.com. 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
  •   “Deism”. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2012. In general, Deism refers to what can be called natural religion, the acceptance of a certain body of religious knowledge that is inborn in every person or that can be acquired by the use of reason and the rejection of religious knowledge when it is acquired through either revelation or the teaching of any church.

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS


Qualitative analysis is a securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on unquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations. Qualitative analysis contrasts with quantitative analysis, which focuses on numbers that can be found on reports such as balance sheets. The two techniques, however, will often be used together in order to examine a company’s operations and evaluate its potential as an investment opportunity.

While Quantitative analysis refers to economic, business or financial analysis that aims to understand or predict behavior or events through the use of mathematical measurements and calculations, statistical modeling and research. Quantitative analysts aim to represent a given reality in terms of a numerical value. Quantitative analysis is employed for a number of reasons, including measurement, performance evaluation or valuation of a financial instrument, and predicting real world events such as changes in a country’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate.

pH is a measure of how acidic/basic water is. The range goes from 0 – 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs of less than 7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base. pH is really a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water.

Reagents was founded in 1969 as a manufacturer of laboratory chemicals, chemical solutions, and custom solutions. A reagent /riˈeɪdʒənt/ is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to see if a reaction occurs.[1] The terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably—however, a reactant is more specifically a substance consumed in the course of a chemical reaction.[1] Solvents, though involved in the reaction, are usually not called reactants. Similarly, catalysts are not consumed by the reaction, so are not reactants. In biochemistry, especially in connection with enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the reactants are commonly called substrates.

In synthetic organic chemistry, reagents are compounds or mixtures—usually composed of inorganic or small organic molecules—that cause a desired transformation of an organic compound. Examples include the Collins reagent, Fenton’s reagent, and Grignard reagents. In analytical chemistry, a reagent is a compound or mixture used to confirm the presence or absence of another substance, e.g. by a color change. Examples include Fehling’s reagent, Millon’s reagent, and Tollens’ reagent.

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring

While Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.[1] The laws of valid inference are studied in the field of logic. Alternatively, inference is defined as the non-logical, but rational means, through observation of patterns of facts, to see new meanings and contexts for understanding indirectly.[citation needed] Of particular use to this application of inference are anomalies and symbols. Inference, in this sense, does not draw conclusions but opens new paths for inquiry. (See second set of examples.) In this definition of inference, there are two types of inference: inductive inference and deductive inference. Unlike the definition of inference in the first paragraph above, meaning of word meanings are not tested but meaningful relationships are articulated.

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.[1][2][3] The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the side-chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways.[4] They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups’ locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity, pH level, and side-chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.). In the form of proteins, amino acids comprise the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles, cells and other tissues.[5] Outside proteins, amino acids perform critical roles in processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis.

Examples of  amino acids includes Polar amino acids include serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, histidine and tyrosine. The hydrophobic amino acids include alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophane, cysteine and methionine.

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are “strong bonds” such as covalent or ionic bonds and “weak bonds” such as Dipole-dipole interaction, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding.

Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves. This phenomenon limits the distance between nuclei and atoms in a bond.

Volumetric analysis is used to determine the value of a substance by using the volume of a known substance within the compound. This process, also known as titrimetric analysis, is most commonly used by chemists to quantify unknown concentrations in chemical reactions.

 

MYTHS AND ARTS, AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MYTHS AND ART


INTRODUCTION

What is myth? There is no one satisfactory definition, since myths serve many different purposes. The first purpose was to explain the inexplicable. Since the beginning of humankind’s existence, myths have functioned as rationalizations for the fundamental mysteries of life, questions such as: Who made the world? How will it end? Where do we come from? Who was the first human? What happens when we die? Why does the sun travel across the sky each day? Why does the moon wax and wane? Why do we have annual agricultural cycles and seasonal changes? Who controls our world, and how can we influence those beings so our lives are easier?

Myths are stories that explain why the world is the way it is. All cultures have them. Throughout history, artists have been inspired by myths and legends and have given them visual form. Sometimes these works of art are the only surviving record of what particular cultures believed and valued. But even where written records or oral traditions exist, art adds to our understanding of myths and legends. Human cultures usually include a cosmogonical or creation myth, concerning the origins of the world, or how the world came to exist. The active beings in myths are generally gods and goddesses, heroes and heroines, or animals and plants. Most myths are set in a timeless past before recorded time or beginning of the critical history. A myth can be a story involving symbols that are capable of multiple meanings.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MYTHS AND ART

The relationship between myths and arts are varied and so dynamics, while we see a myth is a sacred narrative because it holds religious or spiritual significance for those who tell it. Myths also contribute to and express a culture’s systems of thought and values. The arts represent an outlet of expression, that is usually influenced by culture and which in turn helps to change culture. As such, the arts are a physical manifestation of the internal creative impulse. Major constituents of the arts include literature – including poetry, novels and short stories, and epics; performing arts – among them music, dance, and theatre; culinary arts such as baking, chocolatiering, and winemaking; media arts like photography and cinematography, and visual arts – including drawing, painting, ceramics, and sculpting. Some art forms combine a visual element with performance (e.g. film) and the written word (e.g. comics).

From prehistoric cave paintings to modern day films, art serves as a vessel for storytelling and conveying humankind’s relationship with its environment.

Looking at the art produced by various cultures gives valuable insight as to what that culture valued, or even feared. The ancient Greeks made art a priority. In doing so, they captured and immortalized the values they held as a society. When scholars study the art of a culture, they can draw conclusions about how that society lived and what it valued. Many cultures shared values, and in turn the art of one culture may mimic that of another. For instance, the Greeks focused on depicting their gods and goddesses in their art, thus revealing their strong belief in how those deities represented man’s place in the universe. However, other cultures (even modern American culture) may also use the same content but in a different context. This may represent a resounding value or may indicate some other type of commentary. The Greeks were prolific in their artistic representations of the society, especially its gods and goddesses. Though many of the sculptures depicted gods, this did not detract in the slightest from their humanistic quality. The Greek deities existed for the benefit of man, so that in glorifying them he glorified himself. Certainly there was nothing mystical or otherworldly in the religious aspects of Greek art. Both architecture and sculpture embodied the ideals of balance, harmony, order, and moderation. Anarchy and excess were abhorrent to the minds of the Greek, but so was absolute repression.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

We have provided a representative (and by no means exhaustive) sampling of influential definitions and interpretations that can be brought to bear on classical mythology. It should be remembered that no one theory suffices for a deep appreciation of the power and impact of all myths. Certainly the panorama of classical mythology requires an arsenal of critical approaches.\

Let us end with a definition of classical mythology that emphasizes its eternal qualities, which have assured a miraculous afterlife. It may be that a sensitive study of the subsequent art, literature, drama, music, dance, and film, inspired by Greek and Roman themes and created by genius, offers the most worthwhile interpretative insights of all.

A classical myth is a story that, through its classical form, has attained a kind of immortality because its inherent archetypal beauty, profundity, and power have inspired rewarding renewal and transformation by successive generations.

 

REFERENCES

“The Myth of Io.”. The Walters Art Museum.

 

For more information on this panel, please see Zeri catalogue number 64, pp. 100-101

 

[1]“. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2016.

 

Kirk, p. 8; “myth”, Encyclopedia Britannica

 

Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mythography?s=t. Retrieved 19 January 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)

 

Howells, Richard (1999). The Myth of the Titanic. Macmillan.

 

Eliade, Myths, Dreams and Mysteries, 1967, pp. 23, 162.

MORALITY IS NECESSARY FOR PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE; EXPANTIATE ON THE PRE-COLONIAL MEANS OF SOCIAL AND MORAL CONTROL IN AFRICA.


INTRODUCTION

Morality refers to the social norms and values that guide both individuals and their interaction with their fellow human beings and communities, and with their environment. In all of these types of interaction there are important values at stake; rules and norms that are to protect these values; duties implied in social roles and positions that can foster these values and further these rules; and human virtues or capabilities that enable us to act accordingly. These moral factors are usually interwoven with religious practices and social power structures.

There is no consensus definition of social control among scholars as there are notable discrepancies in its conceptualization in literature. For instance, social control refers to the various ways employed by a society to bring its recalcitrant members back into line (Berger, 1963). Also it could mean an arrangement of behaviors, practices and attitudes in which members of the society based their daily lives. Social control from an institutional perspective is the ‘instrument for the conscious and planned management of socialized human activities’ (Lianos, 2003, p. 415). Social control is a set of mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals. Social control according to Schaefer (2002) refers to the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behaviors in any society. Social control formation is a reflection of strong social bonds/relationships with parents, teachers and other sources of conventional socialization who affects lives positively (Jensen, 2003). When these strong social relationships are absent, then the society would be ridden with social deviants and juvenile delinquents which are potential sources of vices and crimes. Scholars like Cohen when writing on the postindustrial social control, observed that it is the organized ways in which society responds to behavior and people it regards as deviant, problematic, threatening and worrying and undesirable in some ways (Cohen, 1985). Social control might become a self-desire to achieve a goal by a power bloc (International Council on Human Rights Policy, 2010).

It is well known that before the advent of colonialism, Africa had a system of justice and adjudication hinged on fear of deities which attracts instant sanctions and punishments. Hence, making the people conform to the ethos of the community, but the coming of the Europeans has altered/changed the peoples cognitive mapping of what constitutes social order and control through the introduction of new methods leading to the abandonment of the traditional social control patterns, systems and mechanisms that was instant, efficient and effective. This relegation of traditional social control mechanisms in favour of modern social mechanisms has done more harm than good in Nigeria. For instance, Transparency International ranked Nigeria as “one of the most corrupt nations in the world” (Ajayi, 2012: 1). In Nigeria, there have been cases of ritual killings: The Otokoto ritual killing saga (killing) at Imo State 1996 is an example of such killings.

 

Peaceful Co-existence

Morality describes the principles that govern our behavior without these principles in place; societies cannot survive or co-exist for long. Achieving peaceful co-existence is then the most importance project of our era and we must give ourselves to it wholly with our fullest capacities for knowledge and understanding with our truest intentions for truth and justice and with our bravest strengths in order to journey through the challenges and difficulties that the process entails.

Peaceful co-existence is a term derived from peace which is a state of harmony characterized by lack of violent conflict, commonly understood as the absence of hostility. Peace also suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships. Prosperity in matter of social or economic welfare, the establishment of equality and a working political order that serves the true interest of all. In international rations peace is not the absence of war or conflict, but also the presence of cultural and economic understanding. From Latin pax, meaning ‘freedom’ from civil disorder. The English word came in use in personal greetings from the thirteenth century as a translation of brew world shalom. Such a translation is however, imprecise as shalom, which is cognate with the Arabic, “Salaam”, has multiple other safety, wellbeing, prosperity, equity, good fortune and friendliness. At a personal level, peaceful behaviour are lastly considerate, respectful, dust and tolerant of others belief and behaviour, tending to manifest goodwill. This later understanding of peace can also pertain to an individual’s introspective sense of concept of his or herself as in being “at peace” in one’s own mind as found in European references from the twentieth century.

No two entities of any kind can co-exist without finding some common ground often the common ground necessary for peaceful co-existence between two people or groups is a high degree of tolerance in both sides. The actual difficulty of peaceful co-existence between two societies with different moral view is going to depend heavily on what about their moral view is different. For example, some people place more (or all) importance on an action; it does not matter if you meant to do good. If your actions end up causing something bad than you are still morally wrong. Others lace more importance on the intent tht it doesn’t matter the outcome, if you are at least meant to do good then you are morally right, if this were the only difference between two societies (morally speaking) I don’t see them having many difficulties co-existing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-colonial means of social and moral control in Africa

It is known that before the advent of colonialism, Africa had a system of justice and adjudication hence, making the people conform to the ethos of the community, but the coming of colonialism has changed the peoples cognitive mapping of what constitutes social order and moral control through the introduction of new methods leading to the abandonment of the traditional that was instant, efficient and effective.

Before the colonization Africa, Africans were conscious of their environment and were also intelligent and also moulding of characters. Africans were communally oriented people whose life depended on one another for meaningful existence and also eschatological view of life. They lived in town and villages based on blood relationship (kins and kits) and other international attitudes links, connection to foster solidarity, good neighbourness and shared responsibilities. What affects me affects the others and because of this people are always very conscious to relate well with others in the community. The main sources of morality remains customs, taboo, totems, rites and rituals, upon which the quality of life has been based on.

Moral Thinking in Traditional African Society

Africa is distinguished by its close-knit society. Traditions, customs and rules for regulating conduct and interpersonal relationships are varied and diverse. As with other societies of the world, in Africa, the rules are not always obeyed nor expectations all the time fulfilled. As a result, some sanctions are usually put in place to prevent social disorder and anarchy. In every African community, an elaborate system of guides and sanctions exist. These range from legal sanctions, social customs to moral rules. It is often said that moral and ethical considerations in traditional African societies are communitarian in nature, meaning that it is in submitting his or herself to the will of the community that the individual finds social security and peace. J.O. Awolalu argues, for example, that the basic moral values of which the elders are the guardians have to be maintained. According to Awolalu, it is the responsibility of the elders to see that all the social norms and ethics relating to the well-being of the community are maintained. The argument here is that the elders “are aware that they owe their positions to the author of these moral values and to the ancestors who are ever present and ever watching to see that a high moral standard is maintained.” Based on this idea of communitarianism, some scholars have argued that African traditional value systems lacked, in several respects, the characteristic feature of a true moral system. According to these scholars, moral institutions in pre-literate societies were mere devices through which men sought to establish a flourishing society. They were at best studied in functional terms, with the individual’s moral behaviour adjusted to meet society’s need and expectations.

Among early anthropologists the view was commonly held that in traditional cultures there were no such behavioural patterns which can be properly referred to as ‘moral’. The claim here is that behavioural patterns of the purely secular kind which exist in more complex societies are completely absent from traditional societies, such that the relationship between individuals and, the individual and all forms of social interactions were seen in religious perspectives only. To justify the foregoing assertions two types of arguments are usually proffered. The first is the claim that a truly moral system must be universalizable, and since African traditional codes of conduct discriminate between insiders and outsiders, they are said to have restricted applicability. The second argument claims that a truly moral system is typically characterized by critical reflections, with reason as a crucial tool for differentiating between right and wrong. Traditional African value systems, are not only dogmatic but have as their sources of reference authority of one kind or another.

In control of crimes in pre-colonial African society was an uphill task. Traditional taboo formed one of the mechanisms used to achieve peace and tranquility among the African societies.

Before the advent of modern civilization, the norms of the people encouraged a need to fight crime using taboo. This was one major instruments of keeping peace between leadership and their subject and between societies and their neighbours. According to Ayittery George followed four major principles in maintenance of peace and management of conflicts:

  1. Settlement of disputes by peaceful deliberation not force
  2. Correction of wrong doing through compensation and restitution not retribution
  3. Adjudication and assessment by a body of impartial elders
  4. Fairness (equity and justice)

Traditional methods were aimed at resolving conflict and not necessarily pronouncing judgment. Emphasis was not punishment but on reconciliation and restoration of social harmony among the parties in conflict.

According to Gluckman (1959) note that when conflicts or strife emerged in traditional Africa, there were institutions and people to resolve them based on certain moral or legal principles, ethical ideals and following established procedures and methods. Well known codes of morality conventions and rituals existed which though were not written but persisted for generations before the colonial invasion. All these methods were effective because there was reduction in conflict and misunderstanding that could result in the death of a kinsman.

CONCLUSION

Pre-colonial African societies were of a highly varied culture. They could be either stateless, state run or kingdoms but most were founded on the principles of communalism in that they were self-governing, autonomous entities and in that all members took part directly or indirectly in the daily running o the tribe. Land was held commonly and could not be bought or sold, although other things such as cattle, were owned individually. In these societies that were not stateless, the chief ran the daily affairs of the tribe together with one or more councils. These council simultaneously informed the chief, checked his powers and made policy by reaching unanimous decision. If unanimity was not reached, a village assembly would be called to debate the issues and majority ruling would now apply. The chief would listen silently to all queries during such meetings and every male adult was force to criticize him.

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Albert, I.O., Awe,T., Herault, G.& Omitoogun, W.(1995). Informal

channels for conflict resolution in Ibadan. IFRA Nigeria.

Anyacho, E.,O., Ugal, D., B. (2010). Modernization and Traditional

Methods of Social Control in South-Eastern Nigeria (unpublished work).

Ajayi, A.T. & Buhari,L.O. (2014). Methods of conflict resolution in

African traditional society. African research review, 8(2):135-157.

Ajayi, B. (2012) Poor Governance and Corruption Begets Anarchy

and Lawlessness . Retrieved from http://nigeriaworld.com/features/publicaiton/babsajayi/121612.html

Cohen, S. (1985) .Visions Of Social Control: Crime, Punishment And

Classification. Cambridge; Policy Press.

Elechi , O. (2003). Extra Judicial Killings in Nigeria: The case study

of Afikpo Town. International conferences of the inter-nation society for the reform of criminal law. Hague Netherlands.

Ekwuru, G.E. (1999). The Pagan Of African Culture In Travail (The

Igbo world In Disarray). Owerri Totan Publishers.

Ezenwoko, A.E. & Osagie, J.I. (2014). Conflict and conflict

resolution in pre-colonial Igbo society of Nigeria. Journal of studies in social sciences, 9(1):135-158.

 

 

ME AND MY SOCIETY, ILLUSTRATED FROM A SOCIO-POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE


ME AND MY SOCIETY, ILLUSTRATED FROM A SOCIOLOGY-POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE

 

INTRODUCTION

The Etche person as an ethnic group in Rivers State, Nigeria is a people rich in traditional culture. The people occupy the south-south part of Nigeria. The Etche ethnic nationality has a common border with the Ngor-Okpala of the South East of Nigeria and other numerous communities of Ikwerre in Rivers State. In Etche land, marriage is highly valued and it is deemed as an indispensable obligation. Etche people see a man or woman who is of age and is not married as irresponsible. People that are of age are expected to get married to raise a new family. From there “the virtues and values of the society are primarily learnt” (Ezeanya 2010:173).

The Etche society is mostly patriarchal and patriarchal societies usually emphasize the superiority of the male over the female. Men are the head of the families while women are under them. Men dominate social reality. This cuts across other social institutions. The challenges of social and cultural globalization have not affected the status quo. By implication, the Etche society is male dominated and as such male chauvinistic ideology is prevalent.

This ideology is of preference for male child; which has helped in reinforcing and sustaining the patriarchal ideological status quo. This practice as it relates to the protection and application of human rights of woman in Etche in Rivers State will be examined

Rivers State, also known simply as Rivers, is one of the 36 states of Nigeria. According to census data released in 2006, the state has a population of 5,185,400, making it the sixth-most populous state in the country.[3] Its capital, Port Harcourt is the largest city and is economically significant as the centre of Nigeria’s oil industry. Rivers State is bounded on the South by the Atlantic Ocean, to the North by Imo, Abia and Anambra States, to the East by Akwa Ibom State and to the West by Bayelsa and Delta states. It is home to many indigenous ethnic groups: Ikwerre, Ibani, Opobo, Eleme, Okrika, and Kalabari, Etche, Ogba, Ogoni, Engenni, Obolo and others. The people from Rivers State are known as “Riverians”

OUR CULTURE

The culture of my people is so wide. we belief in a divine creator, choki and other lesser deities. The dominant ethnic groups are Ijwa, Ikwere, Etche, Ogoni, and Ogba/Egbema. Ijaw and Ikwerre are the most spoken languages although pidgin English (local English) is widely used in some of the radio and television broadcasts.

Male child preference is a phenomenon which is common among the Etche patrilineal communities of Rivers State. In Etche land, marriage is highly valued and the birth of a child is received with joy. Most times, the birth of a male child is particularly received with unprecedented joy and celebration than that of a female child. This is because; it is believed that through the male child/children, the family name is sustained while the girl child marries out to become part of another family. Though, she still belongs to the lineage of her father, she has no right of inheritance.

Family inheritance especially land and other property is from the father to the son(s). The daughters are thus disinherited. This has accorded a position of assertiveness and dominance to the males than females. In this paper, attempts will be made to explore how this practice impedes the implementation of human rights of woman in Etche in Rivers State, Nigeria. In carrying out this study, oral interview and in depth library research were used in collecting data. The paper brings to focus some of the human rights laws for the protection of the rights of women, which Nigeria is a signatory to. It further high lights the importance of implementing the laws as stipulated. It is believed that stringent enforcement of the existing women’s rights will bring a positive change to the   present situation of women and girl child in Rivers state, Nigeria.

PEOPLE

Rivers State with a population of about three million people occupies an area of 21,850 sq. km. With two thirds of it in the Niger Delta geographical terrain. The dominant ethnic groups are Ijwa, Ikwere, Etche, Ogoni, and Ogba/Egbema. Ijaw and Ikwerre are the most spoken languages although pidgin English is widely used in radio and television broadcasts.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS

Rivers State is currently made up of 23 local government areas and my elele community falls under the Ikwerre LGA. These are Ogba/Egbema, Ndoni, Ahoada, Ikwerre, Etche, Andoni/Opobo, Bonny, Okrika, Iyigbo, Ehana, Gokana Tai/Eleme, Obio/Akpor, Emohua, Degema, Aseri Toru, Akuku, Abua/Odial, Omumma, Opobo/Nkoro, Ogu/ BolRo, Ahaoda West, Ahoada East and Eleme.

 

 

PEER GROUPS

The various peer groups in my community in Etche exist to effectively coordinate developmental needs and prospects. We have the Etche youth forum which is the driving force in our community.

FROM A SOCIO-POLITICAL PERSPERTIVE

My society is so complex and in this era of western civilization my community has grown into a moving community that has adopted most western cultures and life styles. We have the following;

Traditional council

We have a traditional council headed my the head of my community who act as the chief head of the community

Intermarriage

In my society we don’t inter marry or sleep with Fellow kith and kins. it is a serious taboo in my society and we tend to interact with one another in the interest of love, unity and development.

 

Vigilante group

We have a vigilante group who is charge with security issues in my community, this has gone a long way to effectively introduce the community policing we all glamour for.

Land issues

My community is in the fore front of land acquisition and development. Lands are sold to would be developers who may use it for private or developmental purposes.

Religion

Though my community can be said to be Christian in nature but there still exist some form of traditional form of worship. This is also common when cases need to be consulted and decided in the traditional ways.

 

 

Beliefs and Norms

Various norms and belief exist in my community, which are strictly adhere to. The idea of not coming out during certain festive periods for the female are prohibited.

festival

My society places great interest on festive period especially the new yam festival in September.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

The profound impact of societal values and culture becomes most evident when we examine behaviors or conditions that, like kissing, are normally considered biological in nature. Consider morning sickness and labor pains, both very familiar to pregnant women before and during childbirth, respectively. These two types of discomfort have known biological causes, and we are not surprised that so many pregnant women experience them. But we would be surprised if the husbands of pregnant women woke up sick in the morning during their wives’ pregnancies or experienced severe abdominal pains while their wives gave birth. These men are neither carrying nor delivering a baby, and there is no logical—that is, biological—reason for them to suffer either type of discomfort.

 

 

 

 

 

References

See List of Governors of Rivers State for a list of prior governors

“C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)”. EIU Canback. Retrieved 2008-08-20.

 

“Nigeria: Administrative Division”. City Population. Retrieved 28 November 2014.

 

“Amaechi Catches Facebook Bug”. Daily Independent, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). 10 August 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2016.

 

“Rivers State government website”. Retrieved December 7, 2010.

 

“History of Rivers State”. Rsha.gov.ng. Retrieved 30 November 2014.

 

INTERVENTION


The term intervention refers to all the planned programmatic activities aimed at bringing changes in an organization. These changes are intended to ensure improvement in the functioning of the organization- in its efficiencies and effectiveness. The changes are brought through the employees in the organization while consultants facilitate the change process. Any OD intervention, therefore, involves close interaction between the consultants and the client organization.

 

Intervention basically refers to an intended activity to bring change in the organization and the consequent activities within the organization.

 

Who makes the interventions?

The intervention can be brought by an external consultant who acts in consultation with the client members. A member within the organization, acting as the in-house consultant can also make the intervention. The organization itself could plan the intervention without employing either an internal or external consultant. Where a consultant is employed, any intervention is a collaborative activity between the client and the consultant.

To quote, French & Bell Jr (1994), “ intervention are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage in a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development; they “make things happen” and “what is happening”.
As suggested above a number of interventions can be carried out. They may be classified as to their focus and purpose and the intensity or depth.

Management Intervention

It would be quite normal, perhaps even expected, that some tasks and activities contained within the operational plan will not be successfully achieved. The manager needs to monitor the progress of the operational plan and where there is evidence that an element of the operational plan is not succeeding, the manager needs to investigate the probable causes.

MEANING

Intervention basically refers to an intended activity to bring change in the organization and the consequent activities within the organization. An intervention takes training a step further in an attempt to increase the likelihood of achieving the specified objectives.

PROCESS

The intervention process brings self-efficacy to a conscious level, which enables individuals to assess and address their personal confidence issues. The process or focus of intervention could be : individual, interpersonal, group or team(intra and inter-group), system or subsystem, organization and the external environment.

The purpose of intervention could be to improve the process (for ex. Process reengineering) Action (ex. performance), and provide feedback (ex. Has the system produced the intended results?). The depth of intervention could be less intensive (setting up of a task force) or more intensive (dealing with individual self and emotions)

 

USEFULNESS

Specific reasons or usefulness for intervention could be:

  • To provide feedback about task, individual, team and other aspects of organizational dynamics.
  • To provide awareness of changing norms, to confront and deal with issues constructively
  • To develop positive attitudes openness and improve interaction among people,
  • To educate employees, improve theire knowledge and skills
  • To bring constructive and desirable changes to improve individual and organizational performance.

 

 

 

 

ONE OF THE CATEGORIS OF INTERVENTION

Role focused intervention:

These aim at bringing / improving the compatibility between a job incumbent and the role demands and expectations associated with his / her job.

Role analysis: Role analysis is a structured exercise to provide

  • Why the role exists? the rationale
  • What the role is supposed to achieve?
  • How the role contributes to the achievement of the group/department/unit goals?
  • How the goal is related to other roles in the department and in the organization.

 

Role Analysis Techniques (RAT) has been developed by Dayal (1969) for redefining the managerial roles in an organization. The techniques as followed has the following steps (Pareek, 1998)

 

  • Analysis of the role by the occupant as to the main function of the role, its location in the organogram, why it should be there – or its relevance in the organization, and how does it contribute to organizational goals
  • Discussion by the group as to what does the role occupant expect from the other roles in their role set in order to arrive at a consensus.
  • Building the consensus regarding the expectations of other roles in the role set fro the role occupant.
  • Developing of role profile by the role occupants of their roles, classifying what are the prescribed and discretionary elements of the role, the obligation of one role to another in the role set and the expectation of this role from the others in its set.

 

Role Efficacy Lab : Role Efficacy refers to the psychological factor underlying role effectiveness and the potential effectiveness of an individual occupying a particular role or the potential effectiveness of a role. Role Efficacy Lab (REL) used to develop work commitment.

 

REL is a short process oriented programme aimed at :

 

  • Sharing of thoughts and of individual as well as group commitments with the top managemtn.
  • Get moral support and reinforcement form the top management, and
  • Providing an opportunity for the top management to examine why certain expectations are unrealistic or unattainable, and suggest their won action plans taking to account other suggestions.

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Organizations need to basically analyse where, how, when what etc, to carryout an intervention to improve their performance, which in other words, refer to ‘intervention strategy’. Interventions are carried to improve an organization from its current position to a desired position and to achieve the desired change a number of techniques are used

 

HOW CAN YOU ADMINISTRATIVELY CONTROL TRUANCY IN SCHOOL TO ENCOURAGE ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE


INTRODUCTION

Truancy is any intentional unauthorized or illegal absence from compulsory education. It is absences caused by students of their own free will, and usually does not refer to legitimate “excused” absences, such as ones related to medical conditions. Truancy is usually explicitly defined in the school’s handbook of policies and procedures. In some schools, truancy may result in not being able to graduate or to receive credit for class attended, until the time lost to truancy is made up through a combination of detention, fines, or summer school.

Truancy is a frequent subject of popular culture; Ferris Bueller’s Day Off is about the title character’s (played by Matthew Broderick) day of truancy in Chicago with his girlfriend and best friend. Truancy is also the title of a 2008 novel about a student uprising against a dictatorial educational system.

THE SUBJECT MATTER

What is Truancy?

The definition of truancy is usually established by school district policy and may vary across districts.  Definitions for an excused absence, an unexcused absence, or a truancy can vary by state and even school districts.

Any unexcused absence from school is considered a truancy, but states enact their own school attendance laws. State law determines 1) the age at which a child is required to begin attending school, 2) the age at which a child may legally drop out of school, and 3), the number of unexcused absences at which a student is considered legally truant.

Truancy is a status offense – an act that is a crime due to the young age of the actor, but would not be illegal for someone older. The other most common status offenses are running away from home, alcohol use, curfew violations, and ungovernability.

Truancy:  An Overview of the Problem

Generally, absentee rates are highest in public schools in the inner-city where larger numbers of students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunches source: (Heaviside et al., 1998). (Higher truancy rates generally correlate with poverty; higher rates of free and reduced-price lunches are typically used as evidence of poverty.)

Consequences of Truancy

  • Dropping out of school. Students who are chronically truant typically fall behind in grade level and drop out of school.
    • Delinquency. Students who are chronically truant are also at-risk for other behaviors, such as alcohol and drug abuse, teenage pregnancy, and delinquency.
  • Negative effect upon other students. Students who are chronically truant require extra time from teachers; teachers have less time to spend with the regularly-attending students in the classroom when they must create make-up work for truants.

Causes of Truancy

What influences truancy? In early research, depending upon the perspective of the researcher, truancy was said to be caused by the student, the student’s family, or the school. More recently, it is understood that a combination of all three factors usually affect truancy:

Characteristics of the Student:

  • low grades in reading and mathematics
    • neurological factors, such as dyslexia
    • inability to make friends with mainstream students or teachers
    • negative attitudes toward school or teachers

Characteristics of the Student’s Family:
• parent(s) who do not value education
• parent(s) who did not complete school, were truant themselves
• poor parenting skills
• low socio-economic status
• physical or mental health problems of parents
• family history of delinquency
• single parent families
• many children in the family

Characteristics of the School:
• weak or no monitoring of daily attendance
• inconsistent attendance policies
• lack of parent involvement in the school
• lack of personalized attention to students
• lack of teacher expectations for high student achievement

CONTROLLING TRUANCY IN SCHOOL AND ENCOURAGE ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE

Controlling truancy administratively in schools in order to encourage academic excellence is not that easy, but as an administrator, you must start somewhere. Give the students a motivation for coming to school. The suggestion is simple but the implementation is not. The only things that kept me going through high school were my friends and a few amazing teachers. Students need more than that. They need to feel safe and comfortable. They need to feel as free as possible but they also need to be disciplined and need to know that their punishment is serious and not something to be ignored.

School is so much more than an education, it’s a community. Or at least, it should be. If a student feels like they can speak to their principal as well as some of their teachers privately about something important, then they’re in the right place.

If, in school, the student finds no base of support from the faculty and even worse, has very few or no close friends at all, then they certainly won’t come to school.  If they feel that each essay they turn in is just regarded as fodder or won’t be assessed accurately, then they will have no motivation to turn in their work, which builds on them not attending school at all. The student should learn how to be proud of their individual and communal contributions. In life, often when we do not see the direct effects of our work, we care very little, hence the destruction of the environment. The same concept applies to schooling.

These are not things easily accomplished but effort certainly should be put into to build the school up as a community. According to my own experience, I believe this would boost attendance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Truancy poses a se4ious threat to learning in most schools, the school on the other hand, do not seem to be able to cope with the problem,. Because no sufficient attempts has been made to reach its root. One thing that is clear in this issue. There is a growing tendency for schools children to be involved in social vices, such as stealing, smoking etc. this is because most home no longer play their traditional function to rear and bring up the child in an upright manner. This is because many parents are sop preoccupied with duties (working, travelling) outside the homes that they have little or no time to keep watch over the action and behaviour of their children.

In most of their schools, there is no conducive atmosphere for learning. This is due to the fact that schools are highly populated, poorly equipped and under staffed. Since students cannot cope with their unfavourable conditions, which these schools are placed, this eventually leads to truancy and other social vices found in our society today. Broken home can also be attributed to the cause of truancy because children from a single parent need to be more exposed to the danger of the society, for example a single parent child will leave the mothers house and say he or she is going to the father house thereby using the opportunity to go and stay in her boyfriends house for the boys, they so and join bad peer group without the mother and father knowing, because they would think she is in the father house and vise visa.

REFERENCES

“Home-school mom charged with allowing truancy”. 25 April 2005. Retrieved 29 January 2011.

 

Det virker at inddrage børnechecken (It works confiscating the child benefit check), by Anette Sørensen, Denmarks Radio, October 25, 2008

 

elever er ikke mødt op (155 children have not started), by Majken Klintø, aarhus.dk, August 26, 2008

 

Børn pjækker mere fra skole, DR News, April 30, 2009

“Äidille sakkoja lasten oppivelvollisuuden laiminlyömisestä – HS.fi – Kotimaa” (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 February 2011.

 

 

 

ETHNOCENTRISM


DEFINITION AND EXPLANATION

Ethnocentrism can be define as the tendency to evaluate other groups according to the values and standards of one’s own ethnic group, especially with the conviction that one’s own ethnic group is superior to the other groups. It can be seen as judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one’s own culture. Ethnocentric individuals judge other groups relative to their own ethnic group or culture, especially with concern for language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define each ethnicity‘s unique cultural identity.[2] Ethnocentrism may be overt or subtle, and while it is considered a natural proclivity of human psychology, it has developed a generally negative connotation.

ORIGIN, INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF ETHNOCENTRISM

William G. Sumner coined the term “ethnocentrism” upon observing the tendency for people to differentiate between the in-group and others, disseminating it in his 1906 work Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals. He defined it as “the technical name for the view of things in which one’s own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it.” He further characterized it as often leading to pride, vanity, beliefs of one’s own group’s superiority, and contempt of outsiders. Robert K. Merton comments that Sumner’s additional characterization robbed the concept of some analytical power because, Merton argues, centrality and superiority are often correlated, but need to be kept analytically distinct.

Anthropologists such as Franz Boas and Bronislaw Malinowski argued that any human science had to transcend the ethnocentrism of the scientist. Both urged anthropologists to conduct ethnographic fieldwork in order to overcome their ethnocentrism. Boas developed the principle of cultural relativism and Malinowski developed the theory of functionalism as guides for producing non-ethnocentric studies of different cultures. Classic examples of anti-ethnocentric anthropology include Margaret Mead‘s Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), Malinowski’s The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia (1929), and Ruth Benedict‘s Patterns of Culture (1934). (Mead and Benedict were two of Boas’s students.)

“Ethnocentrism” is a commonly used word in circles where ethnicity, inter-ethnic relations, and similar social issues are of concern. The usual definition of the term is “thinking one’s own group’s ways are superior to others” or “judging other groups as inferior to one’s own”. “Ethnic” refers to cultural heritage, and “centrism” refers to the central starting point… so “ethnocentrism” basically refers to judging other groups from our own cultural point of view. But even this does not address the underlying issue of why people do this. Most people, thinking of the shallow definition, believe that they are not ethnocentric, but are rather “open minded” and “tolerant.” However, as explained below, everyone is ethnocentric, and there is no way not to be ethnocentric… it cannot be avoided, nor can it be willed away by a positive or well-meaning attitude.

To address the deeper issues involved in ethnocentrism calls for a more explicit definition. In this sense, ethnocentrism can be defined as: making false assumptions about others’ ways based on our own limited experience. The key word is assumptions, because we are not even aware that we are being ethnocentric… we don’t understand that we don’t understand.

One example of ethnocentrism is seen in the above comments on the Inuit snowshoe race. I assumed that I had “lost” the race, but it turns out the Inuit saw the same situation very differently than I did. Westerners have a binary conflict view of life (right or wrong, liberal versus conservative, etc.), and I had imposed my “win or lose” perspective of life on the situation. As a result, I did not understand how they experience life, that trying is a basic element of life. This did not necessarily involve thinking that my ways were superior, but rather that I assumed my experience was operational in another group’s circumstances.

Another example illustrates how basic ethnocentrism is. If we go to a store and ask for a green coat and the sales clerk gives us a blue one, we would think the person was color blind at the best or stupid at the worst. However, “colors” are not so simple. The Inuit lump shades of what AngloAmericans call “blue” and “green” into one color category, tungortuk, which can only be translated as “bluegreen.” Does this mean that they cannot see the difference? Just as we can distinguish between different shades (such as “sky blue” and “navy blue,” and “kelly green” and “forest green”), so can the Inuit. If they want to refer to what we would call “green,” they would say tungUYortuk, which can be translated something like “that bluegreen that looks like the color of a [conifer] tree.” The point is that something so “simple” as colors has very different meanings to us and to the Inuit. How could an Inuk “feel blue”? Colors, after all, are only different wavelengths of light, and the rainbow can be divided in many different ways.

There are many, many examples of such differences in meanings that make life experience so unique for all the human groups around the world. For example, English has tenses built into our verb forms, so we automatically think in terms of time (being “punctual,” “time is money,” “make the time,” etc.). But Algonquian Indian languages do not have tenses (not that they cannot express time if they wish), but rather have “animate” and “inanimate” verb forms, so they automatically think in terms of whether things around them have a life essence or not. So when Chippewa Indians do not show up for a medical appointment, Anglo health care workers may explain this as being “present oriented,” since we normally cannot think except in terms of time frames. But this is the essence of ethnocentrism, since we may be imposing a time frame where none exists.

The assumptions we make about others’ experience can involve false negative judgments, reflected in the common definition of ethnocentrism. For example, Anglos may observe Cree Indians sitting around a camp not doing obvious work that is needed and see Crees as “lazy”. Westerners generally value “being busy” (industriousness), and so may not appreciate the Cree capacity to relax and not be compelled to pursue some activities of a temporary nature… nor realize how much effort is put into other activities like hunting.  Assumptions can also reflect false positive attitudes about others’ ways. For example, we in urban industrial society frequently think of Cree Indians as being “free of the stresses of modern society,” but this view fails to recognize that there are many stresses in their way of life, including the threat of starvation if injured while checking a trap line a hundred miles from base camp or when game cycles hit low ebbs. False positive assumptions are just as misleading as false negative assumptions.

MANIFESTATION OF THE PROBLEM

Ethnocentrism leads to misunderstanding others. We falsely distort what is meaningful and functional to other peoples through our own tinted glasses. We see their ways in terms of our life experience, not their context. We do not understand that their ways have their own meanings and functions in life, just as our ways have for us.

The more serious negative aspects of ethnocentrism have often been manifested throughout history as violent conflicts, wars, slavery, ethnic cleansing, and genocide. The protohistorical accounts of warfare were based on tribal affiliations. The crusades in the Middle Ages, conflict in Northern Ireland, and the Nazi holocaust were based on religion. In addition to tribal and religious basis of ethnocen-trism, race, colonialism, and ethnonationalism have contributed toward distinctly negative and sometimes savage consequences. Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior of Whites and African Americans in the United States are examples of ethnocentrism based on racial lines.

The apartheid practices in South Africa constituted an example of colonial ethnocentrism and concomitant racism that was common in most colonial situations. Even in multiracial or multicultural colonies, the primary White and non-White grouping, along with the dichotomy of the master and the subjugated, persisted because of the convergence of power, color, race, language, and class differences. The colonial perspective was often Eurocentric, with hierarchical and discriminatory lines drawn between the European colonizer and the colonized. The perceived distinctions of superiority and inferiority of groups became a self-fulfilling prophecy. Race relations in the United States have often been described as internal colonialism by Marxists and non-Marxists alike. The minority ethnic groups are often disrespectful of their own ethnicity in contrast with the ethnic group that is in power, a phenomenon often noticed in the colonial context. Ethnonationalism has manifested in the creation of more new nations in the last century than any other century in history. Many of these nations were created as a result of violent conflicts, atrocities, and civil wars.

CAUSES OF ETHNOCENTRISM

The causes of ethnocentrism can take different forms. One type of explanation would be based on personality factors of individuals. Another form of ethnocentric behavior is contextual or situational, such as the loss of jobs due to competition from a neighboring state or groups. One group or nation can be transformed from a friend to an enemy and vice versa after the end of a war. The reasons for another type of ethnocentrism may vary from mistrust of the stranger to the aims of conquest and subjugation of another group for various reasons.

I believe that ethnocentrism stems from the assumption that one’s ethnicity is far superior than all others. Pride in one’s own ethnicity definitely plays a role in this. In Nazi Germany, we know that Hitler held such a view and extinguished many Jews as a result.

 

IMPACT OF THE ETHNOCENTRISM ON IT VICTIMS (POSISTVE & NEGATIVE IMPACTS)

Ethnocentric people tend to look down on those people who are of a different ethnic group. They make premature judgments and wrong assumptions because they believe other cultures are inferior to theirs. It is difficult for ethnocentric people to assimilate the beliefs, practices, traditions and customs of other cultures.

Ethnocentrism fosters conflict, distorts communication, and creates suspicion and antagonism between people. It prevents people of a particular culture from appreciating and understanding other people’s cultures. For example, conservative Muslims find European women to be extremely immodest and unchaste because they do not cover their bodies from head to toe when in public. On the other hand, Europeans condemn societies that eat dogs or practice polygamy.

Ethnocentrism can lead to serious social issues, such as colonialism, racism and ethnic cleansing. A negative aspect of ethnocentrism is the false notion that one’s culture is more superior to others. This perception deepens inhumane behavior because of cultural misinterpretation, ethnic and racial prejudices, and mistrust brought about by ethnocentrism. A positive aspect of ethnocentrism centers on protection. People of the same culture can preserve their traditions, customs and practices by rejecting those cultures that are different from theirs. Ethnocentrism also helps maintain the uniqueness and authenticity of a culture.

SOLUTION TO ETHNOCENTRISM

Overcoming this prejudice is necessary in a world where people must unite to prevail over such global challenges as climate change.

Step 1: Learn about other groups. This is the easiest way to discover that everybody, despite their culture, experiences the same joys and heartaches you do. Colleges promote this sensitivity with classes on various races and countries. Reading foreign books and newspapers offers this same insight.

Step 2: Make friends. Friendship cuts through a lot of misconceptions simply because we see them as individuals rather than as collections of traits. An easy way to cultivate friends of different viewpoints is to volunteer for or join cultural clubs. For example, a Persian Club at a local university will have Iranian members while a Latino Business Association can consist of Mexicans.

Step 3: Browse foreign sites on the Internet. The Internet offers us the exact same resource available to foreigners. For instance, you can digest the same French news as a French citizen by browsing (see References). Want to see how Somalis view Americans?

Step 4:Entertain yourself differently. The dramatic emotions highlighted by movies, television shows and music can make us feel exactly what foreigners feel, increasing our empathy for them. Celebrate life’s passages Indian-style by renting a Bollywood movie. Taste the Brazilian view of romance by listening and dancing to a sultry samba.

Step 5: Attend services from another religion. Start with different flavors of your belief. For example, a Christian can attend Baptist, Lutheran and Methodist services. You can then continue with different religions: a Catholic can attend Muslim daily prayers or a Buddhist can visit a Jewish synagogue. Despite not professing your faith, these worshipers revel in a rich spiritual life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Ethnocentrism is a major reason for divisions amongst members of different ethnicities, races, and religious groups in society. Ethnocentrism is the belief of superiority is one’s personal ethnic group, but it can also develop from racial or religious differences.

Ethnocentric individuals believe that they are better than other individuals for reasons based solely on their heritage. Clearly, this practice is related to problems of both racism and prejudice.

While many people may recognize the problems, they may not realize that ethnocentrism occurs everywhere and everyday at both the local and political levels.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

John T. Omohundro (2008). Thinking like an Anthropologist: A practical introduction to Cultural Anthropology. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-319580-4.

 

Margaret L. Andersen, Howard Francis Taylor (2006). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-61716-6.

 

Shimp, Terence. Sharma, Shubhash. “Consumer Ethnocentrism: Construction and Validation of the CETSCALE. Journal of Marketing Research. 24 (3). Aug 1987. 280–289.

 

Robert King Merton (1996). Piotr Sztompka, ed. On social structure and science. University of Chicago Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-226-52070-4.

 

Sumner, W. G. Folkways. New York: Ginn, 1906.

 

Seidner, Stanley S. (1982). Ethnicity, Language, and Power from a Psycholinguistic Perspective. Bruxelles: Centre de Recherche sur le Plurilinguisme.

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF SCISSOR JACK


 

INTRODUCTION

Every engineering product involve cost effective manufacturing and its versatility in application maintaining its aesthetics as well as assign service life without failure keeping those parameters in mind we focused our intention on designing and analyzing the jack model for actual service loads for varying models of automobile L.M.V. sectors. Automobile sectors are very keen at their productivity and customer satisfaction. We also keen at reducing the weight of scissor jack at the same time maintaining its strength and service life. We made certain change in manufacturing process thereby made a new versatile jack that can be used for varying models of L.M.V automobile sector. Also the new design that made by Pro-e software can be tested by ANSYS software.

 

INTRODUCTION

Since traditional jack that available in market involve plenty of variety like screw jack. We had selected the traditional scissor jack for L.M.V. and focuses our intention to remove perm ant welds as that is the area where chances of failure is more. We replaced weld joints by rivets as well reduced materials by redesigning special brackets and employing special manufacturing processes for traditional. As per the today’s scenario of cost reduction, we need to find the cost effective solution for long term benefits. So in the production system it is necessary to redesign the various products for reducing the cost of the product over the same product. So we have chosen such exercise with the scissor jack. The main benefit of this paper is to reduce the unnecessary cost, reduce the over design, the design will be up to the mark. This paper will give new approach to product design. Such as in case of large volume, the cost reduction is more and it will increase the demand of product in market itself. In case of the manufacturing of the scissor jack we can reduce the material of the product by converting the manufacturing process, e.g., Casting into sheet metal, in which the strength of the product remain as it is and the cost of the material will be automatically reduces. Even part reduction by assembly process and no welding joints will give less deflection and the large accuracy.
OBJECTIVE

This paper includes the scissor jack of automobile L.M.V. vehicle. The objective of this exercise will be

  1. To reduce the weight of the jack by changing the manufacturability.
  2. To reduce the no. of parts for simplifying the assembly process.
  3. Remove welding to avoid distortion.
  4. Product should withstand the current strength requirements.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Operation: A scissor jack is operated simply by turning a small crank that is inserted into one end of the scissor jack. This crank is usually “Z” shaped. The end fits into a ring hole mounted on the end of the screw, which is the object of force on the scissor jack. When this crank is turned, the screw turns, and this raises the jack. The screw acts like a gear mechanism. It has teeth (the screw thread), which turn and move the two arms, producing work. Just by turning this screw thread, the scissor jack can lift a vehicle that is several thousand pounds.

Construction A scissor jack has four main pieces of metal and two base ends. The four metal pieces are all connected at the corners with a bolt that allows the corners to swivel. A screw thread runs across this assembly and through the corners. As the screw thread is turned, the jack arms travel across it and collapse or come together, forming a straight line when closed. Then, moving back the other way, they raise and come together. When opened, the four metal arms contract together, coming together at the middle, raising the jack. When closed, the arms spread back apart and the jack closes or flattens out again.

Design and Lift A scissor jack uses a simple theory of gears to get its power. As the screw section is turned, two ends of the jack move closer together. Because the gears of the screw are pushing up the arms, the amount of force being applied is multiplied. It takes a very small amount of force to turn the crank handle, yet that action causes the brace arms to slide across and together. As this happens the arms extend upward. The car’s gravitational weight is not enough to prevent the jack from opening or to stop the screw from turning, since it is not applying force directly to it. If you were to put pressure directly on the crank, or lean your weight against the crank, the person would not be able to turn it, even though your weight is a small percentage of the car’s.

MODELLING Design of scissor jack is done with Pro-E and model assembly is shown in Figures 1 to 3.

 

Design Details of Jack • The total height of the screw jack = 276 mm. • The deformation of the screw jack in y direction = 2.00 mm. • Permanent set in y direction is = 0.37 mm.

CONCLUSION

The paper will include a scissor jack of automobile L.M.V. vehicle and other same type of variants. This proposed design of scissor jack after its stress analysis concludes that: This is a common jack for the variant (satisfying the product requirements). The proposed jack has the reduced weight (by changing the manufacturability). Designing this new jack reduces the no. of parts for simplifying the assembly process. Only rivet joints are induced (Removal of welding to avoid distortion).

REFERENCES

  1. Chang Shoei D and Liaw Huey S (1987), “Motor Driven Scissor

Jack for Automobiles”, US Patent Number 4653727, Da Li Hsien, TW.

  1. Farmer Dennis E (2001), “Automatic Jack and Wheel Change

System”, US Patent Number 6,237,953, Mt. Gay, WV.

  1. Huang Chen-Ti and Chou Ching-Hsing (2001), “Directly Driving

Electromotive Jack Device for Releasing Torsional Force”, US Patent Number 6,299,138, Taipei, TW.

  1. Kathryn J De Laurentis and Mircea Badescu (2001), Pro-E

Tutorial, MB, Hinge Assembly Tutorial.

  1. Mahadevan K (2011), Design Data Hand

Book for Mechanical Engineers, 3 rd Edition, CBS Publisher.

  1. Mickael Emil (2004), “Motor Driven Scissor Jack with Limit

Switches”, US Patent Number 6,695,289 B1.

  1. Nakasone Y, Yoshimoto S and Stolarski T A (2006), Engineering

Analysis with ANSYS Software, 1 st Edition, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

  1. Pickles Joseph (1988), “Portable Powered Screw Jack Actuator

Unit”, US Patent Number 4,749,169, Troy, MI.

  1. Prather Thomas J (2009), “Vehicle Lift System”, US Patent

Number 7,472,889, Rock Springs, WY.

  1. Whittingham Reginald P (1990), “Vehicle Jack”, US Patent

Number 4,969,631, Tustin, CA.

WHAT ARE THE CONCEPT OF MONOTHEISM AND PANTHEISM


INTRODUCTION

The term monotheism comes from the Greek monos, which means one, and theos, which means god. Thus, monotheism is the belief in the existence of a single god. Monotheism is typically contrasted with polytheism, which is a belief in many gods, and atheism, which is an absence of any belief in any gods

Monotheism is the religious belief that God is “one” (singular).  Example religions are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The word pantheism is built from the Greek roots pan, which means all, and theos, which mens god; thus, pantheism is either a belief that the universe is God and worthy of worship, or that God is the sum total of all there is and that the combined substances, forces, and natural laws which we see around us are manifestations of God. Pantheism.  Pantheism is the belief God and the universe can be equated; that God is the universe. This is different from panentheism (also called monistic monotheism), where all is in God; it says the divine interpenetrates all aspects of the universe and transcends it. So in panentheism the divine is separate, whereas in pantheism the universe itself could be defined as the divine. It’s often no actual divinity however, but a spiritual reverence, or awe. You could rightfully call it the sublime, but I suppose that would apply to panentheism equally

CONCEPT OF MONOTHEISM

The concept of Monotheism is solely associated with Islam. It was first introduced in the SEA during the 13th Century by Arab traders who came to Malacca to do business in the spice region. Parameswara, the founder of Malacca who became a Muslim and changed his name to Sultan Iskandar Muzaffar Shah, 5 is an important figure in introducing Islam to his subjects. There is a popular theory now that Islam came to ‘Tanah Melayu’ from Arab traders who sailed from China.

CONCEPT OF PANTHEISM

The primary meaning of “pantheism” is “the belief that the Divine is identifiable with the forces of nature and with natural substances,” and it is this meaning of pantheism which is properly contrasted with “pantheism” (the belief that the Divine is within the natural world but not limited to it). This pantheism *denies* all Gods and Goddesses, at least to the extent that They are understood as anything more than natural forces. Thus if you believe that the Goddess is something more than the physical planet Earth, you are NOT a pantheist; you are a pantheist.

A secondary meaning of “pantheism” is “worship that admits or tolerates all gods.” As this meaning directly contradicts the primary meaning, persons using the term should be careful to specify which meaning they intend. (Under this meaning, if there is any god whose existence you do not acknowledge – Satan, for example – you are NOT a pantheist.)

Within the pagan community, the term pantheism is used even more sloppily as a synonym for polytheism and/or animism. This had led many people who don’t meet either of the above definitions to mistakenly call themselves pantheists.

P> By that, I mean that I believe the Christian God exists, but
P> don’t necessarily worship that particular deity. If all gods
P> and goddesses exist, you can worship one of them (Monotheism),
P> without excluding the existence of the rest of them

That’s not monotheism, that’s henotheism. Monotheism is the belief that only one “God” exists. Note, however, that monotheism does not deny the existence of lesser beings (saints, angels, etc.) who might also be called “gods” in a polytheistic system. Note also that Christianity is not truly monotheistic, as it has the top job shared three ways.

Pantheism and Western Monotheism

How does pantheism relate to traditional Judaeo-Christian conceptions of God? As Paul Harrison (“Defining the Cosmic Divinity,” SP website) points out, traditional (Western) religion describes a God who is ultimately a mystery, beyond human comprehension; awe-inspiring; overwhelmingly powerful; creator of the universe; eternal and infinite; and transcendent. The divine universe fits some of these descriptions without modification and it fits others if we allow ourselves to interpret the terms flexibly.

The divine universe is mysterious. Though we can understand the universe more adequately as scientific research proceeds, there will always be questions to which we will not yet have answers; and explanations of ultimate origins will always remain speculative (they are too far in the past for us to decipher clearly).

The divine universe is awe-inspiring. Would a creator behind it be any more awe-inspiring than the universe itself?

The universe is clearly very powerful. It creates and it destroys on a vast scale.

So far as we know, the universe created all that exists; which is to say that, the universe as it is now was created by the universe as it was a moment ago, and that universe by the universe that existed a moment before that, and so on. If we view universe in this way, we can keep the idea of creator and creation and yet have no need to imagine a being apart from the universe who created it. The divine being is indeed a creator, in the pantheist view. Indeed, the creativity of the natural universe is probably the best evidence for its divinity.

Is the universe eternal? Well, it depends on how you understand eternity. Traditional Western theology understands eternity as a quality of a God that exists altogether outside time. Yet the dynamic and changing universe is very much bound up with time, so it is not eternal in the theological sense. Possibly it is everlasting, maybe it had no first moment and will never cease to exist. Scientific evidence does point to a Big Bang several billion years ago, from which our universe in roughly its current form originated, but if we accept the time-honored precept that nothing comes from nothing, we cannot rule out the existence of a material universe before this Big Bang.

Is the universe transcendent? In Western theology transcendence is a term often paired with eternity. A transcendent being is essentially outside and independent of the universe. Of course, the divinity which pantheists revere is not transcendent in that way. However, in ordinary language, to transcend is to surpass. Well, the universe which includes us also certainly surpasses us, as it surpasses everything we are capable of knowing or observing.

 

Differences with Western Monotheism

Pantheism has clear differences with the traditional description of God. It departs from the picture of God given in the Old Testament to the extent that the Old Testament attributes human attributes to the divine being, such as a willingness to make deals (You worship me and I’ll make you my Chosen People) and anger (for example, Yahweh’s anger at the Israelites’ worship of the Golden Calf).

Pantheism also avoids some features of the theological conception of God which arises from a mix of Greek philosophical influences and Judaeo-Christian thought. For example, pantheism does not hold that the divinity we revere is a first cause wholly independent of matter, or that the divine being freely creates the physical universe from nothing but its own will.

 

 

 

CONCLUSION
There is a clear difference between the ‘isms’. Pantheism and Polytheism is the belief in the existence of several gods, while Monotheism believes in the existence of one god. Be it Phantheism, Polytheism or Monotheism, the artists who produced the artwork throughout the different religious periods in the SEA countries were responsible in coloring the region with different kinds of artistic expressions. The ‘Dongson Drum’ and the ‘Boat of Death’ it has been used by the believer in all the religion ceremonies and funerals. For ‘Makyong’ and ‘Wayang Kulit’, this two activities work as a messenger to the people about the Ramayana Epic and a way of asking the devotees to be good in life. The ‘Chandi’ Lembah Bujang and Borobodor built by the Buddish in Kedah and Jogjakarta during the Buddhism did give benefit to the people in the form of a place of worship and knowledge in the religion. As for Islam, the artist leads by the ‘Pandai Tukang’ Melayu have transformed the idea of beauty through the woodcarving and others. All these practices through the religion have given the work of art with a purpose not just Art for Art sake as ideally by the western artist.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. (2002), Macmillan English Dictionary, Macmillan Education, UK. Pg 1025
    2. Zainal Abidin Abdul Wahid (1972), Sejarah Malayisa Se Pintas Lalu, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur. Pg 12
    3. (2002), Macmillan English Dictionary, Macmillan Education, UK. Pg 1025
    4. Last updated: 23 Jul 1996, http://www.mahidol.ac.th/Thailand/glance-thai/animism.html, The External Cultural Relations Division Office of The National Culture by Mahidol University
    5. Dr. Siti Zainon Ismail (2002), Meng’Ukir’ Seni Melayu, Fakuli Sains Sosial dan Kemanusaian, UKM, Malaysia.
    6.Muhammad Haji Salleh, ed (1997), Tun Seri Lanang, Sulalat al Sulatin (Sejarah Melayu), Yayasan Karyawan dan Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, KL
    7. Prof. H. M. Toha Jahja Omar (1964), Hukum Seni Musik, Seni Suara dan Tari dalam Islam, Jakarta. Pg 307
    8. Sulaiman Esa (2000), Syerah, Kuala Lumpur.
    9. Dr. Siti Zainon Ismail (2002), Meng’Ukir’ Seni Melayu, Fakuli Sains Sosial dan Kemanusaian UKM, Malaysia.

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