1. DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN REFERENCING AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
Referencing is an important feature of academic writing, and we know it’s one that can be confusing at times. That’s why the Library has put together a collection of resources to help you acknowledge your sources properly. See your Subject Portal to find the referencing style relevant to your subject, or check with your department.
Referencing is the process of citing or documenting the sources of quotes, theories, ideas, illustrations and diagrams that you have used in writing your university assignments. When we acknowledge sources in this way, we give credit to another person’s words, ideas or opinions in the form of a note and/or bibliographic reference or citation.
There are a number of reasons why you need to reference your work:
• To show that relevant sources have been investigated
• To enable the person reading our work to trace the original sources we have used
• To provide documentary support for an argument
• To give differing points of view of an argument
• To indicate that we have not used someone else’s ideas and claimed them as our own
Referencing your work adequately will ensure that you are not accused of plagiarism. You must acknowledge (reference or cite) any work, or part of any work, that you quote, paraphrase, summarise or copy. You do not have to reference information that is considered general knowledge (e.g. that Wellington is the capital of New Zealand).
A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used (whether referenced or not) in the process of researching your work. In general, a bibliography should include:
• the authors’ names
• the titles of the works
• the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources
• the dates your copies were published
• the page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multi-source volumes)
1. Referencing is the process of citing or documenting the sources of quotes, theories, ideas, illustrations and diagrams that you have used in writing your university assignments. 1. A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used (whether referenced or not) in the process of researching your work.
2. To enable the person reading our work to trace the original sources we have used
2. Bibliography includes authors name and source of work
3. To indicate that we have not used someone else’s ideas and claimed them as our own
3. the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources are indicated in a bibliography
4. Referencing includes the dates your copies of work were source from 4. Bibliography includes the dates your copies or work were published
5. Referencing includes authors name and year of publications as well as publishers 5. Bibliography includes the page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multi-source volumes)
2. DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF REFERENCING STYLES USED IN NIGERIA SCHOOLS
Referencing or citing your sources is an important part of academic writing. It lets you acknowledge the ideas or words of others if you use them in your work and helps avoid plagiarism. Referencing also demonstrates that you’ve read relevant background literature and you can provide authority for statements you make in your assignments. There are different citation styles used in writing research reports or papers in Nigeria schools .
1. The Chicago style of the University of Chicago Press,
2.The Turabian style of Kate Turabian of the University of Chicago, which are often the preferred styles in History;
3. The Modern Language Association (MLA) of America style, used in the field of literature, arts, humanities, and some other disciplines;
4. The CBE format of the American Council of Science Educator, preferred in the natural sciences.
5. The American Psychological Association (APA) format is the documentation advice for writers in the social sciences (education inclusive), produced by the American Psychological Association.
However, the American Psychological Association (APA) format is the most widely accepted style in the field of education. The most current edition of their publication manual is the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2001), written primarily for professional publications in scholarly journals. Updates on the publication have also been published on-line by APA (2003). The manual and updates present information on manuscript content, organisation, writing style, in-text referencing, tables, figures, reference list, and so on.
The Harvard citation style can vary in minor features such as punctuation, capitalisation, abbreviations, and the use of italics.
The examples in this guide have been developed in collaboration with the UWA Business School. Always check with your lecturer/tutor for which citation style they prefer you to use.
Referencing correctly is important to demonstrate how widely you have researched your subject, to show the basis of your arguments and conclusions, and to avoid plagiarism.
Each school in the University requires students to use a specific style of referencing. Check the referencing style used in your school before you begin.
Guides to Referencing Styles
Abbreviation Full Name
American Chemical Society
Australian Guide to Legal Citation
American Medical Association
American Psychological Assocation
Chicago Manual of Style
Council of Science Editors/Council of Biology Editors
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Modern Language Association of America