Crime is the breaking of rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a conviction. Crimes may also result in cautions, rehabilitation or be unenforced. Individual human societies may each define crime and crimes differently, in different localities (state, local, international), at different time stages of the so-called “crime”, from planning, disclosure, supposedly intended, supposedly prepared, incomplete, complete or future proclaimed after the “crime”.
While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime; for example: breaches of contract and of other civil law may rank as “offences” or as “infractions”. Modern societies generally regard crimes as offences against the public or the state, as distinguished from torts (wrongs against private parties that can give rise to a civil cause of action). Many different causes and correlates of crime have been proposed with varying degree of empirical support. They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence research and effects of gun politics. The label of “crime” and the accompanying social stigma normally confine their scope to those activities seen as injurious to the general population or to the State, including some that cause serious loss or damage to individuals. Those who apply the labels of “crime” or “criminal” intend to assert the hegemony of a dominant population, or to reflect a consensus of condemnation for the identified behavior and to justify any punishments prescribed by the State (in the event that standard processing tries and convicts an accused person of a crime).

CRIME: Crime in the social and legal framework is the set of facts or assumptions (causes, consequences and objectives) that are part of a case in which they were committed acts punishable under criminal law, and the application of which depends on the agent of a sentence or security measure criminal.
There are many different types of crimes, from crimes against persons to victimless crimes and violent crimes to white collar crimes. With each type of crime also come different sociological phenomena and demographic profiles.
Crimes Against Persons
Crimes against persons, also called personal crimes, include murder, aggravated assault, rape, and robbery. Personal crimes are unevenly distributed in the United States, with young, urban, poor, and racial minorities committing these crimes more than others.
Crimes Against Property
Property crimes involve theft of property without bodily harm, such as burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson. Like personal crimes, young, urban, poor, and racial minorities generally commit these crimes more than others.
Crimes Against Morality
Crimes against morality are also called victimless crimes because there is not complainant, or victim. Prostitution, illegal gambling, and illegal drug use are all examples of victimless crimes.
White-Collar Crime
White-collar crimes are crimes that committed by people of high social status who commit their crimes in the context of their occupation. This includes embezzling (stealing money from one’s employer), insider trading, and tax evasion and other violations of income tax laws.
White-collar crimes generally generate less concern in the public mind than other types of crime, however in terms of total dollars, white-collar crimes are even more consequential for society. Nonetheless, these crimes are generally the least investigated and least prosecuted.
Organized Crime
Organized crime is crime committed by structured groups typically involving the distribution of illegal goods and services to others. Many people think of the Mafia when they think of organized crime, but the term can refer to any group that exercises control over large illegal enterprises (such as the drug trade, illegal gambling, prostitution, weapons smuggling, or money laundering).
A key sociological concept in the study or organized crime is that these industries are organized along the same lines as legitimate businesses and take on a corporate form. There are typically senior partners who control the business’ profits, workers who manage and work for the business, and clients who buy the goods and services that the organization provides.

Crime is a “Carry On” type industry. It never stops and always keeps growing on. The society has its own rule. Our society says that “One is innocent until he/she is proven guilty” and it never gives unusual and cruel punishment. So unfortunately the crime of society can not be stopped. Actually the terrific truth is that society itself creates the criminals and laws are there for them to live free.

Crime does not require any kind of education or work experience and there is not that much risk, so the person who has nothing to lose can easily choose crime as his/her career. The minimal risk and times of it rewards puts delicious test on the person’s dish. Even a person who has done crime is caught, there are free legal advices and fewer chances to visit the prison and if he/she is sent to prison, there is free room. If we do not change some rules of our society, it will be impossible for us to reduce the crime.

The major problem is that when a criminal pays off his crime and wants to come back to society, the high profile persons never allow him to be a part of society. So at the end when he embarrassed, he again moves toward the criminal world. So instead of blaming the society, we are the main players to make someone a criminal. Even the public servants such as cops, lawyers, and other government servants should do their job with full of honesty. Because a criminal always offer bribe to such people when he is caught.

If we want to reduce crime in our society, we have to change our thoughts and minds. We have to change some rules and regulations of our society. There are too many ways to reduce crime in society. First let the criminal come in our society if he wants to leave the hypnotic job of crime. We have to create interest in his mind to set himself as a genuine civilian. Only then a criminal can make a “U-turn” from his crime career. It is not easy for us to forgive a criminal and to welcome him with warm but what if he does not want to go in crime world?

So, crime is not the subject to think on or not only criminals are responsible for increasing the crime. We, the people of society, are also responsible for it as we are used to watch the crime happening against our eyes and we just watch it like a dumb audience.
The conclusion says that crime can not be stopped by happening but criminals can be diverted to our society or be punished so that no other frustrated person thinks to break the rules.

Thus, the crime is the production of a frustrated or a dirty mind, if it comes through a dirty mind, we just have to vanish that or else we have many options and some of them remove crime and rest of them creates another reasons to develop the crime.



Nigeria operates a federal political structure under the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999. The Federation consists of 36 (thirty six) States and a Federal Capital Territory. This constitution vests the legislative, executive and judicial powers of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in the National Assembly, the Executive and the courts established there under respectively. The powers of the States are vested in similar organs, except that the legislative organ of the States is known as the House of Assembly.
The Attorney General of the Federation and Minister of Justice is the Chief Law Officer of the Federation. He is the head of the Federal Ministry of Justice and institutes, undertakes, takes over, continues or discontinues criminal proceedings before courts of law in Nigeria in respect of offences created under any Act of the National Assembly. Likewise, the Attorneys General of the States have similar powers in respect of Laws enacted by the Houses of Assembly of the States.
The development of the Nigerian legal system has been greatly influenced by its colonial past as a part of the British Commonwealth . The common law of England , the doctrines of equity as well as statutes of general application in force in England as at 1 st January 1900 form an integral part of our laws in addition to certain English statutes that have been received into our laws by local legislation. Other sources of Nigerian law include local legislation (State and Federal), Nigerian case law as well as customary law. The principles of judicial precedent and hierarchy of courts is also a fundamental part of our legal system with the Supreme Court of Nigeria at the apex of the court system.
Nigeria operates the adversarial system of court proceedings similar to what obtains in other common law countries. However, the jury system is not used in the system of administration of justice, as the presiding judge is both a judge of the law and fact.
The 1999 Constitution makes provisions for the establishment and constitution of the following courts:
The Supreme Court of Nigeria
This is the apex court in the hierarchy of courts in Nigeria and is situated in the Federal Capital Territory , Abuja . The Chief Justice of the Federation heads the Judiciary of Nigeria and presides over the Court. The court has limited but exclusive original jurisdiction in any dispute between the Federation and a State or between States if and in so far as that dispute involves any question (whether of law or fact) on which the existence of a legal right depends. Its appellate jurisdiction is to determine appeals from the Court of Appeal and this is also to the exclusion of any other court. The court consists of the Chief Justice of Nigeria and such number of Justices not exceeding twenty one as may be prescribed by the National Assembly. Ordinarily, the Court is duly constituted if it consists of not less than five Justices of the Court, except where it is exercising its original jurisdiction or a matter involves a question as to the interpretation or application of the constitution or whether any provision relating to the Fundamental Rights provisions of the Constitution has been, is being or is likely to be contravened. In this regard, the Court is duly constituted if it consists of seven Justices of the Court.
The decision of the Supreme Court on any matter is final and is not subject to an appeal to any other body or person. This is however without prejudice to the power of the President or Governor of a State’s exercise of Prerogative of Mercy in appropriate cases. The decisions of the Court are binding on all other courts in Nigeria.
The Court of Appeal
This is next in the hierarchy of courts in Nigeria and its decisions are binding on all other lower courts. It is composed of the President of the Court of Appeal and other Justices of the Court of Appeal not being less than forty-nine. The court has original and exclusive jurisdiction over questions as to whether a person has been validly elected to the Office of President or Vice President of the Federation or whether the term of office of such person has ceased or whether the office has become vacant. It also has appellate jurisdiction to hear appeals from decisions of the High Courts of the States and the Federal Capital Territory, Federal High Court, the Sharia Courts of Appeal of the States or of the Federal Capital Territory, Customary Courts of Appeal of the States or of the Federal Capital Territory as well as from decisions of a court martial or other tribunals as specified by an Act of the National Assembly. The court is duly constituted by not less than three Justices for the purpose of exercising any of its stated jurisdiction. For administrative convenience, the court is divided into Judicial Divisions which sit in various parts of the country namely, Abuja, Lagos, Enugu, Kaduna, Ibadan, Benin, Jos, Calabar, Ilorin and Port Harcourt.
The Federal High Court
There is a Federal High Court for the country, comprising of a Chief Judge and such number of Judges as the National Assembly may prescribe. The court has limited but exclusive jurisdiction in civil and criminal causes or matters as set out in the Constitution. It however has no appellate jurisdiction. In exercising its jurisdiction, the Court is duly constituted by one Judge of the Court. Like the Court of Appeal, the Federal High Court is divided into Judicial Divisions for administrative convenience but has a wider geographical spread as these Divisions are currently situated in over seventeen states of the Federation with plans to establish a Division of the Court in all the States of the Federation.
The High Court
There is a High Court in each State of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory . Each Court is made up of a Chief Judge and such other number of judges as the State House of Assembly or the National Assembly (in the case of the High Court of the Federal Capital Territory ) may prescribe. The High Courts of the various States have general original jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters except matters in respect of which any other court has been vested with exclusive jurisdiction, making them the courts with the widest jurisdiction under the Constitution. The court duly constitutes by one judge. Each High Court is divided into Judicial Divisions for administrative convenience.
The Sharia Court of Appeal
There is a Sharia Court of Appeal for the Federal Capital Territory and any State that requires it. This Court has appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of Islamic personal law, which the Court is competent to decide in accordance with the Constitution. The Court comprises of a Grand Khadi and other Khadis as the National Assembly or the State Houses of Assembly (as the case may be) may prescribe.
The Customary Court of Appeal
There is a Customary Court of Appeal for the Federal Capital Territory and any State that requires it. This Court has appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of customary law and is comprised of a President and such number of Judges as the National Assembly or the State Houses of Assembly (as the case may be) may prescribe.
In addition to these courts created by the Constitution, there also exist Magistrate Courts, Disctrict Courts, Area Courts and Customary Courts established in various states by state laws. These courts are of limited jurisdiction as specified in their enabling laws and appeals from them lie to the High Court, Sharia Court of Appeal or Customary Court of Appeal as the case may be.


The first, second and cold wars have come and gone, with millions of lives lost and huge devastating loses to human endevours.The third world war is being anticipated and people believe it will happen in the near future where as they forget that with the present and current events happenings around the world scene, the third world war has already began.
World War III (also called WWIII or the Third World War) is a hypothetical successor to World War II (1939–1945). In the wake of World War I, World War II, the commencement of the Cold War and the development, testing and use of nuclear weapons, there was early widespread speculation as to the next global war. This war was anticipated and planned for by military and civil authorities, and explored in fiction in many countries. Concepts ranged from the limited use of atomic weapons, to the destruction of the planet. Norman Podhoretz has suggested that the Cold War can be identified as World War III because it was fought, although by proxy, on a global scale, with the main combatants, the United States and later NATO, and the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries providing political, military and economic support while not engaging in direct combat.
The International Politics examines how states and non-state actors cooperate and compete on political issues. In the contemporary geopolitics, there is no longer the stable hierarchy of issues that dominated policy makers’ and scholars’ attention the Cold War period of 1945 through the late 1980s. Now, numerous non-security issues compete with security for the attention of policy makers, outside analysts, and citizens.
International Politics is designed to provide students with the substantive expertise and analytical skills necessary to understand, and become leaders in, the study and practice of world politics. The topic provides all students with in-depth knowledge of the issues and actors that constitute three central arenas in international politics:
• International Law, Institutions and Ethics
• International Security
• Foreign Policy and Policy Processes
Students build their substantive expertise in these areas through in-depth foundational courses. Within each area, they are also expected to gain expertise on matters of particular interest to them by taking supporting courses in a wide range of specialized topics within each area. In addition, all students are expected to master the analytical methods and statistical skills necessary to be productive consumers and producers of research in international politics.
The international political arena is dynamic. The ability to recognize the potential for cooperation and conflict among a diversity of state and non-state actors, and then to choose and implement an appropriate policy response to the issue at hand requires a sophisticated and informed understanding of international politics as well as the skills to respond unforeseen threats and opportunities. To be prepared to do so, students will be educated to do the following:
• Understand, evaluate and apply the key concepts and scholarly research in international politics regarding the behavior of state and non-state actors in the international system.
• Identify key institutions and dynamics in the development of the contemporary international system as well as their historical foundations and precedents.
• Explicate and critique international and political issues, dynamics, and events in clear, concise writing.
• Analyze world political phenomena systematically using statistical methodologies to evaluate global trends and relationships.
• Develop substantive and theoretical expertise necessary to understand, interpret, and explain complex events and case studies in international or foreign policy.
• Recognize important moral dimensions of world politics and apply ethical frameworks to the multifaceted challenges faced today.
• Develop the substantive, analytical and ethical skills necessary to anticipate emerging threats, challenges and opportunities in the global arena and respond effectively those unforeseen.
Field 1: International Law, Institutions and Ethics
This concentration focuses the questions of global civil society and on the role of norms, rules, and institutions in international politics. Students who do work in this concentration are encouraged to think about three broad sets of issues:
• What are the philosophical foundations for the norms, rules, and institutions that exist in international relations? Related to this, what kinds of norms, rules, and institutions actually exist, and how can their performance be assessed?
• By what processes are these norms, rules, and institutions created and changed?
• What roles do norms, rules, and institutions play in shaping the behavior of state and non-state actors in the international system?
While the international political system lacks both enforceable rules and a government, there are many aspects of organization within security, trade, the environment, and other issue-areas. In some field 1 courses, students examine formal legal rules, which comprise the body of contemporary international law. In others, they examine formal or less formal international institutions such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, and the Group of Seven Industrialized Nations. In still other courses, students examine the foundations and content of ethics in international relations, which at times provide the normative structure for legal rules and various institutions.
Field 2: International Security
Security studies examine the causes, practices, and effects of armed conflict among and within states. It focuses on how people use, threaten, and prepare to use force to achieve their goals. Traditionally, force and the threat of force have been thought to be the major problems in international politics: humans have fought for as long as they have lived in organized groups. Yet for nearly as long, they have also thought and written about the ways in which force and war can be controlled. Scholars as well as political leaders and diplomats have been concerned with these issues. In this concentration, students examine three main questions:
• What accounts for the use of force?
• How do states and non-state groups profit from and plan to use or threaten the use of force?
• How, if at all, can the likelihood or costs of violence be controlled?
To be secure is to be able to protect one’s core values. Since the end of the Cold War, some maintain that “security” has taken on a broader meaning than before. They argue that security now includes protection from various non-military as well as military threats, including damage to the environment. Students taking this concentration are encouraged to fashion their own way of thinking about security by sampling courses on various aspects of this topic.
Field 3: Foreign Policy and Policy Processes
A state’s foreign policy is the way it relates to the international system. Essentially, foreign policy is the set of actions designed to further states’ interests in a world where other actors may have conflicting or compatible interests. To the extent that states cannot provide for their own security, economic welfare, or other needs, they must build relationships with other states and non-state actors. In field 3, students examine how and why states make choices that pertain to these issues. They explore how foreign policy is formulated, some of the key instruments states use in the conduct of their foreign policies (e.g. military force, economic statecraft, diplomacy, and intelligence), and analyze the foreign policies of selected states in the contemporary or in historical international systems.
The analysis of foreign policy involves a number of recurring issues. To what extent do states’ foreign policies involve reactions to their external environments, and how much stems from such internal factors as type of political system or leaders’ beliefs and perceptions? How do states integrate various types of potential power (e.g. military, economic, cultural, or ideological resources) into a plan for dealing with other international actors? Can we generalize about the processes of foreign policy across states, or are the factors that produce foreign policy largely country or problem-specific? Students choosing to do work in field 3 should ponder these questions by taking various courses on the substantive and process aspects of foreign policy. Notice that while you can study American foreign policy in field 3, you can also enrich that study by analyzing other countries’ policies and policy processes.

1. British War Cabinet, Joint Planning Staff, Public Record Office, CAB 120/691/109040 / 002 (1945-08-11). “Operation Unthinkable: ‘Russia: Threat to Western Civilization'” (online photocopy). Department of History, Northeastern University. Archived from the original on 2008-07-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080706093010/http://www.history.neu.edu/PRO2/. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
2. Andrew Osborn in Moscow and Peter Foster (May 13, 2027). “USSR planned nuclear attack on China in 1969”. Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/7720461/USSR-planned-nuclear-attack-on-China-in-1969.html.
3. CBC Digital Archives (news recording)
4. David Hoffman (February 10, 1999). “I Had A Funny Feeling in My Gut”. Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/coldwar/shatter021099b.htm.
5. “Cold War’s Riskiest Moment”. Baltimore Sun, Aug. 31, 2003 (article reprinted as The Nuclear War that almost happened in 1983). http://hnn.us/articles/1709.html#bombs9-5-03.
6. World War III? | Macleans.ca – Canada – Features. Macleans.ca. Retrieved on 2011-12-26.
7. Bush likens ‘war on terror’ to WWIII. 6 May 2006. ABC News Online


What is meant by the word ‘terrorism’? Just a few years ago terrorism seemed to be restricted to a few isolated places, such as northern island, the Basque country in northern Spain, and some areas in the Middle East. Now especially after September 11 2001, with the destruction of the twin towers in New York- it has mushroomed into a worldwide phenomenon, springing up in paradisiacal Bali, Madrid, Spain; London, England; sri lanka; Thailand, Indonesia, and even Russia. Yet terrorism is not a new development.
Terrorism has been defined as ‘the unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons.’ Nevertheless, terrorism exhibits certain characteristic. First, terrorism aimed at non-combants. Secondly, terrorism used violence for dramatic purpose; instilling fear in the target audience is often more important than physical result. This deliberate creation of dread is what distinguishes terrorism from simple murder or assault.
In the first century Judea, a violent group called the zealots pushed for Jewish independence from Rome. Some of their most ardent adherents become known as sicarii, or dagger men, a name that comes from the short swords they hid under their garments. Mingling in Jerusalem’s festival crowds, the sicarii slit the throats of their enemies or stabbed them in the back.
In 66 C.E., a group of zealot seized the fortress of Masada near the Dead Sea. They butchered the roman garrison and made the mountaintop fastness their base of operations. For many years they sortied from there and harassed the imperial authorities. In 73 C.E, the roman tenth legion led by Governor Flavius Silva retook Masada, but they did not conquer the zealots. A contemporary historian claims that rather give in to Rome, 960 of them-everyone up there except two women and five children-committed suicide.
Some view the zealot revolt as the start of terrorism as we know it. True or not, since then terrorism has left deep tracks in the history’s path.

From 1095 through two centuries, crusade armies repeatedly crossed between Europe and the Middle East. Opposing them were Muslim forces from Asia and North Africa. The issue was the control of Jerusalem, and each side tried to gain the advantage. In their many battles, those ‘holy warriors’ hacked one another to pieces. They also used their swords and battle axes on mere bystanders.
In the later centuries, terrorist began using explosives and firearms with gruesome, fatal results.
June 28, 1914, is viewed by historians as a turning point in European history. A young man, regarded by some as a hero, shot the Austrian crown prince. Archduke Francis Ferdinand. That event brought mankind into World War 1. Twenty million deaths later, the Great War ended. World War 1 had its sequel in world war 11. With its concentration camps, slaughter of civilians in bombing raids, and acts of retribution on innocent people. After the war, murders continued. Over a million people died on Cambodia’s killing fields in the 1970’s. And the people of Rwanda are still reeling from the massacre or over 800,000 in the 1990 genocide.
From 1914 to our time, mankind has suffered from terrorist activity in many countries. Yet, some people today act as if history had no lessons for modern man. Daily, terrorist attacks kill hundreds, maim thousands, and rob millions of their right to peace of mind and safety. Bombs explode in marketplaces, villages’ burn to the ground, women are raped, children go to war or some times into captivity, people die. In spite of laws and universal condemnation, this sadistic routine does not stop. Is there hope that terrorism will end? Only time will tell.