Vitiligo, also called leukoderma, is triggered by the loss of pigment-producing cells in the skin. This result in the formation of white spots and patches on the skin. With some patients the condition never progresses beyond the appearance of one patch. With others, however, it spreads over the body quickly. Still others may suffer a slower form of vitiligo that continues to spread over many years. Vitiligo is neither physically painful nor contagious.
Not all cases of vitiligo may be as obvious as too alarming, for it is mostly noticeable on dark-skinned people. But there are many people afflicted to one degree or another. Statistics show that between 1 and 2 percent of world population maybe affected. Vitiligo knows no racial boundaries and affects men and women equally. It cause is still unknown.
While there is no sure cure for vitiligo, there are many ways of dealing with it. For instance, in light-skinned patients, the condition is more evident when the unaffected skin is suntanned. Hence, avoiding exposure to the sun can make the condition less noticeable. With dark-skinned people, special cosmetics can help disguises the contrasts in skin colour. Some patients have responded well to a process known as repigmentation. This treatment involves many months of medication and the use of special ultra-violet equipment. In some cases this treatment has caused normal colour to return to parts of the afflicted skin. Other patients choose depigmentation. The goal of this treatment is to even out the skin tone by destroying the remaining pigment-producing cells with the use of medication.
Vitiligo can cause emotional distress to those afflicted, especially when it spread to the face. In one recent study a woman afflicted by vitiligo explains, “two children looked at me and ran away screaming. Others are hesitant to speak with me, thinking that I may have a contagious disease or that I have been cursed”. People cannot catch vitiligo by touch or through the air.


A normal night’s sleep is mostly divided into two types: what is commonly called REM (rapid eye movement, or dream) sleep and non- REM (non dream) sleep. You can tell that a person is in REM sleep when the bulge of his eyeballs can be seen rapidly moving under his eyelids.
Non-REM sleep can further be divided into four stages. After lying down, you gently enter stage one-drowsiness or shallow sleep. During this stage your muscles relax and your brain waves are irregular and rapid. Its first occurrence each night typically last between 30 seconds and 7 minutes. When you move to stage two-true sleep-where you will usually spend 20 % of the night, brain waves becomes larger. You may have fragmented thoughts or images passing through your mind, but you are unaware of your surroundings and cannot see even if your eyes are open.
Next comes stages three and four-deeper to deepest sleep. Here, in what is also called delta sleep, your brain produces large, slow waves. It is now that your body is most difficult to rouse, as most of the blood is directed to the muscles. During this time usually about 50% of the night, body recovery and repair take place, and it is during delta sleep that young bodies grow. It is important to note that anyone, youth or adult, who does not experience the deeper delta stages, will likely feel fatigued, apathetic, or even depressed the next day.
Finally, each cycle is completed by the radically different REM stage. During this dreaming stage (typically occurring about every 90 minutes), more blood is directed to the brain and your brain waves are almost the same as if you were awake. However, you cannot move your muscles. This immobility apparently keeps you from acting out dreams and hurting yourself or others.
These REM, or dream, cycles get longer each time they occur during the night and appear to be crucial to mental health. In computer like fashion, the brain sorts through short-term memory storage, deleting unimportant data and retaining what is desired for long-term memory. Abnormally infrequent dream cycles are known to result in emotional difficulties. Insomniacs, for example, speed less time than average in REM sleep, contributing to a vicious downward spiral of increasing anxiety.
So what happens when we are regularly deprived (voluntarily or involuntarily) of these repeated cycles, thus creating a sleep debt? If we get fewer consecutive hours of sleep than we need, we won’t get as much of the last and longest REM sleep period, which is vital to mental health. If our sleep patterns become irregular, consisting of a series of naps, we often don’t get to the deep delta sleep that is necessary to mend our bodies. Those in serious debt suffer from shortened attention spans, memory and vocabulary loss, a lessened ability to think analytically, and diminished creativity.
What triggers the body to sleep? A number of factors evidently combine to create a circadian (daily) rhythm, or wake-sleep pattern. Brain chemistry appears to play a role. Also, there is a nucleus of nerve cells located in the brain that evidently helps control the sleep cycle. This ‘clock’ is situated close to where the optic nerves come together. Light thus influences how sleepy we feel. Bright light wakes you up, while darkness induces sleep.
Your body temperature is also involved. When you temperature is highest-typically midmorning and midevening-you are the most alert. As your body temperature drops, you become increasingly drowsy. Researchers agree that the pattern of wakefulness versus sleepiness varies with individuals.


The significance and the roles played by glucose, pancreas and sugar are often associated with the word, DIABETES. The term “diabetes mellitus” comes from a Greek word meaning “to siphon” and a Latin word meaning “sweet like honey”. These words aptly describe the disorder, for water passes through the person who has diabetes as if it were being siphoned from the mouth through the urinary tract and right out of the body.
Furthermore, the urine is sweet with sugar. Infact, prior to the discovery of more efficient techniques, one test for diabetes was to pour a patient’s urine near an anthill. If the insects were attracted, this indicated the presence of sugar.
To help our learners or readers who may be diabetes sufferers, it is important they become aware of the roles of these three important substances in there body system.

Glucose fuels the body trillion’s of cells. To enter the cells, however, it needs a “key”-insulin, a chemical released by the pancreas. With type 1 diabetes, insulin is simply not available. With type 2, the body makes insulin but usually not enough. Moreover, the cells are reluctant to let insulin in-a condition called insulin resistance. With both forms of diabetes, the result is the same: hungry cells and dangerous levels of sugar in the blood.
In type 1 diabetes, a person’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Hence, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease and is sometimes called immune-mediated diabetes. Factors that can trigger an immune reaction include viruses, toxic chemicals, and certain drugs. Genetic makeup may also be implicated, for type 1 diabetes often runs in families, and it is most common among Caucasians.
With type 2 diabetes, the genetic factor is even stronger but with a greater occurrence among non-Caucasians. Australian aborigines and Native Americans are among the most affected, the latter having the highest rate of type 2 diabetes in the world. Researchers are studying the relationship between genetics and obesity, as well as the way excess fat seems to promote insulin resistance in genetically susceptible people. Unlike type 1, type 2 diabetes occurs mainly in those who are over 40 years of age.

About the size of banana, the pancreas lies just behind the stomach. According to the book the unofficial guide to living with diabetes, “the healthy pancreas performs a continuous and exquisite balancing act, managing to sustain smooth, stable blood sugar levels by releasing just the right amount of insulin as glucose levels wax and wane throughout the day”. Beta cells within the pancreas are the source of the hormone insulin.
When beta cells fail to produce enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, causing hyperglycemia. The opposite-low blood sugar-is called hypoglycemia. In concert with the pancreas, the liver helps manage blood-sugar levels by storing excess glucose in a form called glycogen. When commanded by the pancreas, the liver converts glycogen back into glucose for use by the body.

It is a common misconception that eating a lot of sugar causes diabetes. Medical evidence shows that getting fat-regardless of sugar intake – increases the risk among genetically susceptible individuals. Still, eating too much is unhealthy, since it provides poor nutrition and contributes to obesity.
Another misconception is that people with diabetes have an abnormal craving for sugar. In reality, though, they have the same desire for sweet as most others. When it is not controlled, diabetes can lead to hunger-but not necessarily for sugar. People with diabetes can eat sweets, but they must factor their sugar intake into their overall diet plan.
Recent studies have shown that a diet high in fructose-sugar derived from fruits and vegetables-can contribute to insulin resistance and even diabetes in animals, regardless of their weight.

insomnia, practical guides to follow

When occasional insomnia occurs, it is best one follows some practical steps to help overcome such habits. However there are things you must do or avoid to help you sleep well. What about occasional insomnia? Some of these practical steps will help:

1. Avoid alcohol as well as stimulants such as tea or coffee near bedtime.
Many people mistakenly believe that alcoholic beverages will help put them to bed. However, clinical studies show that alcohol can have rebound effect and keep you awake.
2. Quit smoking.
One authority notes; “smokers have greater difficulty falling asleep, because cigarettes raise blood pressure, speed up heart rate, and stimulate brain-wave activity. Smokers also tend to wake up more in the middle of the night, possibly because their body is experiencing withdrawal symptoms”.
3. Avoid extreme mental or physical stimulation just before bedtime.
Exercise promotes proper rest but not if done immediately before trying to sleep. Tackling big problems or mental challenges just before you go to bed can interfere with the relaxed mood often needed to drift off to sleep.
4. Make sure that your bed-room is quiet, dark and where possible, relatively cool.
Regarding noise, considered one famous study of people living near an airport who claimed that they no longer heard the airplanes. When their sleep patterns are tested, their brain waves recorded each landing and take off! The researchers concluded that the test subjects averaged about one hour less of quality sleep each night than those in a quieter zone. Earplugs or other devices of reducing noise would have greatly assisted them in getting restful sleep. Some find that white noise (defined as any low-frequency, steady, and monotonous hum), such as made by an electric fan, is especially helpful if there is a need to mask street sounds.
5. Be cautious about taking sleep-inducing medications.
There is growing evidence that many drugs prescribed to induced sleep are habit-forming, lessen in effectiveness with prolonged use, and have damaging side effects. At best, such drugs may be useful for short term therapy.
Since insomnia can be brought on by stress, it is thought that one key to healthy sleep is making the time the time just before to bed a quiet, pleasant period. It may be helpful to set aside the cares of the day and to do something enjoyable, such as reading. So when next you want to avoid occasional insomnia, why not try the above practical steps.

preparation during pregnancy

Healthier mothers have healthier babies, says the UN chronicle. It also observes that when a woman gets inadequate medical care or none at all during pregnancy, childbirth, and the period thereafter, her baby also receives little or no medical care.
In some lands it may be difficult for a pregnant woman to get adequate care. Perhaps she has far to travel, or she may be unable to cover medical costs. Still, if at all possible, an expectant mother should try to get at least some professional prenatal care.
The following are steps to take during pregnancy. They include;
1. Choose your hospital, doctor, or midwife wisely by doing advance research.
2. Make a regular visit to your doctor or midwife, especially a trusting, friendly relationship.
3. Give careful attention to your health. If possible, take the appropriate vitamins, but avoid medication (even over the counter products) unless your doctor approves. It is wise to avoid alcohol. “although the highest risk is to babies whose mothers drink heavily, it is not clear yet whether there is any completely safe level of alcohol during pregnancy,” states the National institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
4. If you experience premature labour pains (prior to the 37th week), contact your doctor or maternity ward immediately. Prompt attention may help prevent a premature delivery and the complications that can result.
5. Document personal decisions relating to medical care. For example, many have found it helpful to have a durable power of attorney (DPA) card filled out ahead of time. Find out what is used and legally accepted in your country.
6. after the birth be mindful of your health and that of your baby, especially if the baby came prematurely. Consult the pediatrician right away if you observe any problems.
Newly wed mums are always at the cross road when it come to preparing and getting set to take in. the pressures, tensions and high expectations from family members and friends as regards to when the timing of the new baby will come. This thoughts and comments always put the new mothers under intense heats, but not to worry again as this article will seek to explain more about preparing and getting ready for pregnancy. Here I will also tell you how to know your safe and free periods so as to easily beat that fear and
anxieties of pregnancy and become a smiling mother tomorrow!
According to figures released in October 2007, one woman dies nearly every minute-536,000 a year-because of problems associated with pregnancy.-United Nations Population Fund
You can also learn more about preparations during pregnancy by clicking on this hop link Click Here!
For all I know and read was gotten from this book and I highly recommend it for you and expectant mother. I wish you a safe delivery when the time comes for you to put to bed.