SUN EXPOSURE – HOW TO PROTECT YOURSELF


The continuous depletion of the ozone layer has resulted to increasing sun exposure which has affected millions worldwide especially those living near the equator and the tropics has caused numerous skin diseases notably cancer. How does sunlight damage your skin? The most common and best known acute effect of overexposure to the sun is sunburn, or erythema. Its immediate effects can last for days and may include blistering and peeling. When sunburn occurs, UV radiation kills most of the cells in the outer layer of the skin and damages deeper layers. Any change in the colour of a person’s skin as a result of sun exposure is a sign of damage. Cancer can result when damage occurs to the DNA of genes that control the growth and division of skin cells. Sunlight also alters the texture of the skin and weakens its elasticity. This leads to premature wrinkling and sagging, as well as easy bruising.
Studies have shown that when the skin absorbs too much UV radiation, the activities of certain parts of a person’s immune system are adversely affected. This may reduce the body’s ability to defend itself against some diseases. Even moderate exposure has been known to increase the risk of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections. Many people notice that being in the sun causes them recurrent eruptions of cold sores, or herpes simplex. One medical report explains that one category of ultraviolet light, known as UVB, ‘appears to reduce the effectiveness of the immune system-in the case of the cold sores it can longer keep the virus Herpes simplex under control which result in re-activation of the infection’.
Hence, when it comes to cancers, sunlight can deliver a devastating one-two punch. First, by directly provoking DNA damage and then by reducing the immune system’s natural ability to deal with such damage.
The following are simple ways to protect yourself from sun exposure;
1. Limit your exposure during the midday hours between 10.00am and 3.00pm, when UV radiation is particularly intense.
2. Try to stay in the shade.
3. Cover your arms and legs with tightly woven, loosely-fitting clothes.
4. Wear a wide-brimmed hat to protect your eyes, ears, face, and the back of your neck.
5. Never fall asleep in the sun.
6. be careful to protect babies and young children, whose skin is particularly delicate.
7. Since sunlamps, sun beds, and tanning parlors use UV radiation, which may damage the skin, WHO recommends you avoiding them.
8. use- and liberally reapply every two hours-a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor of at least 15.
9. Good – quality wraparound sunglasses, or sunglasses with side panels, that provide 99 to 100 percent UVA and UVB (categories of ultraviolet light) protection will greatly reduce the risk of eye damage.
10. If you develop a mole, a freckle, or a spot that you are concerned about, sees your doctor.
Wisely, one needs to take precautions so that we do not overexpose ourselves to the sun. Our health, and indeed our very lives, may be at stake.
This simple ways have work for millions that have read this piece of article and you too can benefit from it!

CONTINENT


A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, with seven regions commonly regarded as continents—they are (from largest in size to smallest): Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.
Plate tectonics is the geological process and study of the movement, collision and division of continents, earlier known as continental drift.
Conventionally, “continents are understood to be large, continuous, discrete masses of land, ideally separated by expanses of water.” Many of the seven most commonly recognized continents identified by convention are not discrete landmasses separated by water. The criterion “large” leads to arbitrary classification: Greenland, with a surface area of 2,166,086 square kilometres (836,330 sq mi) is considered the world’s largest island, while Australia, at 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is deemed to be a continent. Likewise, the ideal criterion that each be a continuous landmass is often disregarded by the inclusion of the continental shelf and oceanic islands, and contradicted by classifying North and South America as two continents; and/or Eurasia and Africa as two continents, with no natural separation by water. This anomaly reaches its extreme if the continuous land mass of Europe and Asia is considered to constitute two continents. The Earth’s major landmasses are washed upon by a single, continuous world ocean, which is divided into a number of principal oceanic components by the continents and various geographic criteria.
The narrowest meaning of continent is that of a continuous area of land or mainland, with the coastline and any land boundaries forming the edge of the continent. In this sense the term continental Europe (sometimes “the Continent”) is used to refer to mainland Europe, excluding islands such as Great Britain, Ireland, and Iceland, and the term continent of Australia may refer to the mainland of Australia, excluding Tasmania and New Guinea. Similarly, the continental United States refers to the 48 contiguous states in central North America and may include Alaska in the northwest of the continent (the two being separated by Canada), while excluding Hawaii in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
From the perspective of geology or physical geography, continent may be extended beyond the confines of continuous dry land to include the shallow, submerged adjacent area (the continental shelf) and the islands on the shelf (continental islands), as they are structurally part of the continent. From this perspective the edge of the continental shelf is the true edge of the continent, as shorelines vary with changes in sea level. In this sense the islands of Great Britain and Ireland are part of Europe, while Australia and the island of New Guinea together form a continent.
As a cultural construct, the concept of a continent may go beyond the continental shelf to include oceanic islands and continental fragments. In this way, Iceland is considered part of Europe and Madagascar part of Africa. Extrapolating the concept to its extreme, some geographers group the Australasian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one continent called Oceania. This allows the entire land surface of the Earth to be divided into continents or quasi-continents.
To sum it all, there are just seven continents and there exist nations and define government in each one of them. These seven continents are;
AFRICA
ASIA
EUROPE
NORTH AMERICA
SOUTH AMERICA
AUSTRALIA
ANTARCTICA