Traditionally primary or basic education means the type of education, in quality and concept that is given in the first level of education. (UNICEF 1993, Osokoya 2011). The concept of first level of education varies from country to country. In some countries of the world the first level of education is of 6, 7, 8 or 9 years duration. In western Nigeria for example, the first level of education was of 8 years duration prior to 1955 when it was reduced to six years. In Eastern Region of the country, it remained 8-years until 1976, while the Northern Regional Government maintained a 7-year primary education until 1976. Between 1976 and 1992 however, the scope of first level of education in Nigeria as a nation was 6 years but this was later expanded to 9years when basic education included the first three years of secondary school education. Education at all levels is of great importance to every nation, developing, developed or under-developed and thus attracts considerable attention over the ages. No doubt, at the family, community, state, and federal government levels, education is discussed, planned and processed. Education makes a person for it has a great influence on one’s values and attitudes. Studies have shown that man’s attitudes, habits; values are gradually acquired over time through his or her education. No wonder, the United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) once observed that since wars begin in the minds of men it is also in the minds of men that defenses of peace must be constructed. This illustrates the great potentials of education for transforming the individual and the society.

Universal Primary Education in Nigeria is an educational system that was started in the mid 1950s following the Macpherson constitution of 1951 which granted democratic rights to the citizens to elect members to the regional House of Assemblies of the three Nigerian regions. The assemblymen had powers to raise and appropriate money and also to pass legislations concerning health, education, agriculture and local government. The elected governments in Western region and later in the East selected an ambitious literacy and educational program to see through that most primary school age students attend primary schools.

Further in 1976, the federal government which had in 1972 assumed more responsibility for education took on the challenge of seeing all primary age students attending school. It also launched the U.P.E. scheme to correct regional, rural-urban and sex imbalances in the educational system and invest in human capital.

U.P.E. is considered a pre-cursor of the Universal Basic Education both based on the ideal of equal access to primary education for all. However, the U.P.E. plan has been criticized by many for the lack of proper planning leading to inadequate educational facilities in classrooms, insufficient trained teachers and erosion in the provision of quality education.

Federal plan

In September 1976, the military regime of Olusegun Obasanjo introduced the free universal primary education. It was designed to make primary education free and available throughout the country with admission given to pupils aged six. The launch followed careful analysis of the plan starting in 1969 when a committee headed by Mr Somade was charged to enquiry into the educational system of the country and the feasibility of launching a free primary education programme. A proposal from the education ministry followed in 1972 as the federal government assumed more role in the educational system of the country. However, some stakeholders raised caution about the proposed level of investment in education, the sharing of financial responsibilities, and a lack of preparatory time. But in 1974, U.P.E. was decided to be introduced on a voluntary basis. Unlike in the past where the primary goal was to educate citizens and increase the enrollment of primary school age students, the new policy of 1976 was partly created to address educational imbalances between the Nigerian regions. At launch, primary school students in class 1 were about 3 million but a shortage of properly trained teachers hampered the objectives of the scheme. The government which had spent about 1 billion dollars on primary schools and teacher education enjoined success with school enrollment but enrollment was far out pacing the availability of trained teachers. The plan later suffered in the 1980s constrained by inadequate financing from the chief sponsor, the federal government when oil prices fell. Inadequate enthusiasm from the major beneficiaries and the Nigerian government’s policy instability also contributed to the lack of full realization of the project’s objectives.



Trends in enrolment from 1999 to 2003 show that on an average enrolment consistently increased over the years for both males and females from 7%, 8%, 11% and 44% in2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 respectively. Primary schools rates were, however consistently higher for boys than for girls. The efficiency of primary education has improved over the years.

The primary-six completion rate increased steadily from 65% in 1998 to 83% in 2001. It however declined in 2002 to shoot up to 94% in 2003.The implementation of the Universal Basic Education in addition, has brought remarkable developments in such aspects as academic, social and physical educational spheres. The content of elementary education in Nigeria witnessed many changes both in variety and intensity since then. It should be remembered that the advent of the National Policy on Education in 1977 and the revisions in 1981, 1998 and 2004 respectively brought with it the need to radically change the school curriculum to meet the new philosophy of Nigerian education. Appropriate curriculum contents were therefore developed for the school system in the recent past aimed at improving universal education to fit into the dynamics of current events and of the immediate future in Nigeria. Of particular importance is the issue of citizenship education which has been infused in to the primary school curriculum. Topics emphasized include Nigerian constitution, tenets of War Against Indiscipline (WAI) Mass Mobilization for Social Justice and Economic Recovery (MAMSER) principles and the high waycode. Other topics include home economics, introductory technology, elementary science, population and family life education, drug abuse education and environmental education. Relevant components of these new subjects were infused into the existing school subjects through the process of integrated approach to avoid over-loading of the school curricula. In the area of personnel development, more teachers were trained at the colleges of education and universities in most of the states while the untrained teachers were encouraged to undergo teacher training courses. In addition, the Federal Government has under the Millennium Development Goals Project directed the National Teachers’ Institute by the Act No. 7 of 1978 to organize programmes for upgrading and updating practising teachers. Many workshops had been organized on Innovative techniques of teaching and Improvisation of Instructional materials in the six geo-political zones since the implementation of UBE. Furthermore the Nigerian Certificate of Education (NCE) was fixed as the minimum teaching qualification in Nigeria. In the bid to encourage appropriate textual materials with illustrations taken from the locality, indigenous authors were sensitized and encouraged to produce instructional materials by the Federal Government through the establishment of Book Development Centre based at the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). Another major academic landmark was the introduction of the Continuous Assessment practice into the UBE Scheme. The National Policy of Education laid strong emphasis on the use of continuous assessment practice at the various levels of Educational system, in preference to the former practice of single terminal examinations. Certification at the primary school level is now based on continuous assessment rather than on a primary school leaving certificate examination. Continuous assessment is viewed as the method of finding out what the students have gained from learning activities in terms of knowledge, thinking and reasoning, character development and industry. It takes into account the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of the pupils. In the cognitive domain, teachers assess the pupil’s knowledge of previously learned materials, his understanding and the application of materials in solving problems. They also attempt to evaluate the extent to which the child can make inference and assumptions from the learned materials. Pupils’ feelings, attitudes, emotions and other social behaviour are assessed in the affective domain while the interest is to evaluate the pupil’s manipulative skills in the psychomotor domain. Manipulative skills simply refer to the way the child makes proper use of his limbs and body and the degree of coordination involved in skilled activities. The use of continuous assessment practice gives room for teachers to combine the scores attained by each pupil in the class assignments, homework, weekly tests, examinations and various other sources applied during class instructions to obtain the overall score for a given period. With such overall scores, it would be possible to diagnose problems in the course of instruction. Teachers would therefore be in a better position to help their pupils overcome their individual problems.


There are many problems facing primary school administration in Nigeria. It will not be possible to delve into all the problems due to obvious constraints. In effect, our focus shall be on the following problems:

  1. Inadequacy of Teachers and Quality Instruction:

Qualified teachers are necessary for teaching in the Primary schools. Unfortunately, there are not enough qualified teachers to handle the pupils. The government is ready to hire less-qualified teachers at the expense of the qualified ones. The teacher, pupils ratio prescribed in the National Policy on Education is 1:30. this however, has been jettisoned. It is not uncommon to find a class with between 40 and 50 pupils, even in Federal Government schools. There are cases where two classes are merged together, to be taught by a single teacher.

According to Ajayi (1995), no nation can rise above the level of her teachers. Certainly therefore, the quality of teachers will affect the quality of instruction. However, teachers can not be blamed totally for inadequate quality of instruction. The idea of a teacher handling 60 pupils or more has drastically affected the efficiency of many teachers.

  1. Poor Management of Primary Schools

There used to be two patterns of primary school management

  1. The Local Government Education Authorities took over the supervision and management of primary education
  2. Ministry of Education with different management organs supervised and managed primary school, thereby causing confusion and conflict of interest between the State Ministries of Education and the Ministries of Local Government, apitomised by diversion of education funds to other projects and irregularities in payment of teachers’ salaries. Folajin (1995) observed that Decree No. 2 of 1991 transferred Education to the Exclusive List while Decree No. 3 of 1991 transferred the management and funding of Primary Education to the Local Government Education Authority, thus defuncting the National Primary Education Commission. This arrangement adversely affected the management of primary education in Nigeria.

Some institution, (e.g Colleges of Education, Faculties of Education in the Universities, and the Departments of Education in some Polytechnics) are saddled with the responsibility of teacher training. So many things go into the preparation of teachers. However, one of the very important elements in teacher’s education is the Teaching Practice. Ajayi (1986) stated categorically that the internship given to teachers in training (i.e teaching practice) for a maximum of twelve weeks in a 3-years course, is grossly inadequate. If teaching is to be at par with other professions e.g. law or medicine the internship must be close to the number of weeks of internship in other professions. Lawyers and Medical doctors spend one year for practical training or internship. We in the education sector must look into this problem.

Related to this is the attitude of most students on Teaching Practice, which is usually unimpressive. Some of the students teachers do not show up in their practicing schools in time. Student teachers are known to have developed the habit of coming to school when supervisors are around and to disappears as soon as they have been supervised. In fact, there are many other problems concerning students’ behaviour during teaching Practice, which are too numerous to discuss in this paper.


The general objectives of Primary Education (Fed. Rep. Of Nigeria, 1981) has been well stated in the National Policy of Education. This includes:

  1. The inculcation of permanent literacy and numeracy and the ability of communicate effectively.
  2. The laying of a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking.
  3. Citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society.
  4. Character and moral training and the development of sound attitude
  5. Developing in the child the ability to adapt to his changing environment
  6. Giving the child opportunity in the society within the limit of his capacity; and
  7. Providing basic tools for further educational endeavour, including, including preparation for trades and crafts of the locality.

Looking at the various objectives, it is obvious that the government wants to provide sound education for its citizens. Some scholars (Ukeje 1986, Ajayi 1987, Onwuke 1985, Nwangwu 1985, and Fafunwa 1987) have also come up with similar statements on what primary school education in Nigeria should aim at, because a huge and heavy structure cannot rest on a weak foundation. The objectives of primary education are laudable, but its implementation has been far below expectation. Education and Politics

The governments play politics with education. Education generally, and primary education in particular, needs a lot of finance for the objectives to be achieved. But the governments’ priority at various tiers, most of the time, is not on education. It is not uncommon to find out that the budget for defence is far more than the budget for education. Teachers’ population does not increase; rather it decreases (Adesina, 1986). Many people leave teaching due to poor remuneration for teachers. Fafunwa (1991) noted with dismay that the objectives of Primary education is difficult to achieve in Nigeria due to poor funding.


There are many problems facing inspection of Primary Schools in Nigeria. First and foremost, inspectors have problem in carrying out their job. Their problems include lack of vehicles to travel to schools, shortage of personnel (inspectors), lack of equipment, and politicization of education.

Also, the inspectors are not motivated enough to be able to carry out their duties. The remuneration for school inspectors are always poor. Due to shortage of funds, the inspectors cannot carry out as many inspections as possible in a school year. Hardly do they inspect schools in rural areas due to the weather and road conditions of the rural areas (Ojuawo, 1990). The attitude of teachers to inspectors and inspection is not encouraging at all. Teachers see inspectors as a threat. They are therefore very hostile to school inspectors.


In order to effectively administer our Primary Schools facilities must be made available. Such facilities include:

  1. Instructional facilities (teaching aids)
  2. Physical plants e.g. School buildings, classrooms, libraries, staff rooms, assembly halls laboratories etc.
  3. Recreational facilities e.g. football field, lawn tennis, table tennis, net-ball, indoor games, judo, ayo, draught, chess etc.
  4. Health facilities e.g. First Aid Kit, School Medical Centre.

According to Aderalegbe (1987), the state of the nation’s primary schools is very bad. It is common to find primary school with dilapidated walls. Pupils sit on the floor or on cement. Many schools are without adequate play ground and recreational facilities, and teachers and pupils hardly get the necessary text books.





Universal Primary Education (UPE) is a goal stated in many national development plans and pursued with vigour by governments of most developing countries. Primary Education is seen as the first step in laying the foundation for future educational opportunities and life long skills. Through the skills and knowledge imbued, primary education enables people to participate in the social, economic and political activities of their communities to their fullest potential. It is also seen as a basic human right that frees human beings from a state of ignorance and helps to reduce the negative effects of poverty, relating in particular to health and nutrition. In an increasingly competitive global economy of free markets, a well educated high quality workforce is seen as vital to a country’s economy in order to attract foreign investments that generate jobs and create wealth. Hence, good quality primary education is increasingly recognised as an important foundation for economic growth and seen as instrumental in the attainment of other development objectives.

Its pursuit as a goal by development agencies acknowledges its dual function as a factor in economic growth and in reducing the incidence of poverty (World Bank,1990a and 1995a). The humanistic and liberation goals of primary education are featured most in the work of some development agencies whilst the instrumentalist and economic goals emerge more prominently in others.




Adewunmi, J.A. (2001): Analysis of Universal Primary Education

(UPE) and the lessons for the Universal Basic Education (UBE)

Paper Presented at the UBE Local Level PolicyDialogue at Ilorin.Ajayi, T. (2001): Effective Planning Strategies for UBE

Programme in UBE Forum Vol. 1 No1.

Fafunwa, A.B. (1974): History of Education in Nigeria. London,

George Allen Unwin Federal Ministry of Education (2000):Guidelines for Universal Basic Education. Abuja, Government Printers.

Federal Ministry of Education (2001):UBE Forum. Journal of Basic

Education in Nigeria.Federal Ministry of Education (2001):Universal Basic Education Digest.

A newsletter of Basic Education in Nigeria.Federal Ministry of

Education (2003): A Handbook of Information of Basic Education in Nigeria Abuja Government Press.

Federal Ministry of Education (2004): National Policy on Education

(Revised) Lagos,Government Press.

Obanya PAI (2007): Thinking and Talking Education. Ibadan, Evans

Brothers Nigeria Ltd.

Obanya PAI (2009):Dreaming Living and Doing Education.

Ibadan Educational Research andStudy Group. Institute of Education University of Ibadan.

Obanya, PAI. (2002): Revitalizing Education in Africa.

Ibadan Stirling-Horden Publishers Nig Ltd.

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Challenges and Constraints in UNESCOAbuja Office. The State of Education in Nigeria.

Osokoya, I.O (2010): History and Policy of Nigeria Education in

World Perspective Ibadan AMDPublishers.

Osokoya, I.O. (2004): 6-3-3-4 Education in Nigeria, History,

Strategies, Issues and Problems.Ibadan, Laurel Educational Publishers Ltd.

Tahir, GO. (2001): Federal Government Intervention in Universal

Basic Education. UBE FORUM. A Journal of Basic Education in Nigeria.

Yoloye, E.A. (Ed) (2004): Burning Issues in Nigerian Education.

Ibadan Wemilore Press Nig.Ltd.

Yoloye, E.A. (Ed) (2010): Vision 20-2020 The Educational Imperatives.



Development and Poverty Profile Of Bostwana With Detail Statistics, Brief Introduction And Poverty Indication


Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. The citizens refer to themselves as Batswana. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, it has maintained a strong tradition of stable representative democracy, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections.

Botswana, one of Africa’s most stable countries, is the continent’s longest continuous multi-party democracy. It is relatively free of corruption and has a good human rights record. Sparsely populated, Botswana protects some of Africa’s largest areas of wilderness. Safari-based tourism – tightly-controlled and often upmarket – is an important source of income.  Botswana is the world’s largest producer of diamonds and the trade has transformed it into a middle-income nation

                                 Map of Botswana



Since independence, Botswana has had one of the fastest growth rates in per capita income in the world. Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country. By one estimate, it has the fourth highest gross national income at purchasing power parity in Africa, giving it a standard of living around that of Mexico.

The Ministry of Trade and Industry of Botswana is responsible for promoting business development throughout the country. According to the International Monetary Fund, economic growth averaged over 9% per year from 1966 to 1999. Botswana has a high level of economic freedom compared to other African countries.[30] The government has maintained a sound fiscal policy, despite consecutive budget deficits in 2002 and 2003, and a negligible level of foreign debt. It earned the highest sovereign credit rating in Africa and has stockpiled foreign exchange reserves (over $7 billion in 2005/2006) amounting to almost two and a half years of current imports.

Botswana is a development success story. A small, landlocked country of two million people, Botswana was one of the poorest countries in Africa with a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of about $70 when it gained independence from Britain in 1966. In the years that followed, supported by the discovery of diamonds, Botswana has been one of the fastest growing economies in the world and moved into the ranks of upper-middle income countries. Real GDP showed robust growth of average 5% per annum over the past decade. Weak performance across the mining sector will narrow the current account surplus. In 2014, Botswana achieved a current account surplus of 15.7% of GDP. External factors mentioned above adversely affected exports in 2015, and the current account surplus narrowed to 9.3% of GDP, and will continue narrowing further in 2016 on continued weakness in the mining sector before gradual improvement. Foreign reserves remain strong at USD 7.5 billion at end-2015, or about 65% of GDP

Although Botswana is rich in diamonds, it has high unemployment and stratified socioeconomic classes. In 1999, the nation suffered its first budget deficit in 16 years because of a slump in the international diamond market. Yet Botswana remains one of the wealthiest and most stable countries on the continent.



                                 Botswana flag


Recent development

Botswana is one of Africa’s veritable economic and human development success stories. It has made the transition from Least Developed Country (LDC) at the time of independence in 1966 to Middle Income (MIC) in three decades.

By 2004 Botswana had surpassed the World Bank’s upper MIC threshold largely due to substantial mineral revenues, especially from diamonds, and competent political and economic governance, reflected most comprehensively in A-grade sovereign credit ratings, the best for an African economy for most of the last decade. Some of the country’s successes are highlighted below;

The country’s latest MDG Progress Report published in 2010 shows that substantial improvements on many goals has been made: The percentage of people living below the poverty datum line has steadily declined from 47% in 1993 to 30% in 2002 and estimated to be at 23% in 2009. It has already achieved five of the eight Millennium Development Goals. Overall, 10 of 14 targets have either been achieved or likely to be achieved by 2015.


Living conditions of Botswana have improved over the past decade and poverty has reduced significantly. This decrease was accompanied by a considerable decline in both depth and severity of poverty, indicating that consumption has improved among the poor. While rural areas led the poverty reduction, the share of the poor living in urban areas has increased. Botswana’s progress toward reduction of extreme poverty and inequality was among the world’s strongest in the second half of 2000s. During this period, the economic growth has been strongly pro-poor. Botswana is one of the top performers in Africa when measured by annual consumption distribution growth for the bottom 40 percentile. However, despite these noteworthy improvements, inequality remains high. The study concludes that with adequate macro and social policies, and a strong focus on improving equity, Botswana has a historical opportunity to build on recent achievements and move towards eradicating extreme poverty within one generation. The analyses was conducted in close collaboration with the Statistics Botswana, utilizing the data generated through the nationally representative households income and expenditure surveys conducted by Statistics Botswana in 2002/2003 and 2009/2010. Botswana Poverty rate is put at  19.3%


Economic Indicators to the top  
GNI per capita 2012, US$ 7720
GNI per capita 2012, PPP US$ 16520
GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1970-1990 8
GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1990-2012 3.7
Average annual rate of inflation (%) 1990-2012 7.9
Population below international poverty line of US$1.25 per day (%) 2007-2011*
Public spending as a % of GDP (2007-2011*) allocated to: health 3.5
Public spending as a % of GDP (2008-2010*) allocated to: education 7.8
Public spending as a % of GDP (2008-2010*) allocated to: military 2.9
ODA inflow in millions US$ 2010 120.6
ODA inflow as a % of recipient GNI 2010 0.8
Debt service as a % of exports of goods and services 2010 0.9
Share of household income (%, 2007-2011*), poorest 40%
Share of household income (%, 2007-2011*), richest 20%





While the poverty gaps between rural and urban areas has declined, the risk of falling back into poverty is still higher among rural households that depend on small-scale and subsistence farming, the report says. Although vulnerability among the country’s poor was significantly reduced from 2002-2010, nearly 31% are classified as vulnerable, the report notes.

The study projects that with significant inequality reduction, poverty rates can fall to below 12% by 2018 and below 6% by 2030. Recommendations to reduce poverty include:

  • Boosting productivity, employment and labor-market efficiency
  • Improving education, health and social protection and safety nets
  • Improving survey data for evidence-based policy making



Botswana is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the United Nations. The country has been among the hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The death rate due to AIDS or AIDS-related causes has fallen sharply (57%) from 2005 to 2013.[10]:27 and the number of new infections in children has also fallen.[10]:38 Despite the success in programmes to make treatments available to those infected, and to educate the populace in general about how to stop the spread of HIV AIDS, the number of people with AIDS rose from 290,000 in 2005 to 320,000 in 2013.[10]:A20 Despite these reasons for hope, Botswana has the third highest prevalence rate for HIV AIDS, reported in 2014



“Botswana”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2014.

Retrieved 16 April 2014.


2011 Population & Housing Census Preliminary Results Brief

“Botswana”. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2012-04-17.


“2015 Human Development Report Summary” (PDF). United Nations

Development Programme. 2015. p. 17. Retrieved 14 December 2015.


“2015 Human Development Report Statistical Annex” (PDF). United

Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 17. Retrieved December 14, 2015.


Darwa, P. Opoku (2011). Kazungula Bridge Project (PDF). African

Development Fund. p. Appendix IV. Retrieved 2012-05-04.




“The Gap Report” (PDF). Geneva: UN AIDS. 2014. Retrieved 21 June



“HIV and Aids in Botswana”. Avert International Aids Charity.

Retrieved 21 June 2016.


“Botswana History”. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 14 October 2012.

Botswana: Late British colonialism (1945-1966) EISA. Accessed on

26 August 2016.





Every engineering product involve cost effective manufacturing and its versatility in application maintaining its aesthetics as well as assign service life without failure keeping those parameters in mind we focused our intention on designing and analyzing the jack model for actual service loads for varying models of automobile L.M.V. sectors. Automobile sectors are very keen at their productivity and customer satisfaction. We also keen at reducing the weight of scissor jack at the same time maintaining its strength and service life. We made certain change in manufacturing process thereby made a new versatile jack that can be used for varying models of L.M.V automobile sector. Also the new design that made by Pro-e software can be tested by ANSYS software.



Since traditional jack that available in market involve plenty of variety like screw jack. We had selected the traditional scissor jack for L.M.V. and focuses our intention to remove perm ant welds as that is the area where chances of failure is more. We replaced weld joints by rivets as well reduced materials by redesigning special brackets and employing special manufacturing processes for traditional. As per the today’s scenario of cost reduction, we need to find the cost effective solution for long term benefits. So in the production system it is necessary to redesign the various products for reducing the cost of the product over the same product. So we have chosen such exercise with the scissor jack. The main benefit of this paper is to reduce the unnecessary cost, reduce the over design, the design will be up to the mark. This paper will give new approach to product design. Such as in case of large volume, the cost reduction is more and it will increase the demand of product in market itself. In case of the manufacturing of the scissor jack we can reduce the material of the product by converting the manufacturing process, e.g., Casting into sheet metal, in which the strength of the product remain as it is and the cost of the material will be automatically reduces. Even part reduction by assembly process and no welding joints will give less deflection and the large accuracy.

This paper includes the scissor jack of automobile L.M.V. vehicle. The objective of this exercise will be

  1. To reduce the weight of the jack by changing the manufacturability.
  2. To reduce the no. of parts for simplifying the assembly process.
  3. Remove welding to avoid distortion.
  4. Product should withstand the current strength requirements.


Operation: A scissor jack is operated simply by turning a small crank that is inserted into one end of the scissor jack. This crank is usually “Z” shaped. The end fits into a ring hole mounted on the end of the screw, which is the object of force on the scissor jack. When this crank is turned, the screw turns, and this raises the jack. The screw acts like a gear mechanism. It has teeth (the screw thread), which turn and move the two arms, producing work. Just by turning this screw thread, the scissor jack can lift a vehicle that is several thousand pounds.

Construction A scissor jack has four main pieces of metal and two base ends. The four metal pieces are all connected at the corners with a bolt that allows the corners to swivel. A screw thread runs across this assembly and through the corners. As the screw thread is turned, the jack arms travel across it and collapse or come together, forming a straight line when closed. Then, moving back the other way, they raise and come together. When opened, the four metal arms contract together, coming together at the middle, raising the jack. When closed, the arms spread back apart and the jack closes or flattens out again.

Design and Lift A scissor jack uses a simple theory of gears to get its power. As the screw section is turned, two ends of the jack move closer together. Because the gears of the screw are pushing up the arms, the amount of force being applied is multiplied. It takes a very small amount of force to turn the crank handle, yet that action causes the brace arms to slide across and together. As this happens the arms extend upward. The car’s gravitational weight is not enough to prevent the jack from opening or to stop the screw from turning, since it is not applying force directly to it. If you were to put pressure directly on the crank, or lean your weight against the crank, the person would not be able to turn it, even though your weight is a small percentage of the car’s.

MODELLING Design of scissor jack is done with Pro-E and model assembly is shown in Figures 1 to 3.


Design Details of Jack • The total height of the screw jack = 276 mm. • The deformation of the screw jack in y direction = 2.00 mm. • Permanent set in y direction is = 0.37 mm.


The paper will include a scissor jack of automobile L.M.V. vehicle and other same type of variants. This proposed design of scissor jack after its stress analysis concludes that: This is a common jack for the variant (satisfying the product requirements). The proposed jack has the reduced weight (by changing the manufacturability). Designing this new jack reduces the no. of parts for simplifying the assembly process. Only rivet joints are induced (Removal of welding to avoid distortion).


  1. Chang Shoei D and Liaw Huey S (1987), “Motor Driven Scissor

Jack for Automobiles”, US Patent Number 4653727, Da Li Hsien, TW.

  1. Farmer Dennis E (2001), “Automatic Jack and Wheel Change

System”, US Patent Number 6,237,953, Mt. Gay, WV.

  1. Huang Chen-Ti and Chou Ching-Hsing (2001), “Directly Driving

Electromotive Jack Device for Releasing Torsional Force”, US Patent Number 6,299,138, Taipei, TW.

  1. Kathryn J De Laurentis and Mircea Badescu (2001), Pro-E

Tutorial, MB, Hinge Assembly Tutorial.

  1. Mahadevan K (2011), Design Data Hand

Book for Mechanical Engineers, 3 rd Edition, CBS Publisher.

  1. Mickael Emil (2004), “Motor Driven Scissor Jack with Limit

Switches”, US Patent Number 6,695,289 B1.

  1. Nakasone Y, Yoshimoto S and Stolarski T A (2006), Engineering

Analysis with ANSYS Software, 1 st Edition, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

  1. Pickles Joseph (1988), “Portable Powered Screw Jack Actuator

Unit”, US Patent Number 4,749,169, Troy, MI.

  1. Prather Thomas J (2009), “Vehicle Lift System”, US Patent

Number 7,472,889, Rock Springs, WY.

  1. Whittingham Reginald P (1990), “Vehicle Jack”, US Patent

Number 4,969,631, Tustin, CA.



The historical development of English falls into two cycles, the period before the advent of missionary education, the period after and the period beyond. 9midst the compounding comple6ity of ‘igeria , especially in relation to the language question, the only language that inde6es the spirit of togetherness is %nglish. :ore often than not, activities conducted in indigenous languagesare reprobated as being ethnic or tribal, e6cept incultural celebrations or entertainment displays.  This e6plains why even during the /rst republic and even thecolonial era, when %nglish had not attained itspresent level of ascendancy in national and international aDairs, political parties were formedin%nglish. 7owever, the parties might have regionalbases= the fact that they were named in %nglishentailed their collective import


The development of English in the country can be related many roles in the growth of the country as mention above.

READ: To Get This Assignment and Others Call Us On 08033559733



The school system in Nigeria is often influenced by the constant changes that are occurring within the political institutions. The ability of the stakeholders and actors within the educational system to adapt to the organizational changes has attracted attention in the last decade. Currently, there is controversy as to the nature, pattern and methods of training teachers in the country. At the centre of the controversy is the confusion over the role of the educational administrators in secondary schools.

The teacher stands out as one the most important factors determining the quality of education and its contributions to national development. At every level people who go to school look on the teacher for the acquisition of the necessary skills to enable them become what they want to be. Thus, students often look on the personal qualities, their educational qualities and professional competence which are rewarding to the learners. It is on this note that the role of educational administrators in assisting teachers to help students achieve the objective of instructions in their various fields of endeavor stands paramount and a challenge in the 21st century. How should the teacher present himself in order to get his message across? How can he communicate effectively in the class? Under what kind of environment can the message get across? What pedagogical approaches are effective? These among other question are of interest not only to students and teachers but also to school administrators (Onuoha, 1975).


According to (Ukeje, 1988 in Wanekezi, Okoli and Mezieobi, 2011), pointed out that education unlocks the door to modernization and sustainable development but that, it is the teacher that holds the key to the door. Thus, the teacher has the responsibility of translating educational policies into practice and programmes into action. It is clear from the foregoing that the role of the teacher in sustainable development cannot be quantified, especially in training personnel in various areas of the workforce. For national development and peaceful co-existence to be attained, there is need to give priority to investment in human capital through teacher education and training. The Nigerian educational system needs to be responsive to the technological social and economic needs of the society and provide the type of human resources needed in the industrial and economic sector. Herein comes the role of effective teacher education programme to translate the needed skills, knowledge and attitudes to meet their needs and the societal ones.


Nigeria Union of Teachers (1994) depicts a teacher as one who has the register-able professional qualification which enables him to be appointed to teach at any nation’s institution of learning and who has a sound mind and is mentally fit.

Trained, skilful, effective and efficient teachers of the past were accorded, revered, and held at high esteem because of their selfless role in the society. But the reverse is the case today, he is seen as one who resorted to the profession as a result of unemployment, he is owed months of salary and is paid below standard but is expected to build the future leaders.

The role of a teacher cannot be over emphasized as no facet of life will be without him. Teachers are ideal agents of Socialization, Change and Development, thus the operator of the country’s educational system to ensure that teachers are politically, economically, culturally, socially, agriculturally and technologically skilful, aware and adequately productive and meaningful to the society he or she functions. He is the bridge and springboard for economic and other areas of growth, development and stability.

To buttress on the topic of discuss let us consider a letter sent by a past president of America, Abraham Lincoln to the head teacher of his son’s school, it reads: “He will have to learn, I know that all men are not just. But teach him that for every scoundrel there’s a hero; that for every selfish politician there is a dedicated leader. Teach him that for every enemy there’s a friend. Teach him that a dollar earned is far more of value than five found. Teach him to learn to lose and enjoy winning. In school teach him that it is far more honorable to fail than to cheat. Teach him to have faith in his own ideas, even if everyone tells him they are wrong. Teach him to be gentle with gentle people and tough with the tough. Teach him to listen to all, but teach him to filter all he hears on the screen of truth and take only the truth that comes through. Teach him how to laugh when he’s sad. Teach him there is no shame in tears. Teach him to close his ears to the hauling mob and to stand and fight if he thinks he’s right. Teach him gently but don’t cuddle him, because only the heat of fire makes steel. Teach him to always have sublime faith in his creator and faith in himself too, because then he will always have faith in mankind. These are a big order, but please see what you can do. He is such a fine little lad, my son”.

If the role of a teacher is not imperative and pivotal, why will he write such letter and plead in it? He pleads with the teacher to bring his expertise to bear through his son in all ramifications.

The nation depends on the crop of teachers it has to train and supply necessary man power in all areas of the nations existence. Also the teacher is an icon of morality that is why he and his profession is regarded as the mother of all other professions and deserve a conducive working environment and condition.

A teachers’ task involve first fathoming, absorbing and imbibing the ideals and knowledge of the society, familiarize himself with them by understanding its entirety before the challenging process of transferring these acquired principles and ideas to the learners.

With this enormous task, the teachers’ role in nation building is one that if not vehemently used can snowball into something venomous.











Teachers are needed in all areas of life endeavor; in Medicals, Law, Agriculture, Technology, Astronomy, Philosophy and a host of others require the skills of teaching in the hands of a professional before the knowledge can be transferred from one person to another. These without doubt is no small role to play as the entire nations’ fate depends on the cadre of leaders they will produce to lead the old.

Teaching is a profession that everyone is involved in; a man that sees three children playing in a pool of dirty water from the gutter and sends them away is a teacher because out of the three children one is likely to learn and refrain from such water another day.

By that he has taught because it is relatively permanent. A farmer who teaches his son how to till the soil to an extent that in his absence the child tills the ground productively has taught. A father who disciplines his children when they err without a bias mind and reward when they do good has taught because one is likely to learn that it’s not good to do wrong.



  1. Abdukareem, A. Y. (2001). Nigeria University and the Development of Human Resources. In N. Nwagwu, E. T. Ehiametalor, M. A. Ogunu & M. Nwadiani (Eds). Current Issues in Education Management in Nigeria. Benin City: Amik Press.12(1), 127-129.
  2. Adewuyi J.O. (2012). Functional Teacher Education in Addressing Contemporary Challenges in Nigeria. Being a Lead Paper Presented at the 4th National Conference of South-West Zonal Conference at Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo, held between 17th -20th July, 2012.
  3. Adewuyi J.O. and Ogunwuyi, A.O. (2002). Basic Text on Teacher Education. Oyo. Odumatt Press and Publishers.
  4. Adeyinka, A.A. (1971). The development of secondary grammar school education in the western state of Nigeria, 1908-1968. M.Ed. Dissertation, University of Ibadan.
  5. Adeyinka, A.A. (1993). The development of secondary education in Oyo, Ogun and Ondo States of Nigeria, 1908-1980. Occasional publication 1, Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
  6. Adeyinka, A.A. (1998). History of Education in Nigeria. Mimeograph.
  7. Afe, J.O. (1992). Trends in Teacher Education: The case of colleges of Education in Nigeria. In Eimuhi J.O. and Otomewho, G.A. Access, Equity and Quality in Higher Education. NAEP Publication.
  8. Afe J.O. (1995). Strategies for educating migrant fishermen and their Family the Nigeria Teacher. Today. A journal of teachers education. 4th October. Pp. 66-72.


Critically Examine and Validate Personnel Selections, Recruitment, Placement and Relative Importance of Human Resource Manager in Nigeria


Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy. “Human capital” is sometimes used synonymously with “human resources”, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view (i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and economic growth). Likewise, other terms sometimes used include “manpower”, “talent”, “labour”, “personnel”, or simply “people”. Every organization is made up of two major components the human and material resources. Without suitable and adequate human and material resources, the objectives of any organization will be difficult to achieve. Human and material resources are input into the system through process in order to achieve the desired output. Human and material resources are important because it comprises the workforce of organizations. Human resource (HR) managers in Nigeria are involved with recruitment, training, career development, compensation and benefits, employee relations, industrial relations, employment law, compliance, disciplinary and grievance issues, redundancies etc.

A human resources department (HR department) of a company performs human resource management, overseeing various aspects of employment, such as compliance with labour law and employment standards, administration of employee benefits, and some aspects of recruitment and dismissal.

According to Adebayo (2000), the functions of a personnel department and personnel manger includes recruitment, selection, training and development, job evaluation and formulation of manpower policies in an organization.



In human resource management, Personnel selection is the methodical process used to hire (or, less commonly, promote) individuals. Although the term can apply to all aspects of the process (recruitment, selection, hiring, acculturation, etc.) the most common meaning focuses on the selection of workers. Personnel selection is the methodical process used to hire (or, less commonly, promote) individuals. Although the term can apply to all aspects of the process (recruitment, selection, hiring, acculturation, etc.) the most common meaning focuses on the selection of workers. In this respect, selected prospects are separated from rejected applicants with the intention of choosing the person who will be the most successful and make the most valuable contributions to the organization.[1] Its effect on the group is discerned when the selected accomplish their desired impact to the group, through achievement or tenure. The procedure of selection takes after strategy to gather data around a person so as to figure out whether that individual ought to be utilized. The strategies used must be in compliance with the various laws in respect to work force selection.


Meaning and Procedure of Recruitment

Recruitment is an important process in the success of any organization particularly in adult education organization. It involves a number of issues. First, there must be determination of the projected number of positions to be filled in an organization. This is on the basis of required number of personnel, needed in the organization.

The personnel department has the support and expertise of employment specialist who assist the recruiting officer with the procedure to ensure that, the management are making wise decision in the recruitment processes. Singer (1990) and Ojo (1998), sees recruitment as a process of actively identifying. Potentially

qualified employee and encouraging them to apply for position in the organization. Aminu A.A (1995), stated that the main purpose of recruitment is to provide an organisation with a pool of potentially qualified candidate to select from. Sheila M. Rioux et al (1999), sees recruitment as the processes of identifying and attracting potential

candidates from within and outside the organization to begin evaluating them for future employment. Once candidate are identified, an organization can begin the selection process. This includes collecting, measuring and evaluating informations about the candidates’ qualifications for specific positions.

Stuart-Greenfield, (2009), a contributor to the American society for public administration, sees recruitment process as the best way to achieve success of any organization, he further stated that implementing more effective processes to recruit candidates and select the best and the brightest will improve one’s ability to meet the organizational human resources needs. Gomez-Mejia, Balkin and Candy (2004), also described recruitment as the process of generating a pool of qualified candidates for a particular job. The processes involves determining the characteristics required for effective performance and then measuring applicant on these characteristics. Similarly Olalekan (2006), noted that, the aim of recruitment is to attract qualified job candidates. He further stressed that in order to avoid waste of fund, recruiting efforts should be targeted solely at applicant who have the basic qualification for the job.

Recruitment individuals to fill a particular post within an organization can be done either internally by recruitment within the firm or externally by recruiting people from outside internal recruitment could be done by encouraging the current employees to apply for the positions within the organization, such recruitment gives the staff opportunity to move into firms of more desirable jobs, which may also create further openings that will require to be filled particularly adult education staff who are mostly on part time basis.

According to Carble and Judge (1996), organizations use internal job posting and employee referral to recruit and these relatively easy and inexpensive ways to identify candidates both inside and outside the organization. Internal job posting programme according to them, are also an excellent method of providing promotion opportunities for employees and minimizing employee complains of unfair treatment and discrimination.

Aminu (1995), noted that quite number of potential employees with the ambitions of changing their jobs exist, but with the opportunity that most of the personnel department exploit is attempting to fill the vacant position within the organization, by doing so it will help the organization to utilize their own personnel in filling the vacant positions before recruiting from outside the organization.

The internal sources of recruitment can be done through any of the following:

(i). Transfer


(iii). Recalls from layoff and reorganization of the organizational chart and demotion

Recruitment can also be done through external sources, in this; opening may be advertised on both print and electronic media as well as on the internet.

External source makes it possible to draw a wide range of talent and provide the opportunity to bring new ideas and experience into adult education organization. According to Boone and Kurtz (1984), external recruitment can be done through:

(i). Unsolicited Application

(ii). Advertisement

(iii). Employee Agencies

(iv). Professional bodies and also through recommendation.

External sources of recruitment are more costly, though the organization may end up with an employee who proves to be effective in practice.


Selection is part of the recruitment processes, it involves screening of candidates in order to identify from those coming forward, the individual must likely to fulfil the requirement of the organization. Torrington and Hall (1991), sees selection as one of the most difficult procedure of recruitment due to interest. Similarly Druker

(2001), sees selection as the process that represent the final stage of the decision-making in the recruitment process. He further explained that a wide range of technique is available to assist in carrying out selection which include among others, the interview test and references.

Selection as a process of screening of candidate may involves going into records, data sheet and curricula vitae (CV).Testing may be introduced to examine the quality of human resources relevant to perform available jobs or the task. According to Olulekan (2006), some of the tests usually used in selection of human resource are aptitude test, achievement, vocational interest and personality tests. The final stage of the selection process is what may be called the decision and offer employment. Normally a decision is made to offer employment to the most suitably qualified candidates after completion of the entire screening exercise.

Hogan (1991), noted that selection findings indicate that more organizations with highly effective selection systems experienced higher employee outcomes. He further stated that organization with effective selection system appears better to identify and select employee with right skills and motivation and to succeed in available positions as well as in the organization.


Placement is the process of putting people into certain position who have been selected for the job. Once a letter of employment has been given, the next stage is to place the newly recruited staff into their area of specializations. The professional adult education then take over to find out the area of the candidate’s skills and knowledge, can be suitable Egunyomi (2000), stressed that what is critical is that newly recruited candidates should be objectively placed in order to get the desire outcome.

Most organizations placed their newly recruited staff on temporary and probationary appointment for a period of time usually for the period of one year, at the end of this period, appointment could be confirm if the performance of the newly recruited staff is satisfactory, this should be applicable in adult education in Nigeria



Human resources play an important part of developing and making a company or organization at the beginning or making a success at the end, due to the labour provided by employees. Human resources is intended to show how to have better employment relations in the workforce. Also, to bring out the best work ethic of the employees and therefore making a move to a better working environment

human resource manager are Individual within an organization responsible for hiring new employees, supervising employee evaluations, mediation between employees and bosses as necessary, and general overseeing of the personnel department.
Similar to other department managers, a human resource manager has two basic functions: overseeing department functions and managing employees. For this reason, a human resources manager must be well-versed in each of the human resources disciplines – compensation and benefits, training and development, employee relations, and recruitment and selection. Core competencies HR managers have are solid communication skills and decision-making capabilities based on analytical skills and critical thought processes

Overall Responsibilities

Human resource managers have strategic and functional responsibilities for all of the HR disciplines. A human resource manager has the expertise of an HR generalist combined with general business and management skills. In large organizations, a human resource manager reports to the human resource director or a C-level human resource executive. In smaller companies, some HR managers perform all of the department’s functions or work with an HR assistant or generalist that handles administrative matters. Regardless of the size of department or the company, a human resource manager should have the skills to perform every HR function, if necessary.

Compensation and Benefits

Human resource managers provide guidance and direction to compensation and benefits specialists. Within this discipline, human resources managers develop strategic compensation plans, align performance management systems with compensation structure and monitor negotiations for group health care benefits. Examples of human resource manager responsibilities include monitoring Family and Medical Leave Act compliance and adherence to confidentiality provisions for employee medical files. Human resource managers for small companies might also conduct open enrollment for employees’ annual elections pertaining to health care coverage.






Recruitment, selection and placement of human resource is a major part of an organization overall resourcing strategies which identify and secure people needed for the organization to survive and succeed. Better recruitment and selection procedure results in improved organisational outcomes. The more effectively an organization recruits and select candidates particularly in adult education organization the more likely they retain satisfied personnel.  Human Resources is a business field focused on maximizing employee productivity. Human Resources professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can be specialists focusing in on recruiting, training, employee relations or benefits. Recruiting specialists are in charge of finding and hiring top talent. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations and reward programs. Employee relations deals with concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as harassment or discrimination. Someone in benefits develops compensation structures, family leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are Human Resources Generalists or Business Partners. These human resources professionals could work in all areas or be labor relations representatives working with unionized employees


Human resource (HR) managers are involved with recruitment, training, career development, compensation and benefits, employee relations, industrial relations, employment law, compliance, disciplinary and grievance issues, redundancies etc. The job involves keeping up to date with areas such as employment law, which change often.

Recruitment, selection and placement are processes that are critical to the accomplishment of any task of any organizations. Appointment of qualified and competent personnel’s appointment through the diligent observation of fair and transparent procedure ensure the success of organization. This is because once the procedure of recruitment, selection and placement has been adopted in the sector; it will motivate the adult education employee.

Better recruitment and selection procedure results in improved organizational outcomes. The more effectively organization recruitment and selections of candidates is, the more likely they are to hire and retain effective personnel. Therefore, the starting point to improve adult education is to get qualified and interested staff through competitive fair and objectives recruitment and selection procedure.





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The Democratic Republic of the Congo also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply the Congo is a country located in Central Africa. From 1971 to 1997 it was named Zaire, and from 1908 to 1960 it was called the Belgian Congo. The DRC borders the Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, and South Sudan to the north; Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania to the east; Zambia and Angola to the south; and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and southwest. It is the second largest country in Africa by area, the largest in Subsaharan Africa, and the eleventh largest in the world. With a population of over 80 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most populated officially Francophone country, the fourth most populated nation in Africa and the eighteenth most populated country in the world.



The area now known as the DR Congo was populated as early as 80,000 years ago, as shown by the 1988 discovery of the Semliki harpoon at Katanda, one of the oldest barbed harpoons ever found, believed to have been used to catch giant river catfish.

Some historians think that Bantu peoples began settling in the extreme northwest of Central Africa at the beginning of the 5th century and then gradually started to expand southward. Their propagation was accelerated by the transition from Stone Age to Iron Age techniques. The people living in the south and southwest were mostly San Bushmen and hunter-gatherer groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies. The development of metal tools during this time period revolutionized agriculture and animal husbandry. This led to the displacement of the hunter-gatherer groups in the east and southeast.

The 10th century marked the final expansion of the Bantu in West-Central Africa. Rising populations soon made possible intricate local, regional and foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in salt, iron and copper




The DRC was colonialized by Belquim. In May 1960, a growing nationalist movement, the Mouvement National Congolais or MNC Party, led by Patrice Lumumba, won the parliamentary elections. Patrice Lumumba thus became the first Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (CIA). The parliament elected as President Joseph Kasavubu, of the Alliance des Bakongo (ABAKO) party. Other parties that emerged included the Parti Solidaire Africain (or PSA) led by Antoine Gizenga, and the Parti National du Peuple (or PNP) led by Albert Delvaux and Laurent Mbariko. (Congo 1960, dossiers du CRISP, Belgium).

The Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name “République du Congo” (“Republic of Congo” or “Republic of the Congo” in English). Shortly after independence, the provinces of Katanga (led by Moise Tshombe) and South Kasai engaged in secessionist struggles against the new leadership. Most of the 100,000 Europeans who had remained behind after independence fled the country, opening the way for Congolese to replace the European military and administrative elite


In 1908, the Belgian parliament, despite initial reluctance, bowed to international pressure, especially from the United Kingdom, and took over the Free State from King Leopold II. On 18 October 1908, the Belgian parliament voted in favour of annexing the Congo as a Belgian colony. Executive power rested with the Belgian Minister of Colonial Affairs, assisted by a Colonial Council (Conseil Colonial) (both located in Brussels) and the Belgian parliament exercised legislative authority over the Belgian Congo. In 1926, the colonial capital moved from Boma to Léopoldville, some 300 km further upstream into the interior.

The transition from the Congo Free State to the Belgian Congo was a break but it was also marked by a large degree of continuity. The last Governor-general of the Congo Free State, Baron Wahis, remained in office in the Belgian Congo and the majority of Leopold II’s administration with him. jenny (2014). Opening up the Congo and its natural and mineral riches for the Belgian economy remained the main motive for colonial expansion – however, other priorities, such as healthcare and basic education, slowly gained in importance.


The level of poverty is low in the country as a result of the civil war..


The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is located in central sub-Saharan Africa, bounded by (clockwise from the southwest) Angola, the South Atlantic Ocean, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, South Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania across Lake Tanganyika, and Zambia. The country lies between latitudes 6°N and 14°S, and longitudes 12° and 32°E. It straddles the Equator, with one-third to the North and two-thirds to the South. The size of Congo, 2,345,408 square kilometres (905,567 sq mi), is slightly greater than the combined areas of Spain, France, Germany, Sweden, and Norway.

As a result of its equatorial location, the DRC experiences high precipitation and has the highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world. The annual rainfall can total upwards of 2,000 millimetres (80 in) in some places, and the area sustains the Congo Rainforest, the second-largest rain forest in the world after the Amazon. This massive expanse of lush jungle covers most of the vast, low-lying central basin of the river, which slopes toward the Atlantic Ocean in the west.


The demography of congo can be outline below;

Ethnic groups

Over 200 ethnic groups populate the Democratic Republic of the Congo, of which the majority are Bantu peoples. Together, Mongo, Luba and Kongo peoples (Bantu) and MangbetuAzande peoples constitute around 45% of the population.


Immigration to the DRC has decreased steadily over the past two decades, most likely as a result of the armed violence that the country has experienced. According to the International Organization for Migration, the number of immigrants in the DRC has fallen from just over 1 million in 1960, to 754,000 in 1990, to 480,000 in 2005, to an estimated 445,000 in 2010. Official figures are unavailable, partly due to the predominance of the informal economy in the DRC. Data are also lacking on irregular immigrants, however given neighbouring countries’ ethnic links to DRC nationals, irregular migration is assumed to be a significant phenomenon.


Religion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo by Pew Research Center (2013)

Catholicism (36.8%)

Protestantism (32%)

Other Christian (11.2%)

Sunni Islam (6%)

Shia Islam (1.2%)

Ahmadiyya Islam (0.7%)

Other Muslim (4.1%)

Indigenous religion (3%)

Other or non-specified (1%)

Unaffiliated (4%)

Christianity is the majority religion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, followed by about 95% of the population according to a 2010 Pew Research Center estimate, and 80% according to the CIA World Factbook and Pew Research Center 2013 data. Indigenous beliefs account for about 1.8–10%, and Islam for 10–12%.  There are about 35 million Catholics in the country


French is the official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is culturally accepted as the lingua franca facilitating communication among the many different ethnic groups of the Congo. According to a 2014 OIF report, 33 million Congolese people (47% of the population) can read and write in French. In the capital city Kinshasa, 67% of the population can read and write French, and 68.5% can speak and understand it.

Approximately 242 languages are spoken in the country, but only four have the status of national languages: Kituba (“Kikongo ya leta”), Lingala, Tshiluba, and Swahili.


69.6 million at 2.3%


The growth rate of the country is put at 2.3%, however this increase has been stalled due to the current civil war going on in the country.


69.6 million (2012 estimate)




Unemployment figures is still unclear and put at a cross road due to the fighting between government troops and the rebels


The Income Level is low $320 despite the numerous diamonds in the country.


No data is put in place for infant and maternal mortality, this is due to the fact that thousands are being killed and children are either force as sex slave or child soldiers.


Food security is nothing as the country now depends on foreign assistance and food aid to feed their population.


Due to the ongoing civil war, thousands have been displace in the war torn country.


Mining is the chief sustainer of the Congo economy and that is what is driving their economy as various natural resources are found ranging from Gold, Diamong, cobalt, copper etc.



The recent history of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) has been one of civil war and corruption. DR Congo is a vast country with immense economic resources and, until recently, has been at the centre of what some observers call “Africa’s world war”, with widespread civilian suffering the result.

The war claimed an up to six million lives, either as a direct result of fighting or because of disease and malnutrition. The war had an economic as well as a political side. Fighting was fuelled by the country’s vast mineral wealth, with all sides taking advantage of the anarchy to plunder natural resources. Some militia fights on in the east, where a big United Nations force is trying to keep the peace. The way forward is for all concern parties that are aggrieved or those fighting for succession to come to the round table and dialoque. A window of avenue must be open to discuss settlement and peace for the country.











Central Intelligence Agency (2014). “Democratic Republic of the Congo”. The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 29 April 2014.


 Democratic Republic of the Congo IMF population estimates

“Democratic Republic of the Congo”. international monetary fund.

“GINI index”. World Bank. Retrieved 30 July 2013.

“2015 Human Development Report” (PDF). United Nations

Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.

Starbird, Caroline; Deboer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny (2004). Teaching International Economics and Trade. Center for Teaching International Relations, University of Denver. p. 78. ISBN 9780943804927. Aid Applicant: The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC)

Office of the United States Trade Representative (May 2003). United States House of Representatives Committee on Ways and Means, ed. 2003 Comprehensive Report on U.S. Trade and Investment Policy Toward Sub-Saharan Africa. Message from the President of the United States. United States Government Printing Office. p. 87. ISBN 9781428950146. Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC) will become eligible for AGOA trade benefits upon formation of a transitional government.



The term monotheism comes from the Greek monos, which means one, and theos, which means god. Thus, monotheism is the belief in the existence of a single god. Monotheism is typically contrasted with polytheism, which is a belief in many gods, and atheism, which is an absence of any belief in any gods

Monotheism is the religious belief that God is “one” (singular).  Example religions are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The word pantheism is built from the Greek roots pan, which means all, and theos, which mens god; thus, pantheism is either a belief that the universe is God and worthy of worship, or that God is the sum total of all there is and that the combined substances, forces, and natural laws which we see around us are manifestations of God. Pantheism.  Pantheism is the belief God and the universe can be equated; that God is the universe. This is different from panentheism (also called monistic monotheism), where all is in God; it says the divine interpenetrates all aspects of the universe and transcends it. So in panentheism the divine is separate, whereas in pantheism the universe itself could be defined as the divine. It’s often no actual divinity however, but a spiritual reverence, or awe. You could rightfully call it the sublime, but I suppose that would apply to panentheism equally


The concept of Monotheism is solely associated with Islam. It was first introduced in the SEA during the 13th Century by Arab traders who came to Malacca to do business in the spice region. Parameswara, the founder of Malacca who became a Muslim and changed his name to Sultan Iskandar Muzaffar Shah, 5 is an important figure in introducing Islam to his subjects. There is a popular theory now that Islam came to ‘Tanah Melayu’ from Arab traders who sailed from China.


The primary meaning of “pantheism” is “the belief that the Divine is identifiable with the forces of nature and with natural substances,” and it is this meaning of pantheism which is properly contrasted with “pantheism” (the belief that the Divine is within the natural world but not limited to it). This pantheism *denies* all Gods and Goddesses, at least to the extent that They are understood as anything more than natural forces. Thus if you believe that the Goddess is something more than the physical planet Earth, you are NOT a pantheist; you are a pantheist.

A secondary meaning of “pantheism” is “worship that admits or tolerates all gods.” As this meaning directly contradicts the primary meaning, persons using the term should be careful to specify which meaning they intend. (Under this meaning, if there is any god whose existence you do not acknowledge – Satan, for example – you are NOT a pantheist.)

Within the pagan community, the term pantheism is used even more sloppily as a synonym for polytheism and/or animism. This had led many people who don’t meet either of the above definitions to mistakenly call themselves pantheists.

P> By that, I mean that I believe the Christian God exists, but
P> don’t necessarily worship that particular deity. If all gods
P> and goddesses exist, you can worship one of them (Monotheism),
P> without excluding the existence of the rest of them

That’s not monotheism, that’s henotheism. Monotheism is the belief that only one “God” exists. Note, however, that monotheism does not deny the existence of lesser beings (saints, angels, etc.) who might also be called “gods” in a polytheistic system. Note also that Christianity is not truly monotheistic, as it has the top job shared three ways.

Pantheism and Western Monotheism

How does pantheism relate to traditional Judaeo-Christian conceptions of God? As Paul Harrison (“Defining the Cosmic Divinity,” SP website) points out, traditional (Western) religion describes a God who is ultimately a mystery, beyond human comprehension; awe-inspiring; overwhelmingly powerful; creator of the universe; eternal and infinite; and transcendent. The divine universe fits some of these descriptions without modification and it fits others if we allow ourselves to interpret the terms flexibly.

The divine universe is mysterious. Though we can understand the universe more adequately as scientific research proceeds, there will always be questions to which we will not yet have answers; and explanations of ultimate origins will always remain speculative (they are too far in the past for us to decipher clearly).

The divine universe is awe-inspiring. Would a creator behind it be any more awe-inspiring than the universe itself?

The universe is clearly very powerful. It creates and it destroys on a vast scale.

So far as we know, the universe created all that exists; which is to say that, the universe as it is now was created by the universe as it was a moment ago, and that universe by the universe that existed a moment before that, and so on. If we view universe in this way, we can keep the idea of creator and creation and yet have no need to imagine a being apart from the universe who created it. The divine being is indeed a creator, in the pantheist view. Indeed, the creativity of the natural universe is probably the best evidence for its divinity.

Is the universe eternal? Well, it depends on how you understand eternity. Traditional Western theology understands eternity as a quality of a God that exists altogether outside time. Yet the dynamic and changing universe is very much bound up with time, so it is not eternal in the theological sense. Possibly it is everlasting, maybe it had no first moment and will never cease to exist. Scientific evidence does point to a Big Bang several billion years ago, from which our universe in roughly its current form originated, but if we accept the time-honored precept that nothing comes from nothing, we cannot rule out the existence of a material universe before this Big Bang.

Is the universe transcendent? In Western theology transcendence is a term often paired with eternity. A transcendent being is essentially outside and independent of the universe. Of course, the divinity which pantheists revere is not transcendent in that way. However, in ordinary language, to transcend is to surpass. Well, the universe which includes us also certainly surpasses us, as it surpasses everything we are capable of knowing or observing.


Differences with Western Monotheism

Pantheism has clear differences with the traditional description of God. It departs from the picture of God given in the Old Testament to the extent that the Old Testament attributes human attributes to the divine being, such as a willingness to make deals (You worship me and I’ll make you my Chosen People) and anger (for example, Yahweh’s anger at the Israelites’ worship of the Golden Calf).

Pantheism also avoids some features of the theological conception of God which arises from a mix of Greek philosophical influences and Judaeo-Christian thought. For example, pantheism does not hold that the divinity we revere is a first cause wholly independent of matter, or that the divine being freely creates the physical universe from nothing but its own will.




There is a clear difference between the ‘isms’. Pantheism and Polytheism is the belief in the existence of several gods, while Monotheism believes in the existence of one god. Be it Phantheism, Polytheism or Monotheism, the artists who produced the artwork throughout the different religious periods in the SEA countries were responsible in coloring the region with different kinds of artistic expressions. The ‘Dongson Drum’ and the ‘Boat of Death’ it has been used by the believer in all the religion ceremonies and funerals. For ‘Makyong’ and ‘Wayang Kulit’, this two activities work as a messenger to the people about the Ramayana Epic and a way of asking the devotees to be good in life. The ‘Chandi’ Lembah Bujang and Borobodor built by the Buddish in Kedah and Jogjakarta during the Buddhism did give benefit to the people in the form of a place of worship and knowledge in the religion. As for Islam, the artist leads by the ‘Pandai Tukang’ Melayu have transformed the idea of beauty through the woodcarving and others. All these practices through the religion have given the work of art with a purpose not just Art for Art sake as ideally by the western artist.


  1. (2002), Macmillan English Dictionary, Macmillan Education, UK. Pg 1025
    2. Zainal Abidin Abdul Wahid (1972), Sejarah Malayisa Se Pintas Lalu, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur. Pg 12
    3. (2002), Macmillan English Dictionary, Macmillan Education, UK. Pg 1025
    4. Last updated: 23 Jul 1996, http://www.mahidol.ac.th/Thailand/glance-thai/animism.html, The External Cultural Relations Division Office of The National Culture by Mahidol University
    5. Dr. Siti Zainon Ismail (2002), Meng’Ukir’ Seni Melayu, Fakuli Sains Sosial dan Kemanusaian, UKM, Malaysia.
    6.Muhammad Haji Salleh, ed (1997), Tun Seri Lanang, Sulalat al Sulatin (Sejarah Melayu), Yayasan Karyawan dan Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, KL
    7. Prof. H. M. Toha Jahja Omar (1964), Hukum Seni Musik, Seni Suara dan Tari dalam Islam, Jakarta. Pg 307
    8. Sulaiman Esa (2000), Syerah, Kuala Lumpur.
    9. Dr. Siti Zainon Ismail (2002), Meng’Ukir’ Seni Melayu, Fakuli Sains Sosial dan Kemanusaian UKM, Malaysia.

Posted by AzianTahir at 6:55 PM





China, officially the People’s Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia. With a population of over 1.381 billion, it is the world’s most populous state. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China based in the capital of Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over Taiwan. The country’s major urban areas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.

Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers, China is the world’s second largest state by land area,[19] and either the third or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement

While Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (French: République togolaise), is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, where its capital Lomé is located. Togo covers 57,000 square kilometres (22,008 square miles), making it one of the smallest countries in Africa, with a population of approximately 7.5 million.


The Chinese economy experienced astonishing growth in the last few decades that catapulted the country to become the world’s second largest economy. In 1978—when China started the program of economic reforms—the country ranked ninth in nominal gross domestic product (GDP) with USD 214 billion; 35 years later it jumped up to second place with a nominal GDP of USD 9.2 trillion.

Since the introduction of the economic reforms in 1978, China has become the world’s manufacturing hub, where the secondary sector (comprising industry and construction) represented the largest share of GDP. However, in recent years, China’s modernization propelled the tertiary sector and, in 2013, it became the largest category of GDP with a share of 46.1%, while the secondary sector still accounted for a sizeable 45.0% of the country’s total output. Meanwhile, the primary sector’s weight in GDP has shrunk dramatically since the country opened to the world.

China weathered the global economic crisis better than most other countries. In November 2008, the State Council unveiled a CNY 4.0 trillion (USD 585 billion) stimulus package in an attempt to shield the country from the worst effects of the financial crisis. The massive stimulus program fuelled economic growth mostly through massive investment projects, which triggered concerns that the country could have been building up asset bubbles, overinvestment and excess capacity in some industries. Given the solid fiscal position of the government, the stimulus measures did not derail China’s public finances. The global downturn and the subsequent slowdown in demand did, however, severely affect the external sector and the current account surplus has continuously diminished since the financial crisis.


China’s Economic Policy

Economic growth soared in the last few decades mainly due to the country’s increasing integration into the global economy and the government’s bold support for economic activity. However, the successful economic model that lifted hundreds of millions out of poverty and fueled the country’s astonishing economic and social development has also brought many challenges. Severe economic imbalances, mounting environmental issues, rising economic inequality and an aging population are the key questions that the new administration lead by President Xi Jinping will have to tackle in the near future in order to ensure the country’s sustainability.  The final communique of the Third Plenary Session of the 18thChina Communist Party (CPC)’s Central Committee held in Beijing on 9-12 November 2013 unveiled an ambitious road map for economic reform. Chinese authorities vowed to deepen economic reform and give the market a decisive role in allocating resources. That said, they reaffirmed the leading role of the state in the economy. Authorities also stressed the need to promote market-oriented reforms in state-owned companies and to accelerate interest rate liberalization, capital account convertibility and exchange rate reform. According to the Plenum communique , reforming the hukou system of household registration, enhancing farmers’ property rights, further development of social welfare, improving the judiciary system and promoting a more developed fiscal system would be on the agenda. In addition, Xi launched an aggressive anti-corruption campaign, which targeted senior officials of the Communist Party.

Although gradual, Chinese authorities have already unveiled a series of reforms in a wide range of sectors, signaling Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang’s commitment to push forward their agenda.

China’s Fiscal Policy

Before 1978, China had a highly centralized fiscal system, which mainly reflected the country’s planned economic system. The central government collected all revenues and allocated all the spending of the administration and public institutions. In parallel with the reforms implemented in the country for Deng Xiaoping, the government started to decentralize the fiscal system.  In 1994, the government launched a bold fiscal reform in order to struggle against a rapid decline in the tax/GDP ratio, which dampened the government’s ability to conduct macroeconomic and redistribution policies. The flagship of the reform was a new taxation system and the adoption of a tax-sharing scheme, where the most lucrative sources of tax revenues, such as the Value-Added Tax and the Enterprise Income Tax, were administrated by the central government.









Among the smallest countries in Africa, Togo enjoys one of the highest standards of living on the continent owing to its valuable phosphate deposits and a well-developed export sector based on agricultural products such as coffee, cocoa beans, and peanuts (groundnuts). Low market prices for Togo’s major export commodities, however, coupled with the volatile political situation of the 1990s and early 2000s, had a negative effect on the economy.


Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade center. The government’s decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures, has stalled. Political unrest, including private and public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, jeopardized the reform program, shrank the tax base, and disrupted vital economic activity.

The 12 January 1994 devaluation of the currency by 50% provided an important impetus to renewed structural adjustment; these efforts were facilitated by the end of strife in 1994 and a return to overt political calm. Progress depends on increased openness in government financial operations (to accommodate increased social service outlays) and possible downsizing of the armed forces, on which the regime has depended to stay in place. Lack of aid, along with depressed cocoa prices, generated a 1% fall in GDP in 1998, with growth resuming in 1999.

Togo is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).


Togo is a small economy in terms of the total value of its output. This is because the population is small, at around 4.5 million, and the GDP per capita in 1999 was very low at US$1,700 a year (by way of comparison the U.S. figure is US$33,900 per capita). The population is growing rapidly, at 3.4 percent a year, which adds to the problems of generating higher incomes. Most people (66 percent of the total) depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, mostly from small family farms. The economy of Togo has not performed well in recent years. Output has increased less rapidly than population, and average living standards have fallen. The agriculture sector has performed better than industry and services, however, and agricultural output per person has increased in recent years.

Togo is by all accounts a severely underdeveloped country. Low income levels mean that most income is devoted to subsistence, and more than 80 percent of GDP

goes to private consumption. Savings (7 percent of GDP) and investment (13 percent of GDP) are both low. But underdevelopment is more than just a matter of income levels. The United Nations (UN) includes education and health as well as income in its Human Development Index, and the problems in both these areas helped place Togo 145th out of the 174 countries listed by the Human Development Index in 1998.

There are, however, some bright spots in Togo’s economic picture. Mineral exploration in 1998 showed oil deposits in Togo waters, which may be exploited if shown to be viable. Hoping to attract investment, the government inaugurated what it calls an “industrial free zone ” (actually, a free trade zone) with fiscal benefits in exchange for company guarantees on export levels and employment. And electricity imports fell after the completion in 1988 of a hydroelectric dam, built in conjunction with Benin.

In 1994, Togo embarked upon a strategy to achieve currency and other fiscal stabilization in consultation with the IMF. This program has been delayed due to political instability. The IMF has also since been very critical of the government’s loss of momentum in tightening public finances. In the lead-up to the election in 1998 the government overspent, which meant the budget deficit grew to 6.7 percent of GDP, well outside the IMF guidelines of 3 percent of GDP. There is pressure to establish effective control of the budget and to reduce public sector wages, with spending reallocated to poverty alleviation and other high priority issues. Despite efforts to rationalize and broaden the tax system, heavy deficits were still recorded. In the 2000 budget many cutbacks were made. Health spending decreased by 16.3 percent, defense spending decreased by 17.7 percent, presidential office spending decreased by 32.7 percent, and expenditures by the prime minister’s office decreased by 51.1 percent. However, the government is still dependent on foreign aid to cover the US$40 million deficit.

Togo is a member of the CFA Franc Zone, with its currency linked by a fixed exchange rate to the French franc. This provides a convertible currency with other countries that share the CFA franc and exchange rate stability. However, in order to achieve this, Togo has agreed to give control of its monetary policy to the regional central bank of the CFA Franc Zone, the Banque Centrale des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (BCEAO). Since more rapid inflation makes it difficult to maintain the fixed exchange rate, the money supply is under the control of the BCEAO. The BCEAO changed its 1980s policy of expansion and started to restrict credits to the private and government sectors in the early 1990s, which meant a slowdown in the growth of the money supply. As inflation fell after a 1994 devaluation of the currency, BCEAO was able to ease its monetary policy by reducing interest rates from 19.5 percent (1994) to 6 percent (1997). In 1998 BCEAO raised interest rates to 6.25 percent and increased commercial bank minimum reserve ratios (which restrict the banks’ ability to lend) to forestall inflation. In 1999 the CFA franc became tied to the euro (the European Union’s common currency) at a rate that reflected the euro’s relationship to the French franc. A smooth transition meant that the BCEAO was able to cut interest rates to 5.75 percent, making it easier for people and business to borrow money.

Steady economic growth in the 1970s (averaging about 4 percent) gave way to low growth in the 1980s, with GDP growth becoming less than population growth, leading to a reduction in GDP per capita. Political and social unrest in the early 1990s meant that GDP contracted by 3.7 percent in 1992 and 13.7 percent in 1993. The situation was aggravated by depressed world commodity markets and an economic crisis in the West African Franc Zone.

After a return to relative domestic normality and de-valuation in 1994, the economy had a positive, if patchy, recovery. Real GDP increased by 16.7 percent in 1994 (albeit from a very low base), 6.8 percent in 1995, and by 9.7 percent in 1996. Growth fell back to 4.3 percent in 1997, but it became negative in 1998 (at-1.3 percent) due to the energy crisis. GDP growth rallied in 1999, on the back of a good harvest, to 3.5 percent. This improvement partly reflected higher phosphate production, but manufacturing, which is still state dominated, suffered due to weak demand and inefficiency.

On average, consumer inflation is normally around 5 percent or less. In 1994 the CFA devaluation caused inflation to rise to approximately 40 percent, although it fell back down over the next 2 years. Inflation then rose again to 8.7 percent in 1998 due to an increase in the value-added tax (VAT), higher oil and food prices, and increased government spending. By 2000, however, inflation had settled to the targeted 3 percent, and is expected to remain at this level.



CHINA                                                                                                  TOGO


DEPENDENT ON EXPORT                                               DEPENDENT ON IMPORT


LARGE ECONOMY                                                                 SMALL ECONOMY










Comparative economic policies  is the subfield of economics dealing with the comparative study of different systems of economic organization, such as capitalism, socialism, feudalism and the mixed economy. It is widely held to be founded by the economist Calvin Bryce Hoover. Comparative economics therefore consisted mainly of comparative economic systems analysis before 1989 but switched substantially its efforts to comparison of the economic effects of the transition experience from socialism to capitalism. That of china and togo and tales of two different countries from two different continents.















  Meng, Fanhua (2011). Phenomenon of Chinese Culture at the Turn of the 21st century. Singapore: Silkroad Press. ISBN 978-981-4332-35-4.

  Farah, Paolo (2006). “Five Years of China’s WTO Membership: EU and US Perspectives on China’s Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism”. Legal Issues of Economic Integration. Kluwer Law International. Volume 33, Number 3. pp. 263–304. Abstract.

  Heilig, Gerhard K. (2006/2007). China Bibliography – Online. China-Profile.com.

  Jacques, Martin (2009).When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order. Penguin Books. Rev. ed. (28 August 2012). ISBN 978-1-59420-185-1.

  Lagerwey, John (2010). China: A Religious State. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Press. ISBN 9888028049.

  Sang Ye (2006). China Candid: The People on the People’s Republic. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24514-8.

  Selden, Mark (1979). The People’s Republic of China: Documentary History of Revolutionary Change. New York: Monthly Review Press. ISBN 0-85345-532-5.

  Shambaugh, David L. (2008). China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation. Washington, D.C.; Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520254923.



In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke (3:23) states that Jesus was “about 30 years of age” at the start of his ministry

Luke 3:23 states that Jesus was “about 30 years of age” at the start of his ministry. There have been different approaches to estimating the date of the start of the ministry of Jesus. One approach, based on combining information from the Gospel of Luke with historical data about Emperor Tiberius yields a date around 28-29 AD/CE, while a second independent approach based on statements in the Gospel of John along with historical information from Josephus about the Temple in Jerusalem leads to a date around AD 27–29

How long was Jesus’ ministry?”

According to Luke 3:1, John the Baptist began his ministry in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign. Tiberius was appointed as co-regent with Augustus in AD 11, and 15 years later would be AD 26. Jesus began His ministry shortly thereafter at approximately the age of thirty (Luke 3:23). This gives us a basis upon which we can approximate what year Jesus began His public ministry: around AD 26. As for the end of His ministry, we know that it culminated with His crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension.

According to John’s Gospel, Jesus attended at least three annual Feasts of Passover through the course of His ministry: one in John 2:13, another in 6:4, and then the Passover of His crucifixion in 11:55–57. Just based on that information, Jesus’ ministry lasted 2 years, at the very least.

Because of the amount of things that Jesus accomplished and the places He traveled during His ministry, many scholars believe there was another Passover, not mentioned in the Gospels, which fell between the Passovers of John 2 and John 6. This would lengthen Jesus’ ministry to at least 3 years.

We can add more time because of all that took place before the first Passover of Jesus’ ministry in John 2. By the time of that first Passover (in the spring of 27), Jesus had already traveled from the area of the Jordan to Cana to Capernaum to Jerusalem. He had been baptized by John (Matthew 3:13–17), been tempted in the wilderness (Matthew 4:1–2), began His preaching ministry (Matthew 4:17), called His first disciples (John 1:35–51), performed His first miracle (John 2:1–11), and made a trip to Capernaum with His family (John 2:12). All this would have taken several months, at least.

The Gospels As Historical Sources For Jesus ministry ,The Founder Of Christianity


The four canonical gospels are indispensable.

1.1 The lack of relevant evidence outside the gospels makes them the necessary starting-point of any investigation of the historical Jesus.

1.1.1 In the first century or so after the death of Jesus there are very few references to Jesus in non-Christian literature.

(a) The brief notice in Tacitus Annals xv.44 mentions only his title, Christus, and his execution in Judea by order of Pontius Pilatus. Nor is there any reason to believe that Tacitus bases this on independent information-it is what Christians would be saying in Rome in the early second century. Suetonius and Pliny, together with Tacitus, testify to the significant presence of Christians in Rome and other parts of the empire from the mid-sixties onwards, but add nothing to our knowledge of their founder. No other clear pagan references to Jesus can be dated before AD 150/1/, by which time the source of any information is more likely to be Christian propaganda than an independent record.

(b) The only clear non-Christian Jewish reference in this period is that of Josephus Antiquities XVIII.63-64, the so-called Testimonium Flavianum. Virtually all scholars are agreed that the received text is a Christian rewriting, but most are prepared to accept that in the original text a brief account of Jesus, perhaps in a less complimentary vein, stood at this point /2/. Josephus’ passing mention of ‘Jesus, the so-called Messiah’ in Antiquities XX.200 is hard to explain without some previous notice of this Jesus, especially since Josephus elsewhere makes no reference to Christianity, nor even uses the term Christos of any other figure. The different and less ‘committed’ version of the Testimonium preserved in a tenth-century Arabic quotation from Josephus/3/, while it is unlikely to represent the original text, does testify to the existence of an account of Jesus in Josephus’ work underlying the Christianized text. But reconstruction of what Josephus wrote is necessarily speculative.

(c) Rabbinic traditions about Jesus /4/ recall him as a sorcerer who gained a following and ‘led Israel astray’, and so ‘was hanged on the eve of the Passover’. Some of the relevant passages may date from the second century AD, but they are very obscure, and bear little relation to the Jesus his own followers remembered. Their polemical nature and their lack of interest in factual data does not create confidence in their potential as historical evidence for Jesus.

2. The acceptability of the gospels as historical sources.

2.1 The literary genre of the gospels.

2.1.1 It has long been an accepted dictum of New Testament scholars that the gospels are not biographies. In the sense that they do not set about their task in the way a modern biographer does this is undoubtedly true. Their records are highly selective, have only a loose chronological framework, focus one-sidedly on matters of theological significance, and tell us little or nothing about their subject’s psychology or personal development. In these ways, however, they are much closer to the type of ‘biography’ which was fashionable in the ancient world /12/. To commend the teaching and example of a great man by means of a selective and ‘moralizing’ anthology of his sayings and deeds was an accepted approach. Many such ‘biographies’ were of heroes long ago, and are largely mythical and valueless as historical sources; but in the case of a more recent figure there is no reason a priori why authentic historical reminiscences should not form the basis for such a ‘life’.

2.1.2 The primary cultural milieu for the gospels is Jewish, and prominent among Jewish literary techniques of the early Christian period is midrash /13/. This category has been applied to the gospels, with the suggestion that the source of much that they attribute to Jesus is a scripturally-inspired imagination rather than historical tradition. It must be insisted, however, (a) that ‘midrash’ (however that slippery word is defined) was far from being the dominant factor in Jewish writing about recent history, however strongly it may have influenced their retelling of ancient, sacred stories, and (b) that while the framework around which midrash was composed was a pre-existing sacred text, the framework of the gospels is a narrative about Jesus, into which scriptural elements may be introduced as the narrative suggests them, rather than vice versa. There may be much to be learned by comparing the gospel writers’ methods with those of midrashists, but there is no meaningful sense in which the gospels in themselves can be described in literary terms as midrash /14/.

2.2.4 A recent modification of this approach has been to compare the gospel traditions with the phenomena of informal tradition in a Middle Eastern peasant culture /20/. Here, while the formal controls of rabbinic tradition are lacking, and in some types of oral material a considerable degree of latitude may be allowed in the telling of a story, the main structure and key phrases, sayings, etc. are fixed by community memory to the extent that however often a story may be told in different circles with varying detail or coloring, it will still remain in all essentials the same story, with the same punchline etc., as when it started. Other material in such a culture will have a more unvarying form, where the exact words matter, as in proverbs or poems. This mixture, it is suggested, is closer to the phenomena of the gospels than either of the previously considered approaches, and encourages a strong confidence in the essential reliability of the gospels while allowing for a considerable variation in detail which gives full play to the individual personality and views of each gospel writer.

2.2.5 It should be noted that all these models assume an essentially or even entirely oral tradition for most of the period before the writing of the gospels. This is an assumption which should at least be questioned. There is no a priori reason why written records of Jesus’ teaching and actions may not have been preserved from shortly after the events themselves. Most scholars in fact speak of a written source or sources (in addition to Mark) used by Matthew and Luke. It is not clear why this lost ‘document’ (known for convenience as ‘Q’) should be the only or the earliest such record. May we not give more weight to Luke’s statement (Luke 1:1) that ‘many’ had already attempted to compile accounts of Jesus’ ministry?

2.3 The roots of scepticism as to the historical value of the gospels.

2.3.1 Problems in harmonizing with external data. A notorious case is Luke’s reference to a Roman census under the governorship of Quirinius at the time of Jesus’ birth. The historical problems are well known, and the case against Luke’s accuracy here is a strong one /21/. But such problems are few, because in the nature of the case the vast majority of the content of the gospels simply does not overlap with secular history. It should be pointed out, moreover, that the same Luke whose work is criticized on account of the census problem also wrote the Acts of the Apostles, where the overlap with recorded history is far greater, and in this area Luke’s accuracy in referring to the details of political institutions and appointments in Asia Minor and Greece was sufficient to cause the archeologist Sir William Ramsay to change from an inherited scepticism to a warm regard for Luke as a careful and responsible historian /22/. The bearing of external data on the historical reliability of the gospel writers is not all in one direction.

2.3.2 Problems in harmonization between the gospels. Perhaps the most notorious example here is that of the four gospels’ accounts of the finding of the empty tomb, and of Jesus’ subsequent appearances to selected disciples. It is well known that the details of these stories vary so widely that most scholars have declared any complete harmonization impossible. Be that as it may, it should not be allowed to obscure the fact that the essential story, the finding of an empty tomb early on the first day of the week by women who had reason to expect to find the body of Jesus there, is common to all the accounts. The same is true in general of discrepancies between the gospels: they concern details rather than the essential content (and in most cases the discrepancy in detail is far less than in the case of the resurrection stories). Often the discrepancy is over the apparent chronological order of the events- but it is questionable how far a chronological order is always what the writers intended in the first place. Generally the narrative discrepancies are of the type mentioned above in Middle Eastern story-telling, which leave the essential story-line unaffected. Problems of harmonization are the regular experience of any ancient historian who is fortunate enough to have two sources to compare, and do not in themselves lead him to question the integrity of his sources. Interpreters of the gospels will differ over the weight they assign to such discrepancies, but it would be hard to justify the view that they are sufficient to cast doubt on the essential portrait of Jesus which the gospels share.


2.3.4 The perspective of early Christianity. The belief that the gospel materials would have been significantly modified and expanded during the period between Jesus’ life and the writing of the gospels presupposes that primitive Christianity was unconcerned with the historicity of its traditions. It supposes that when a story or saying was presented in a significantly altered form, this would either not have been noticed, or would have been accepted and approved, and no-one would have objected ‘But it wasn’t like that’. Such a view fits well with a modern existentialist philosophy for which faith must be independent of history, and truth consists more in the effect on the hearer than in correspondence with the way things happened. But it is questionable how far such a view fits the concerns of early Christianity, as we can reconstruct them from the New Testament itself /23/. It may be suggested that the more immediately applicable models are those proposed above of the Jewish world of Jesus’ day and of the continuing values of Middle Eastern peasant culture. Here ‘getting the facts right’ is an essential part of good teaching and storytelling, and it must be proved rather than assumed that this was not also the case in the early Christian church.






If the argument sketched out above is valid, any responsible reconstruction of Christian origins must find its starting-point in the first- century gospel records, not in the hints of an alternative view of Jesus contained in second-century literature from the Gnostic wing of Christianity, nor in the attempt to assimilate Jesus to non-Christian parallels in the history of religions. The four canonical gospels will not answer all the questions we would like to ask about the founder of Christianity; but, sensitively interpreted, they do give us a rounded portrait of a Jesus who is sufficiently integrated into what we know of first-century Jewish culture to carry historical conviction, but at the same time sufficiently remarkable and distinctive to account for the growth of a new and potentially world-wide religious movement out of his life and teaching.












Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 978-1-4051-0901-7 pages 16-22


The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 140


Paul L. Maier “The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus” in Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 ISBN 0-931464-50-1 pages 113-129


Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 0-8308-2699-8 pages 19-21


The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris ISBN 0-85111-338-9 page 71


The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 117-130


A theology of the New Testament by George Eldon Ladd 1993ISBN page 324