The term intervention refers to all the planned programmatic activities aimed at bringing changes in an organization. These changes are intended to ensure improvement in the functioning of the organization- in its efficiencies and effectiveness. The changes are brought through the employees in the organization while consultants facilitate the change process. Any OD intervention, therefore, involves close interaction between the consultants and the client organization.
Intervention basically refers to an intended activity to bring change in the organization and the consequent activities within the organization.
Who makes the interventions?
The intervention can be brought by an external consultant who acts in consultation with the client members. A member within the organization, acting as the in-house consultant can also make the intervention. The organization itself could plan the intervention without employing either an internal or external consultant. Where a consultant is employed, any intervention is a collaborative activity between the client and the consultant.
To quote, French & Bell Jr (1994), “ intervention are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage in a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development; they “make things happen” and “what is happening”.
As suggested above a number of interventions can be carried out. They may be classified as to their focus and purpose and the intensity or depth.
It would be quite normal, perhaps even expected, that some tasks and activities contained within the operational plan will not be successfully achieved. The manager needs to monitor the progress of the operational plan and where there is evidence that an element of the operational plan is not succeeding, the manager needs to investigate the probable causes.
Intervention basically refers to an intended activity to bring change in the organization and the consequent activities within the organization. An intervention takes training a step further in an attempt to increase the likelihood of achieving the specified objectives.
The intervention process brings self-efficacy to a conscious level, which enables individuals to assess and address their personal confidence issues. The process or focus of intervention could be : individual, interpersonal, group or team(intra and inter-group), system or subsystem, organization and the external environment.
The purpose of intervention could be to improve the process (for ex. Process reengineering) Action (ex. performance), and provide feedback (ex. Has the system produced the intended results?). The depth of intervention could be less intensive (setting up of a task force) or more intensive (dealing with individual self and emotions)
Specific reasons or usefulness for intervention could be:
- To provide feedback about task, individual, team and other aspects of organizational dynamics.
- To provide awareness of changing norms, to confront and deal with issues constructively
- To develop positive attitudes openness and improve interaction among people,
- To educate employees, improve theire knowledge and skills
- To bring constructive and desirable changes to improve individual and organizational performance.
ONE OF THE CATEGORIS OF INTERVENTION
Role focused intervention:
These aim at bringing / improving the compatibility between a job incumbent and the role demands and expectations associated with his / her job.
Role analysis: Role analysis is a structured exercise to provide
- Why the role exists? the rationale
- What the role is supposed to achieve?
- How the role contributes to the achievement of the group/department/unit goals?
- How the goal is related to other roles in the department and in the organization.
Role Analysis Techniques (RAT) has been developed by Dayal (1969) for redefining the managerial roles in an organization. The techniques as followed has the following steps (Pareek, 1998)
- Analysis of the role by the occupant as to the main function of the role, its location in the organogram, why it should be there – or its relevance in the organization, and how does it contribute to organizational goals
- Discussion by the group as to what does the role occupant expect from the other roles in their role set in order to arrive at a consensus.
- Building the consensus regarding the expectations of other roles in the role set fro the role occupant.
- Developing of role profile by the role occupants of their roles, classifying what are the prescribed and discretionary elements of the role, the obligation of one role to another in the role set and the expectation of this role from the others in its set.
Role Efficacy Lab : Role Efficacy refers to the psychological factor underlying role effectiveness and the potential effectiveness of an individual occupying a particular role or the potential effectiveness of a role. Role Efficacy Lab (REL) used to develop work commitment.
REL is a short process oriented programme aimed at :
- Sharing of thoughts and of individual as well as group commitments with the top managemtn.
- Get moral support and reinforcement form the top management, and
- Providing an opportunity for the top management to examine why certain expectations are unrealistic or unattainable, and suggest their won action plans taking to account other suggestions.
Organizations need to basically analyse where, how, when what etc, to carryout an intervention to improve their performance, which in other words, refer to ‘intervention strategy’. Interventions are carried to improve an organization from its current position to a desired position and to achieve the desired change a number of techniques are used