The term intervention refers to all the planned programmatic activities aimed at bringing changes in an organization. These changes are intended to ensure improvement in the functioning of the organization- in its efficiencies and effectiveness. The changes are brought through the employees in the organization while consultants facilitate the change process. Any OD intervention, therefore, involves close interaction between the consultants and the client organization.


Intervention basically refers to an intended activity to bring change in the organization and the consequent activities within the organization.


Who makes the interventions?

The intervention can be brought by an external consultant who acts in consultation with the client members. A member within the organization, acting as the in-house consultant can also make the intervention. The organization itself could plan the intervention without employing either an internal or external consultant. Where a consultant is employed, any intervention is a collaborative activity between the client and the consultant.

To quote, French & Bell Jr (1994), “ intervention are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage in a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development; they “make things happen” and “what is happening”.
As suggested above a number of interventions can be carried out. They may be classified as to their focus and purpose and the intensity or depth.

Management Intervention

It would be quite normal, perhaps even expected, that some tasks and activities contained within the operational plan will not be successfully achieved. The manager needs to monitor the progress of the operational plan and where there is evidence that an element of the operational plan is not succeeding, the manager needs to investigate the probable causes.


Intervention basically refers to an intended activity to bring change in the organization and the consequent activities within the organization. An intervention takes training a step further in an attempt to increase the likelihood of achieving the specified objectives.


The intervention process brings self-efficacy to a conscious level, which enables individuals to assess and address their personal confidence issues. The process or focus of intervention could be : individual, interpersonal, group or team(intra and inter-group), system or subsystem, organization and the external environment.

The purpose of intervention could be to improve the process (for ex. Process reengineering) Action (ex. performance), and provide feedback (ex. Has the system produced the intended results?). The depth of intervention could be less intensive (setting up of a task force) or more intensive (dealing with individual self and emotions)



Specific reasons or usefulness for intervention could be:

  • To provide feedback about task, individual, team and other aspects of organizational dynamics.
  • To provide awareness of changing norms, to confront and deal with issues constructively
  • To develop positive attitudes openness and improve interaction among people,
  • To educate employees, improve theire knowledge and skills
  • To bring constructive and desirable changes to improve individual and organizational performance.






Role focused intervention:

These aim at bringing / improving the compatibility between a job incumbent and the role demands and expectations associated with his / her job.

Role analysis: Role analysis is a structured exercise to provide

  • Why the role exists? the rationale
  • What the role is supposed to achieve?
  • How the role contributes to the achievement of the group/department/unit goals?
  • How the goal is related to other roles in the department and in the organization.


Role Analysis Techniques (RAT) has been developed by Dayal (1969) for redefining the managerial roles in an organization. The techniques as followed has the following steps (Pareek, 1998)


  • Analysis of the role by the occupant as to the main function of the role, its location in the organogram, why it should be there – or its relevance in the organization, and how does it contribute to organizational goals
  • Discussion by the group as to what does the role occupant expect from the other roles in their role set in order to arrive at a consensus.
  • Building the consensus regarding the expectations of other roles in the role set fro the role occupant.
  • Developing of role profile by the role occupants of their roles, classifying what are the prescribed and discretionary elements of the role, the obligation of one role to another in the role set and the expectation of this role from the others in its set.


Role Efficacy Lab : Role Efficacy refers to the psychological factor underlying role effectiveness and the potential effectiveness of an individual occupying a particular role or the potential effectiveness of a role. Role Efficacy Lab (REL) used to develop work commitment.


REL is a short process oriented programme aimed at :


  • Sharing of thoughts and of individual as well as group commitments with the top managemtn.
  • Get moral support and reinforcement form the top management, and
  • Providing an opportunity for the top management to examine why certain expectations are unrealistic or unattainable, and suggest their won action plans taking to account other suggestions.







Organizations need to basically analyse where, how, when what etc, to carryout an intervention to improve their performance, which in other words, refer to ‘intervention strategy’. Interventions are carried to improve an organization from its current position to a desired position and to achieve the desired change a number of techniques are used




Interaction between workers and their employers is not devoid of conflict. However, collective bargaining is the tool used to resolve amicably contending labour issues between employees and their employer. Contrarily, rather than have smooth labour-management relations via collective bargaining, conflicts have continued to characterize labour-management relations in African, especially in Nigeria. Sadly, the present democratic regimes have witnessed series of industrial unrest now than ever before.

Conflict: Concept, Process, and Issues

Conflict is defined by interest, values and psychological disposition. More often than not conflict is a mixture of all three, although, in some instance they may vary (Chalant 2001: 473). Conflict can be  understood and better appreciated   drawing from the following pluralist, (industrial relations and political exchange), unitary, radical, transaction cost economics and theory of labour regulation (Edwards 2001) perspectives.

Like the other prevailing pattern of conflict that has characterized Nigerian political spheres, industrial relations conflicts have had its own fair share of influence on the system. Industrial conflict or trade dispute is a part of the general pattern of conflict in the polity. However, the term ‘industrial conflict’ is used in three main senses:

1) the use of overt sanctions, as when it is said that conflict erupts when workers go on strike;

2) a continuing sense of discord (‘conflict over new work rotas’); 3) an underlying conflict of interest between workers and manager that need receive no overt expression (Edwards 2001).

In the literature, there are varying perspectives to the causes of conflict; which are struggle over resources, psychological needs, values and the absence of information. It could occur at either inter-personal or inter-group or at both arenas. These causes of conflict have been captured in the conception of conflict by Loser (1968) as the struggle over values or clan to status, power and scarce resources in which the aim of the conflicting parties are not only to gain the desired values, but also to neutralize, ignore or eliminate their rivals.

The human relations view conflict as a vital element of social existence, inevitable and should be accepted, depending on how it is handled it could be destructive or productive. Conflict can be destructive when it is allowed to tear individuals, groups or society apart as a result of poor management, under this situation conflict is dysfunctional and should be discarded (Onyishi and Asogwa 2009: 252). The traditional approach of viewing conflict is that it is dysfunctional. It is a consequence of poor communication, a lack of

openness between people, and the failure of managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees (Robbin and Judge, 2008: 486). Conflict could foster the building of better and stronger social ties among groups in society where the process of resolution and reconstruction is open, fair, truly accommodating

and integrative that it allows for group viability, self-critic and creativity. This perspective is anchored on the view of the interactionist who sees conflict as a normal process of interaction, especially in a plural society (Onyishi and Asogwa 2009: 252).

One important stroke in making conflict productive and less destructive is its quick and friendly resolution of the main contending issues that had generated the conflict situation.

The quick and amiable resolution of conflict is an essential element for better human relationship. It is the means to change, the means by which social values of welfare, security, justice, opportunities for personal development can be achieved (Burton 1972: 137). In this sense, conflict then is a dynamic process of social change reflecting the complex progression in the balancing and re-alignment of individual, group or societal interest. The obvious difference between societal conflict and organizational conflict is the violent character. Conflict is violent when it results in physically damaging or destroying the property and high-valued symbols of one another;

and or psychologically or physically injuring, destroying or otherwise forcibly eliminating one another (Sandole 1993 cited in Onyishi and Asogwa 2009: 252). It is an expression of deep sited resent for which genuine and peaceful avenue for dispelling it was not provided.




Concept of Industrial Relations

Public labour-management-relation is an engaging area of action as well as a sensitive aspect of interaction in the general gamut of interorganizational relations that is rooted in intergovernmental relations (Okoli and Akume 2011). Labour-management-relation is the process by which employers and unions negotiate pay, hours of work, and other conditions of employment. It is the process of determining how conditions of service are negotiated and agreed upon that allows the signing of contract governing such conditions for a specific period of times, shared responsibilities and the pattern of administering the resulting contract (Bartol and Martin 1998: 338) signed. Industrial or labour relations subsume the process of interest accommodation by which conditions of work are fixed; relations are regulated and power is shared in the field in the field of labour (Cordova 1980).

Generally, these processes describe all those activities which contribute both formally and informally to the organization of the relationship between employers and their employees (Cole 2006: 393). These activities are dictated by a tripartism-interaction between employers, workers and government (Ojo 1998: 82) to be effective and accepted. It is important to note that in both public and private organizations labour-management relations the one connecting element in the relationship is differences in the interest of the various actors. The interests of the different actors are most often than not conflicting for which compromises are constantly negotiated to generate agreement between actors so as to enable the relationship to transcend peacefully. In labour- management relations workers, managers, politicians and the public have a stake in the outcomes of public sector labour relation processes.

At issue for workers are pay levels and working conditions, for managers, workforce quality and the degree of authority wielded at

the work place, and for the politicians the support or opposition of an important constituency as well as the fiscal consequences of pay decisions. At issue for the public are jobs, tax rates related to decisions about public pay, and services quality as impacted by employee ability and motivation (Thompson 2007: 49).

Despite this divergence of interest between the tripartism, the interest of employer and employee are not necessarily hostile-that is what is good for one is necessarily bad for the other.

The causes of industrial or labour-management conflicts vary yet they combined to fuel trade dispute (Davar 1988; Ojo 1998: 124). In Most African organization and Nigeria, to be specific, some of the recent significant causes of trade dispute in recent times are: the demand for wage increase, the quest for better working conditions, poor consultation and involvement of labour unions on labour related issues by government, and the Trade Union Act of 2004. Others are the privatization policy of the federal government with implication for down-sizing with its resultant hardship on the larger population. The astronomic increase of the salaries and wages of politicians as compared to the paltry salary structure paid to civil servants is also one of the reasons for industrial relations conflict in Nigeria.



Concerns for Industrial conflict cannot be limited to the maintenance of industrial harmony at enterprise level but also to prevailing issues of socioeconomic conditions prevailing in the country at the macro level. Industrial Relations systems and practices therefore must be directed towards responding major challenges surfacing in the new economic order. Healthy industrial

relation cannot be maintained unless broader developmental issues are addressed.

Some of the challenges impacting on Industrial Relation can be stated as follows:-

-lack of technological knows how

-poor judicial system

-poor conflict resolving mechanism

-lack of mediating parties.



The prospect of industrial industrial can be numerous especially in trying to resolve it. Good industrial relations reduce the industrial disputes. Industrial relations has become one of the most delicate and complex problems of modern industrial society. Industrial progress is impossible without cooperation of labors and harmonious relationships. Therefore, it is in the interest of all to create and maintain good relations between employees (labor) and employers (management).Thus industrial relation measures followed should be given prime emphasis which may lead to an effective relationship between management and employees. An effective industrial relation results in the increase of the productivity of the organization. Better relationship between the employee and employer is very essential for successful running of any organization. Favorable relationship can avoid many adverse situations. With a huge manpower, Rourkela Steel Plant has taken every step to maintain a cordial relation. It has given a thrust on participation of employees through many forums – both traditional and revolutionary.

Structured Communication as an important vehicle for carrying the employees and management together has been adopted nicely by RSP to facilitate the flow of information, ensure employees commitment and involvement in all critical aspects of the operation. Of course there are many scopes for improvement. Both management and recognized union should come forward to restore the relationship of trust. The Joint for a need to be more effective. The management also needs to be more committed to implement the plans more properly.







The prevailing aim of industrial conflict is to espouse the spirit of peaceful relations between labour and management. This goal is achieved through the instrumentality of collective bargaining which avails the tripartism the opportunity for interest adjustment and compromise under an atmosphere devoid of imposition and trepidation. On the contrary, industrial or labour-management has reflected a pattern of relationship characterized by caginess and conflict with its resultant severe implications not only on the tripartism but the society as a whole. While there is plethora of reasons for unhealthy industrial relations significant among these reasons are the absence of integrity on the part of the government to respect the right moral rule of conduct of accepting and implementing jointly agreement, the bias in the pattern of state wage distribution and the unhealthy pattern of viewing labour union’s call for better working conditions.

The unimaginable difference in the wage and salary gap between political office holders and other appointees and those of public servants has been at the center of raising agitation by the latter for corresponding improvement in the wages of their members. This agitations and submission to the government to effect the change in the spirit that is emblematic of fairness and equity has continued to resonate on deaf state ears thus provoking labour to take the hard path of trade dispute via strike. This last action had forced the government to reconsider its position and follow the path of negotiation which saw the introduction of the new minimum wage law. Sadly, rather than for the government to abide by to demands of the new wage law, the government had resort schemes aimed at reneging on its obligations thus sparking off a renewed confrontation and labour unrest in Nigeria.

The flagrant disregard of the law by the government which it is suppose to uphold and protect calls to question government sincerity to promote labour-management working harmony inAfrica






















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Bartol KM, Martin DC 1998. Management. 3rd Edition. New York:

McGraw Hill.


Chanlat JF 2001. Conflict and politics. In: S Arndt, W Malcolm

(Eds.): The IEBM Handbook of Organizational Behaviour. London: Thomson Learning. pp. 472-480.


Cordova E 1980. Collective labour relations in Latin America: A

reappraisal. Labour and Society, 5(3): 227-242.


Edward PK 2001. Industrial conflict. In: P Michael, W Malcolm

(Eds.): The IEBM of Human Resource Management. London: Thomson Learning. pp. 755- 771.


Ojo F 1998. Personnel Management: Theories and Issues. Lagos:

Panaf Publishing Inc.


Okoli FC, Akume AT 2011. IGR IN Nigeria: An examination of the

application of IGM tools during Obasanjo’s Administration 1999-2007 Global Journal of Applied, Management and Social Sciences, 1(1): 57-69.


Onyishi AO, Asogwa MN 2009. Labour-management conflict in the

local government system: In Enugu State 1999-2007. University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy, 3(1and 2): 250-264.


Robbin SP, Judge TA 2008. Organizational Behavior. 13th Edition.

New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited.


Thompson JR 2007. Labour-management relations: Were they

reinvented? In: BP Guy, J Pierre (Eds.): The Handbook of Public Administration. London: Sage Publications Limited.




Nigeria has one of the lowest net electricity generation per capita rates in the world. The organisation responsible for electricity production and supply in Nigeria is the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), formerly the National Electric Power Authority, known as NEPA. Nigeria is in the process of privatising the PHCN, hoping this will lead to greater investment in the sector and consequently increased power generation.

Prior to the enactment of the Electric Power Sector Reform Act (EPSRA) in 2005, the Federal Government of Nigeria was responsible for policy formulation, regulation, operation, and investment in the Nigerian power sector. Regulation of the sector was done through the Federal Ministry of Power (FMP) with operations through the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA).

The Presidential Task Force on Power was established by President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration in June 2010, to drive the implementation of the reform of Nigeria’s power sector.

The Federal Government-owned electricity system currently comprises:

  1. Three hydro and seven thermal generating stations with a total installed capacity of about 6,852MW, with available capacity of 3,542MW (in 2010).
  2. A radial  transmission grid (330kV and 132kV), owned and managed by the Transmission Company of Nigeria, and
  3. Eleven distribution companies (33kV and below).

According to the National Population Commission, it was expected that Nigeria’s population would hit 170 million by the end of 2013. Of these, less than 50% currently have access to electricity.

Nigeria plans to increase generation from fossil fuel sources to more than 20 000 MW by 2020. A major source of capacity expansion is expected to come from Independent Power Projects (IPP’s). IPP’s currently contribute around 1 600 MW to the national grid.

The power generating plants in Nigeria as well as their capacity and mode of operations can be outline below;

Afam Power Station has an installed capacity of 776MW. The plant was commissioned in phases. During the Initial phase, 1962-1963, gas turbine units 1-4 were commissioned. During the second phase, 1976 to 1978, gas turbine units 5 to 12 were commissioned. Gas turbine units 13 to 18 were commissioned in 1982. Two gas turbine units were added in 2001 during the final phase of the Afam Power Station extension.

Calabar Thermal Power Station Calabar Power Station has an installed capacity of 6.6 MW derived from three units of 2.2 MW each. Currently, it supplies 4.4 MW to the national grid and primarily serves as a booster station to the Afam and Oji River power stations. The Calabar Power Station was built in 1934.

Kainji/Jebba Hydro Electric Plc (concession)Kainji/Jebba Power operates as two hydro generation plants, each drawing water from the River Niger. The combined installed capacity of the two plants is 1330 MW, with Kainji generating 760 MW and Jebba 570 MW. Effectively, the plants operate at full capacity. Kainji began operation as Nigeria’s first hydro power plant in 1968 while the Jebba plant was commissioned in 1985. Jebba is the smallest of the three operating hydro power plants in Nigeria. In addition to generation facilities, the hydro plants have on-site Medical facilities, a staff school, a recreation centre, and a training school. The two plants are in very good condition.

Oji River Power Station Oji River Thermal Power Station was originally built to take advantage of plentiful nearby deposits of high-grade coal. Oji generates 10 MW of power from five coal-fired boilers and four steam turbines originally installed in 1956. The plant is the only coal-fired steam power station in Nigeria. Water from the nearly Oji River is used to feed the steam turbines and also for cooling purposes.

Sapele Power Plc Sapele Power Plant is a thermal generating station located in Nigeria’s gas- rich Delta State. Sapele has an installed capacity of 1020 MW. Sapele Power’s six 120 MW steam turbines generate a daily average of 86.72 MWH/H or approximately 2,500 GW/H annually. Sapele Power currently operates at a peak capacity of 972 MW.
Sapele Power is strategically located in the Niger Delta region, close to sources of  both natural gas feedstock and a river for cooling its steam turbine generators.
Sapele Power includes an updated control room, a switchgear room, a staff training school, and medical and recreational facilities. Sapele Power began operations in 1978.

Shiroro Hydro Power Plc (concession)Shiroro Power Plant was commissioned in 1990; it has an installed capacity of 600 MW. It currently runs at full capacity, generating 2, 100 GWh of electricity annually. As Nigeria’s newest hydroelectric plant, Shiroro hosts Nigeria’s SCADA-operated national control centre. Shiroro is also equipped with switchyard facilities that include a technical “step down” function for enhanced distribution into the national grid, an advanced control room and modern training facilities.  The plant is situated in the Shiroro Gorge on the Kaduna River, approximately 60 km from Minna, capital of Niger State, in close proximity to Abuja, Nigeria’s federal capital.

Ughelli Power Plc operates a gas-fired thermal plant located in the Niger Delta region. Ughelli Power is one of the largest thermal generating power stations in Nigeria. The plant has a peak capacity of 972 MW; it can generate 2500 GWh of electricity annually. The plant meets current world specifications for plants of its type, and includes an updated control room, a switchgear room, a staff training school and recreational facilities. Ughelli began operations in 1966.


Nigeria is endowed with abundant energy resources, both conventional and renewable, which can potentially provide the country with a sufficient capacity to meet the ambitions of both urban and rural Nigerians of a full, nationwide electrification level. Yet, Nigeria has one of the lowest consumption rates of electricity per capita in Africa.

Renewable energy sources have the potential to provide enough primary energy or electricity to meet our national demand as shown in table 2. However, the development and utilization of clean energy is dependent on having the technological know-how, right policies, financing and infrastructure in place to ensure access to the abundant energy source with low or zero fuel and maintenance cost.

Some of the renewable energy potentials can be identify below’


In 2003, the Federal Government approved a national energy policy, which encourages the effective utilization of the country’s renewable energy resources. This has positioned her for the integration of solar energy into the nation’s energy mix. Nigeria lies within latitude 4.32oN and 14oN and longitude 2.72oE and 14.64oE. The sun radiates energy at the rate of about 3.8×1023 KW/s and Nigeria receives about 4.85 x 1012 KW/h of energy per day 1 . This comes to about 4-7.5 hours per day of sun light on the average. With this enormous sustainable and free clean energy source, this nation can achieve enough in the areas of – agricultural product drying, cooking/boilers and generation of electricity for domestic and industrial uses.


Nigeria is blessed naturally with good flowing waters. Policies are in place allowing private sector participation in hydro power generation. Our major hindrances here are technological expertise and financial constrain.

Between 1968 and 1990, this nation can only boast of three functional major hydro powers at Kainji, Jebba and Shiroro.( table 5) It is sad to note that all these plants are running below their installed capacities due to political and technological reasons which include dependence on foreign firms for the maintenance of these dams and employment of unqualified management staff based on ethical or political affiliations. These have resulted to serious energy shortage in the nation. Hydro power source is the major source of electricity for industrial and domestic purposes in Nigeria. Despite the huge financial involvement for its installation, the economic benefits are overwhelming.


Wind has consistently been one of the fastest growing renewable energy markets in the world adding nearly 36GW in 2010. In terms of required wealth, technical potential for world development, wind power exceeds global electricity demand. Technically wind is of higher projected potential than hydro power 4. Nigeria with about 924,000 KM2 of land mass including desert and semi arid areas has enough un-obstructed spaces to install wind power plants that can serve its energy needs.


Bio mass and biodiesel energy sources are one of the most environmental friendly sources of energy in recent times. Bio mass provides about 10% of world’s primary energy supplies 4. Biodiesel sources in addition to

meeting our social economic needs, contributes positively to agriculture through natural remediation of land.

Nigeria has vast uncultivated agricultural land to meet her green fuel needs, which in turn provide employment for her teaming unemployed working population. Federal Government renewable energy policy of 2003 creates enabling environment for profitable investment for both public and private investors in renewable energy sources.


Table 2, Renewable Energy Potentials in Nigeria.

RESOURCE                                          CAPACITY                                           REMARK

Big hydro power                                    11,500MW                                 Only 1972 MW exploited

Small hydro power                                3,500MW                                  Only about 64.2 MW exploited

Solar                                                    3.5KW/m/day to 7.0KW/m/day

Sunshine hours                                     4 to 7.5 hrs. / day

Wind                                                     2 to 4 m/s at 10m height mainland


fuel wood                     11 million hectares of forest & woodland

Animal waste                 245 million assorted (2001)

Energy crops & agric residue                 72 million hectares of agric land

Source, central bank of Nigeria (2007)



As the country strive to meet its energy requirements, an international renewable expert has declared that Nigerian is under-utilising its renewable energy potentials for power generation. The country’s renewable energy potential remains still untapped. Given the abundance of natural resources in the region, there is huge potential for renewable electricity scale-up; both grid-based and distributed renewable energy. The current target is to have 75 per cent of the population electrified by 2020. Meeting this target will require the widespread uptake of renewable. The nation’s targets for renewable power capacity includes: Bio-power: 50 MW by 2015; 400 MW by 2025; Hydro-power (small scale): 600 MW by 2015; two GW by 2025 (Nigeria’s target excludes hydropower plants >30 MW); Solar PV (large scale, >1MW) 75 MW by 2015; 500 MW by 2025; Wind Power 20 MW by 2015; 40 MW by 2025; CSP 1MW by 2015; 5 MW by 2025.

My advice is government should have the political will to woo investors in the power sector and provide an enabling environment for all to built, generate and sell to the Nigerian people. Thanks





















  1. Adeyemo, S.B. (1997), “Estimation of Direct Solar Radiation Intensities” Nigeria society of Engineers

Technical Transaction. 32 (1-9).

  1. Central bank of Nigeria, (2007) “annual report and statement of accounts”
  2. Chilakpu, K.O, (2013). Jatropha Seed Based Biodiesel Production Using Modified Batch-Reactor and

evaluation in a Single-Cylinder Engine” PhD thesis, Federal university of technology Owerri.

  1. Douglas, Arent; (2012), Energy and National security program. Center for strategic and international studies.

Washington DC.

  1. Korbitz, W. (1999); “Biodiesel production in Europe and North America and Encouraging prospects”

Austrian biofuel institute Vienna Austria.

  1. National Bureau Of Statistics,(2007).”Annual Abstract of Statistics.
  2. Palligamai, T; Vasudevan and Michael Briggs (2008), – “Biodiesel production – current state of the art and

challenges”. Society for industrial microbiology.

  1. Sambo, A.S. (2010), “Renewable energy development in Nigeria”. Paper presented at the world future

council/strategy workshop on renewable energy, Accra, Ghana



Truancy is any intentional unauthorized or illegal absence from compulsory education. It is absences caused by students of their own free will, and usually does not refer to legitimate “excused” absences, such as ones related to medical conditions. Truancy is usually explicitly defined in the school’s handbook of policies and procedures. In some schools, truancy may result in not being able to graduate or to receive credit for class attended, until the time lost to truancy is made up through a combination of detention, fines, or summer school.

Truancy is a frequent subject of popular culture; Ferris Bueller’s Day Off is about the title character’s (played by Matthew Broderick) day of truancy in Chicago with his girlfriend and best friend. Truancy is also the title of a 2008 novel about a student uprising against a dictatorial educational system.


What is Truancy?

The definition of truancy is usually established by school district policy and may vary across districts.  Definitions for an excused absence, an unexcused absence, or a truancy can vary by state and even school districts.

Any unexcused absence from school is considered a truancy, but states enact their own school attendance laws. State law determines 1) the age at which a child is required to begin attending school, 2) the age at which a child may legally drop out of school, and 3), the number of unexcused absences at which a student is considered legally truant.

Truancy is a status offense – an act that is a crime due to the young age of the actor, but would not be illegal for someone older. The other most common status offenses are running away from home, alcohol use, curfew violations, and ungovernability.

Truancy:  An Overview of the Problem

Generally, absentee rates are highest in public schools in the inner-city where larger numbers of students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunches source: (Heaviside et al., 1998). (Higher truancy rates generally correlate with poverty; higher rates of free and reduced-price lunches are typically used as evidence of poverty.)

Consequences of Truancy

  • Dropping out of school. Students who are chronically truant typically fall behind in grade level and drop out of school.
    • Delinquency. Students who are chronically truant are also at-risk for other behaviors, such as alcohol and drug abuse, teenage pregnancy, and delinquency.
  • Negative effect upon other students. Students who are chronically truant require extra time from teachers; teachers have less time to spend with the regularly-attending students in the classroom when they must create make-up work for truants.

Causes of Truancy

What influences truancy? In early research, depending upon the perspective of the researcher, truancy was said to be caused by the student, the student’s family, or the school. More recently, it is understood that a combination of all three factors usually affect truancy:

Characteristics of the Student:

  • low grades in reading and mathematics
    • neurological factors, such as dyslexia
    • inability to make friends with mainstream students or teachers
    • negative attitudes toward school or teachers

Characteristics of the Student’s Family:
• parent(s) who do not value education
• parent(s) who did not complete school, were truant themselves
• poor parenting skills
• low socio-economic status
• physical or mental health problems of parents
• family history of delinquency
• single parent families
• many children in the family

Characteristics of the School:
• weak or no monitoring of daily attendance
• inconsistent attendance policies
• lack of parent involvement in the school
• lack of personalized attention to students
• lack of teacher expectations for high student achievement


Controlling truancy administratively in schools in order to encourage academic excellence is not that easy, but as an administrator, you must start somewhere. Give the students a motivation for coming to school. The suggestion is simple but the implementation is not. The only things that kept me going through high school were my friends and a few amazing teachers. Students need more than that. They need to feel safe and comfortable. They need to feel as free as possible but they also need to be disciplined and need to know that their punishment is serious and not something to be ignored.

School is so much more than an education, it’s a community. Or at least, it should be. If a student feels like they can speak to their principal as well as some of their teachers privately about something important, then they’re in the right place.

If, in school, the student finds no base of support from the faculty and even worse, has very few or no close friends at all, then they certainly won’t come to school.  If they feel that each essay they turn in is just regarded as fodder or won’t be assessed accurately, then they will have no motivation to turn in their work, which builds on them not attending school at all. The student should learn how to be proud of their individual and communal contributions. In life, often when we do not see the direct effects of our work, we care very little, hence the destruction of the environment. The same concept applies to schooling.

These are not things easily accomplished but effort certainly should be put into to build the school up as a community. According to my own experience, I believe this would boost attendance.











Truancy poses a se4ious threat to learning in most schools, the school on the other hand, do not seem to be able to cope with the problem,. Because no sufficient attempts has been made to reach its root. One thing that is clear in this issue. There is a growing tendency for schools children to be involved in social vices, such as stealing, smoking etc. this is because most home no longer play their traditional function to rear and bring up the child in an upright manner. This is because many parents are sop preoccupied with duties (working, travelling) outside the homes that they have little or no time to keep watch over the action and behaviour of their children.

In most of their schools, there is no conducive atmosphere for learning. This is due to the fact that schools are highly populated, poorly equipped and under staffed. Since students cannot cope with their unfavourable conditions, which these schools are placed, this eventually leads to truancy and other social vices found in our society today. Broken home can also be attributed to the cause of truancy because children from a single parent need to be more exposed to the danger of the society, for example a single parent child will leave the mothers house and say he or she is going to the father house thereby using the opportunity to go and stay in her boyfriends house for the boys, they so and join bad peer group without the mother and father knowing, because they would think she is in the father house and vise visa.


“Home-school mom charged with allowing truancy”. 25 April 2005. Retrieved 29 January 2011.


Det virker at inddrage børnechecken (It works confiscating the child benefit check), by Anette Sørensen, Denmarks Radio, October 25, 2008


elever er ikke mødt op (155 children have not started), by Majken Klintø,, August 26, 2008


Børn pjækker mere fra skole, DR News, April 30, 2009

“Äidille sakkoja lasten oppivelvollisuuden laiminlyömisestä – – Kotimaa” (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 February 2011.






Christian fundamentalism began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among British and American Protestants as a reaction to theological liberalism and cultural modernism. Fundamentalists argued that 19th-century modernist theologians had misinterpreted or rejected certain doctrines, especially biblical inerrancy, that they viewed as the fundamentals of Christian faith.[3] A few scholars regard Catholics who reject modern theology in favor of more traditional doctrines as fundamentalists.[4] Scholars debate how much the terms “evangelical” and “fundamentalist” are synonymou

The term fundamentalism was coined by Baptist editor Curtis Lee Laws in 1920 to designate Christians who were ready “to do battle royal for the fundamentals”. The term was quickly adopted by all sides. Laws borrowed it from the title of a series of essays published between 1910 and 1915 called The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth. The term “fundamentalism” entered the English language in 1922, and is often capitalized when referring to the religious movement

Fundamentalism in Christianity:

In Christianity, the term fundamentalism is normally used to refer to the conservative part of evangelical Christianity, which is itself the most conservative wing of Protestant Christianity. Fundamentalist Christians typically believe that the Bible is inspired by God and is inerrant. They reject modern analysis of the Bible as a historical document written by authors who were attempting to promote their own evolving spiritual beliefs. Rather, they view the bible as the Word of God, internally consistent, and free of error.

The term “Fundamentalist” derives from a 1909 publication “The Fundamentals: A testimony to the truth” which proposed five required Christian beliefs for those opposed to the Modernist movement.

Originally a technical theological term, it became commonly used after the “Scopes” trial in Tennessee during the mid 1920s. Dayton, Tennessee in 1925. John Scopes, a high school biology teacher was on trial for contravening the state’s Butler Act. It forbade the teaching of “any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals.4,5 Although Scopes was found guilty, many felt that he had won a moral victory.

By the late 1930’s Christian fundamentalists had formed a sub-culture and had largely withdrawn from the rest of society. Following major revisions to Roman Catholic beliefs and practices during the Vatican II conferences in the 1960’s, the term “fundamentalist” started to be used to refer to Catholics who rejected the changes, and wished to retain traditional beliefs and practices. Thus it became a commonly used word to describe the most conservative groups within Christianity: both Protestant and Catholic.

Back in the 1960’s many theologians and historians expected that religions would become less conservative and generally weaker with time. That did not happen. Instead, the fundamentalist wings of major world religions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Sikhism, have grown and become increasingly dedicated to preserving religious tradition. Karen Armstrong has addressed Fundamentalism in Christianity, Islam and Judaism in her book: “The Battle for God.1

In the U.S., the Fundamentalist-led Moral Majority emerged to challenge social and religious beliefs and practices. Today, Fundamentalists are the most vocal group, on a per-capital basis — who oppose abortion access, equal rights for homosexuals, same-sex marriage, protection  for homosexuals from hate crimes, physician assisted suicide, the use of embryonic stem cells for medical research, comprehensive sex-ed classes in public schools, etc.
The Assemblies of God is one Fundamentalist denomination. The Southern Baptist Convention has moved towards fundamentalism in recent years. Bob Jones University, the General Association of Regular Baptists, the Moody Bible Institute, etc.are also Fundamentalist. Among the most generally known Fundamentalist Christian leaders are Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson and Hal Lindsey.


Fundamentalism is built on five tenets of the Christian faith, although there is much more to the movement than adherence to these tenets:

1) The Bible is literally true. Associated with this tenet is the belief that the Bible is inerrant, that is, without error and free from all contradictions.
2) The virgin birth and deity of Christ. Fundamentalists believe that Jesus was born of the virgin Mary and conceived by the Holy Spirit and that He was and is the Son of God, fully human and fully divine.
3) The substitutionary atonement of Jesus Christ on the cross. Fundamentalism teaches that salvation is obtained only through God’s grace and human faith in Christ’s crucifixion for the sins of mankind.
4) The bodily resurrection of Jesus. On the third day after His crucifixion, Jesus rose from the grave and now sits at the right hand of God the Father.

5) The authenticity of Jesus’ miracles as recorded in Scripture and the literal, pre-millennial second coming of Christ to earth.
Other points of doctrine held by Fundamentalists are that Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible and that the church will be raptured prior to the tribulation of the end times. Most Fundamentalists are also dispensationalists.

The Fundamentalist movement has often embraced a certain militancy for truth, and this led to some infighting. Many new denominations and fellowships appeared, as people left their churches in the name of doctrinal purity. One of the defining characteristics of Fundamentalism has been to see itself as the guardian of the truth, usually to the exclusion of others’ biblical interpretation. At that time of the rise of Fundamentalism, the world was embracing liberalism, modernism, and Darwinism, and the church itself was being invaded by false teachers. Fundamentalism was a reaction against the loss of biblical teaching.
The movement took a severe hit in 1925 by liberal press coverage of the legendary Scopes trial. Although Fundamentalists won the case, they were mocked publicly. Afterwards, Fundamentalism began to splinter and refocus. The most prominent and vocal group in the USA has been the Christian Right. This group of self-described Fundamentalists has been more involved in political movements than most other religious groups. By the 1990s, groups such as the Christian Coalition and Family Research Council have influenced politics and cultural issues. Today, Fundamentalism lives on in various evangelical groups such as the Southern Baptist Convention. Together, these groups claim to have more than 30 million followers.










The term fundamentalist is controversial in the 21st century, as it can carry the connotation of religious extremism, even though it was coined by movement leaders. Some who hold these beliefs reject the label of “fundamentalism”, seeing it as too pejorative,[7] while to others it has become a banner of pride. Such Christians prefer to use the term fundamental, as opposed to fundamentalist (e.g., Independent Fundamental Baptist and Independent Fundamental Churches of America).[8] The term is sometimes confused with Christian legalism.

Like all movements, Fundamentalism has enjoyed both successes and failures. The greatest failure may be in allowing Fundamentalism’s detractors define what it means to be a Fundamentalist. As a result, many people today see Fundamentalists as radical, snake-handling extremists who want to establish a state religion and force their beliefs on everyone else. This is far from the truth. Fundamentalists seek to guard the truth of Scripture and defend the Christian faith, which was “once for all entrusted to the saints” (Jude 1:3). The church today is struggling in the postmodern, secular culture and needs people who are not ashamed to proclaim the gospel of Christ. Truth does not change, and adherence to the fundamental principles of doctrine is needful. These principles are the bedrock upon which Christianity stands, and, as Jesus taught, the house built upon the Rock will weather any storm (Matthew 7:24-25).














Fundamentalism at Accessed 2011-07-28.

Marsden (1980), pp. 55–62, 118–23.

Sandeen (1970), p. 6

Roger E. Olson (2004). The Westminster Handbook to Evangelical Theology. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 3–6. summarizes the debate.

Reid, D. G., Linder, R. D., Shelley, B. L., & Stout, H. S. (1990). In

Dictionary of Christianity in America. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Entry on Fundamentalism

Robbins, Dale A. (1995). What is a Fundamentalist Christian?. Grass

Valley, California: Victorious Publications. Retrieved 2009-12-01.

Horton, Ron. “Christian Education at Bob Jones University”.

Greenville, South Carolina: Bob Jones University. Retrieved 2009-12-01.

Wilson, William P. “Legalism and the Authority of Scripture”.

Retrieved 19 March 2010.

Morton, Timothy S. “From Liberty to Legalism – A Candid Study of Legalism, “Pharisees,” and Christian Liberty”. Retrieved 19 March 2010.

Explain the following learning theories and pin point any three advantages they have for the learning situation


Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.


Learning theories are numerous but only three will be mention here as well as their advantages. They include the Social learning theory, Constructivism and Cognitivism learning theory.

  1. Social learning theory

A well-known social learning theory has been developed by Albert Bandura, who works within both cognitive and behavioural frameworks that embrace attention, memory and motivation. His theory of learning suggests that people learn within a social context, and that learning is facilitated through concepts such as modeling, observational learning and imitation. Bandura put forward “reciprocal determininsm” that holds the view that a person’s behavior, environment and personal qualities all reciprocally influence each others. He argues that children learn from observing others as well as from “model” behaviour, which are processes involving attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. The importance of positive role modeling on learning is well documented.


  1. Learning is facilitated through social concepts
  2. Observation is important in ;earning as children learn fast through it
  • People learn quickly through social context.

Vygotsky’s learning theory, also known as social development theory. The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky (1978) states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals

Vygotsky’s theory was an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. For example, in the learning of language, our first utterances with peers or adults are for the purpose of communication but once. Vygotsky’s theory is complementary to Bandura’s work on social learning and a key component of situated learning theory as well. Because Vygotsky’s focus was on cognitive development, it is interesting to compare his views with those a constructivist (Bruner) and a genetic epistemologist (Piaget).


  1. Consciousness is the end product of socialization
  2. The theory focus on cognitive development of the mind
  • Learning is defined as change in a learner’s schemata

C. Constructivism

Founded by Jean Piaget, constructivism emphasizes the importance of the active involvement of learners in constructing knowledge for themselves. Students are thought to use background knowledge and concepts to assist them in their acquisition of novel information. When such new information is approached, the learner faces a loss of equilibrium with their previous understanding which demands a change in cognitive structure. This change effectively combines previous and novel information to form an improved cognitive schema. Constructivism can be both subjectively and contextually based. Under the theory of radical constructivism, coined by Ernst von Glasersfeld, understanding relies on one’s subjective interpretation of experience as opposed to objective “reality”. Similarly, William Cobern‘s idea of contextual constructivism encompasses the effects of culture and society on experience.

Constructivism asks why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook. To design effective teaching environments, it believes one needs a good understanding of what children already know when they come into the classroom. The curriculum should be designed in a way that builds on the pupil’s background knowledge and is allowed to develop with them. Begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems. The learning theories of John Dewey, Maria Montessori, and David A. Kolb serve as the foundation of the application of constructivist learning theory in the classroom. Constructivism has many varieties such as active learning, discovery learning, and knowledge building, but all versions promote a student’s free exploration within a given framework or structure. The teacher acts as a facilitator who encourages students to discover principles for themselves and to construct knowledge by working answering open-ended questions and solving real-world problems. To do this, a teacher should encourage curiosity and discussion among his/her students as well as promoting their autonomy. In scientific areas in the classroom, constructivist teachers provide raw data and physical materials for the students to work with and analyze.


  1. Knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment.
  2. Learners continuously test these hypotheses through social negotiation.
  • Each person has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process, thus the learner is not a blank slate (tabula rasa) but brings past experiences and cultural factors to a situation

Other learning theories

Other learning theories have also been developed for more specific purposes. For example, andragogy is the art and science to help adults learn. Connectivism is a recent theory of networked learning which focuses on learning as making connections. The Learning as a Network (LaaN) theory builds upon connectivism, complexity theory, and double-loop learning. It starts from the learner and views learning as the continuous creation of a personal knowledge network (PKN)


Behaviorism is a worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The behaviourist perspectives of learning originated in the early 1900s, and became dominant in early 20th century. The basic idea of behaviourism is that learning consists of a change in behaviour due to the acquisition, reinforcement and application of associations between stimuli from the environment and observable responses of the individual. Behaviourists are interested in measurable changes in behaviour. Thorndike, one major behaviourist theorist, put forward that (1) a response to a stimulus is reinforced when followed by a positive rewarding effect, and (2) a response to a stimulus becomes stronger by exercise and repetition. This view of learning is akin to the “drill-and-practice” programmes. Skinner, another influential behaviourist, proposed his variant of behaviourism called “operant conditioning”. In his view, rewarding the right parts of the more complex behaviour reinforces it, and encourages its recurrence.


  1. The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.
  2. Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again.

iii. In contrast, punishment (both positive and negative)    decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again. Positive indicates the application of a stimulus; Negative indicates the withholding of a stimulus. Learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior in the learner.

Transformative learning theory

Transformative learning theory seeks to explain how humans revise and reinterpret meaning. Transformative learning is the cognitive process of effecting change in a frame of reference. A frame of reference defines our view of the world. The emotions are often involved. Adults have a tendency to reject any ideas that do not correspond to their particular values, associations and concepts.

Transformative learning takes place by discussing with others the “reasons presented in support of competing interpretations, by critically examining evidence, arguments, and alternative points of view.” When circumstances permit, transformative learners move toward a frame of reference that is more inclusive, discriminating, self-reflective, and integrative of experience.

Criticism of learning theory

Critics of learning theories that seek to displace traditional educational practices claim that there is no need for such theories; that the attempt to comprehend the process of learning through the construction of theories creates problems and inhibits personal freedom.



Learning is one of the most important activities in which humans engage. It is at the very core of the educational process, although most of what people learn occurs outside of school. For thousands of years, philosophers and psychologists have sought to understand the nature of learning, how it occurs, and how one person can influence the learning of another person through teaching and similar endeavors. Various theories of learning have been suggested, and these theories differ for a variety of reasons. A theory, most simply, is a combination of different factors or variables woven together in an effort to explain whatever the theory is about. In general, theories based on scientific evidence are considered more valid than theories based on opinion or personal experience. In any case, it is wise to be cautious when comparing the appropriateness of different theories.



Illeris, Knud (2004). The three dimensions of learning. Malabar, Fla:

Krieger Pub. Co. ISBN 9781575242583.


Ormrod, Jeanne (2012). Human learning (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

ISBN 9780132595186.

D.C. Phillips; Jonas F. Soltis (2009). Perspectives on Learning.

Thinking About Education (5th ed.). Teachers College Press. ISBN 978-0-8077-7120-4.

Silverman, Allan. “Plato’s Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology”. In Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2014 ed.).

Phillips, D.C., Soltis, J.F., Perspectives on learning pg. 22

Good and Brophey. Realistic Approach. p. 155.

Phillips, D.C. & Soltis, J.F. (2009). Perspectives on Learning (Fifth).

New York: Teachers College Press. p. 22.

Myers, David G. (2008). Exploring Psychology. New York, New York:

Worth. p. 223.

Smith, M.K. “Learning Theory, the encyclopedia of informal education”. the encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved June 2011. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

Kim, T and Axelrod, S. (2005): “Direct Instruction: An Educators’

Guide and a Plea for Action” – The Behavior Analyst Today, 6.(2), p. 111



Ethnocentrism can be define as the tendency to evaluate other groups according to the values and standards of one’s own ethnic group, especially with the conviction that one’s own ethnic group is superior to the other groups. It can be seen as judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one’s own culture. Ethnocentric individuals judge other groups relative to their own ethnic group or culture, especially with concern for language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define each ethnicity‘s unique cultural identity.[2] Ethnocentrism may be overt or subtle, and while it is considered a natural proclivity of human psychology, it has developed a generally negative connotation.


William G. Sumner coined the term “ethnocentrism” upon observing the tendency for people to differentiate between the in-group and others, disseminating it in his 1906 work Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals. He defined it as “the technical name for the view of things in which one’s own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it.” He further characterized it as often leading to pride, vanity, beliefs of one’s own group’s superiority, and contempt of outsiders. Robert K. Merton comments that Sumner’s additional characterization robbed the concept of some analytical power because, Merton argues, centrality and superiority are often correlated, but need to be kept analytically distinct.

Anthropologists such as Franz Boas and Bronislaw Malinowski argued that any human science had to transcend the ethnocentrism of the scientist. Both urged anthropologists to conduct ethnographic fieldwork in order to overcome their ethnocentrism. Boas developed the principle of cultural relativism and Malinowski developed the theory of functionalism as guides for producing non-ethnocentric studies of different cultures. Classic examples of anti-ethnocentric anthropology include Margaret Mead‘s Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), Malinowski’s The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia (1929), and Ruth Benedict‘s Patterns of Culture (1934). (Mead and Benedict were two of Boas’s students.)

“Ethnocentrism” is a commonly used word in circles where ethnicity, inter-ethnic relations, and similar social issues are of concern. The usual definition of the term is “thinking one’s own group’s ways are superior to others” or “judging other groups as inferior to one’s own”. “Ethnic” refers to cultural heritage, and “centrism” refers to the central starting point… so “ethnocentrism” basically refers to judging other groups from our own cultural point of view. But even this does not address the underlying issue of why people do this. Most people, thinking of the shallow definition, believe that they are not ethnocentric, but are rather “open minded” and “tolerant.” However, as explained below, everyone is ethnocentric, and there is no way not to be ethnocentric… it cannot be avoided, nor can it be willed away by a positive or well-meaning attitude.

To address the deeper issues involved in ethnocentrism calls for a more explicit definition. In this sense, ethnocentrism can be defined as: making false assumptions about others’ ways based on our own limited experience. The key word is assumptions, because we are not even aware that we are being ethnocentric… we don’t understand that we don’t understand.

One example of ethnocentrism is seen in the above comments on the Inuit snowshoe race. I assumed that I had “lost” the race, but it turns out the Inuit saw the same situation very differently than I did. Westerners have a binary conflict view of life (right or wrong, liberal versus conservative, etc.), and I had imposed my “win or lose” perspective of life on the situation. As a result, I did not understand how they experience life, that trying is a basic element of life. This did not necessarily involve thinking that my ways were superior, but rather that I assumed my experience was operational in another group’s circumstances.

Another example illustrates how basic ethnocentrism is. If we go to a store and ask for a green coat and the sales clerk gives us a blue one, we would think the person was color blind at the best or stupid at the worst. However, “colors” are not so simple. The Inuit lump shades of what AngloAmericans call “blue” and “green” into one color category, tungortuk, which can only be translated as “bluegreen.” Does this mean that they cannot see the difference? Just as we can distinguish between different shades (such as “sky blue” and “navy blue,” and “kelly green” and “forest green”), so can the Inuit. If they want to refer to what we would call “green,” they would say tungUYortuk, which can be translated something like “that bluegreen that looks like the color of a [conifer] tree.” The point is that something so “simple” as colors has very different meanings to us and to the Inuit. How could an Inuk “feel blue”? Colors, after all, are only different wavelengths of light, and the rainbow can be divided in many different ways.

There are many, many examples of such differences in meanings that make life experience so unique for all the human groups around the world. For example, English has tenses built into our verb forms, so we automatically think in terms of time (being “punctual,” “time is money,” “make the time,” etc.). But Algonquian Indian languages do not have tenses (not that they cannot express time if they wish), but rather have “animate” and “inanimate” verb forms, so they automatically think in terms of whether things around them have a life essence or not. So when Chippewa Indians do not show up for a medical appointment, Anglo health care workers may explain this as being “present oriented,” since we normally cannot think except in terms of time frames. But this is the essence of ethnocentrism, since we may be imposing a time frame where none exists.

The assumptions we make about others’ experience can involve false negative judgments, reflected in the common definition of ethnocentrism. For example, Anglos may observe Cree Indians sitting around a camp not doing obvious work that is needed and see Crees as “lazy”. Westerners generally value “being busy” (industriousness), and so may not appreciate the Cree capacity to relax and not be compelled to pursue some activities of a temporary nature… nor realize how much effort is put into other activities like hunting.  Assumptions can also reflect false positive attitudes about others’ ways. For example, we in urban industrial society frequently think of Cree Indians as being “free of the stresses of modern society,” but this view fails to recognize that there are many stresses in their way of life, including the threat of starvation if injured while checking a trap line a hundred miles from base camp or when game cycles hit low ebbs. False positive assumptions are just as misleading as false negative assumptions.


Ethnocentrism leads to misunderstanding others. We falsely distort what is meaningful and functional to other peoples through our own tinted glasses. We see their ways in terms of our life experience, not their context. We do not understand that their ways have their own meanings and functions in life, just as our ways have for us.

The more serious negative aspects of ethnocentrism have often been manifested throughout history as violent conflicts, wars, slavery, ethnic cleansing, and genocide. The protohistorical accounts of warfare were based on tribal affiliations. The crusades in the Middle Ages, conflict in Northern Ireland, and the Nazi holocaust were based on religion. In addition to tribal and religious basis of ethnocen-trism, race, colonialism, and ethnonationalism have contributed toward distinctly negative and sometimes savage consequences. Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior of Whites and African Americans in the United States are examples of ethnocentrism based on racial lines.

The apartheid practices in South Africa constituted an example of colonial ethnocentrism and concomitant racism that was common in most colonial situations. Even in multiracial or multicultural colonies, the primary White and non-White grouping, along with the dichotomy of the master and the subjugated, persisted because of the convergence of power, color, race, language, and class differences. The colonial perspective was often Eurocentric, with hierarchical and discriminatory lines drawn between the European colonizer and the colonized. The perceived distinctions of superiority and inferiority of groups became a self-fulfilling prophecy. Race relations in the United States have often been described as internal colonialism by Marxists and non-Marxists alike. The minority ethnic groups are often disrespectful of their own ethnicity in contrast with the ethnic group that is in power, a phenomenon often noticed in the colonial context. Ethnonationalism has manifested in the creation of more new nations in the last century than any other century in history. Many of these nations were created as a result of violent conflicts, atrocities, and civil wars.


The causes of ethnocentrism can take different forms. One type of explanation would be based on personality factors of individuals. Another form of ethnocentric behavior is contextual or situational, such as the loss of jobs due to competition from a neighboring state or groups. One group or nation can be transformed from a friend to an enemy and vice versa after the end of a war. The reasons for another type of ethnocentrism may vary from mistrust of the stranger to the aims of conquest and subjugation of another group for various reasons.

I believe that ethnocentrism stems from the assumption that one’s ethnicity is far superior than all others. Pride in one’s own ethnicity definitely plays a role in this. In Nazi Germany, we know that Hitler held such a view and extinguished many Jews as a result.



Ethnocentric people tend to look down on those people who are of a different ethnic group. They make premature judgments and wrong assumptions because they believe other cultures are inferior to theirs. It is difficult for ethnocentric people to assimilate the beliefs, practices, traditions and customs of other cultures.

Ethnocentrism fosters conflict, distorts communication, and creates suspicion and antagonism between people. It prevents people of a particular culture from appreciating and understanding other people’s cultures. For example, conservative Muslims find European women to be extremely immodest and unchaste because they do not cover their bodies from head to toe when in public. On the other hand, Europeans condemn societies that eat dogs or practice polygamy.

Ethnocentrism can lead to serious social issues, such as colonialism, racism and ethnic cleansing. A negative aspect of ethnocentrism is the false notion that one’s culture is more superior to others. This perception deepens inhumane behavior because of cultural misinterpretation, ethnic and racial prejudices, and mistrust brought about by ethnocentrism. A positive aspect of ethnocentrism centers on protection. People of the same culture can preserve their traditions, customs and practices by rejecting those cultures that are different from theirs. Ethnocentrism also helps maintain the uniqueness and authenticity of a culture.


Overcoming this prejudice is necessary in a world where people must unite to prevail over such global challenges as climate change.

Step 1: Learn about other groups. This is the easiest way to discover that everybody, despite their culture, experiences the same joys and heartaches you do. Colleges promote this sensitivity with classes on various races and countries. Reading foreign books and newspapers offers this same insight.

Step 2: Make friends. Friendship cuts through a lot of misconceptions simply because we see them as individuals rather than as collections of traits. An easy way to cultivate friends of different viewpoints is to volunteer for or join cultural clubs. For example, a Persian Club at a local university will have Iranian members while a Latino Business Association can consist of Mexicans.

Step 3: Browse foreign sites on the Internet. The Internet offers us the exact same resource available to foreigners. For instance, you can digest the same French news as a French citizen by browsing (see References). Want to see how Somalis view Americans?

Step 4:Entertain yourself differently. The dramatic emotions highlighted by movies, television shows and music can make us feel exactly what foreigners feel, increasing our empathy for them. Celebrate life’s passages Indian-style by renting a Bollywood movie. Taste the Brazilian view of romance by listening and dancing to a sultry samba.

Step 5: Attend services from another religion. Start with different flavors of your belief. For example, a Christian can attend Baptist, Lutheran and Methodist services. You can then continue with different religions: a Catholic can attend Muslim daily prayers or a Buddhist can visit a Jewish synagogue. Despite not professing your faith, these worshipers revel in a rich spiritual life.













Ethnocentrism is a major reason for divisions amongst members of different ethnicities, races, and religious groups in society. Ethnocentrism is the belief of superiority is one’s personal ethnic group, but it can also develop from racial or religious differences.

Ethnocentric individuals believe that they are better than other individuals for reasons based solely on their heritage. Clearly, this practice is related to problems of both racism and prejudice.

While many people may recognize the problems, they may not realize that ethnocentrism occurs everywhere and everyday at both the local and political levels.












John T. Omohundro (2008). Thinking like an Anthropologist: A practical introduction to Cultural Anthropology. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-319580-4.


Margaret L. Andersen, Howard Francis Taylor (2006). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-61716-6.


Shimp, Terence. Sharma, Shubhash. “Consumer Ethnocentrism: Construction and Validation of the CETSCALE. Journal of Marketing Research. 24 (3). Aug 1987. 280–289.


Robert King Merton (1996). Piotr Sztompka, ed. On social structure and science. University of Chicago Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-226-52070-4.


Sumner, W. G. Folkways. New York: Ginn, 1906.


Seidner, Stanley S. (1982). Ethnicity, Language, and Power from a Psycholinguistic Perspective. Bruxelles: Centre de Recherche sur le Plurilinguisme.



The ethnicity of Nigeria is so varied that there is no definition of a Nigerian beyond that of someone who lives within the borders of the country (Ukpo, p. 19). The boundaries of the formerly English colony were drawn to serve commercial interests, largely without regard for the territorial claims of the indigenous peoples (38). As a result, about three hundred ethnic groups comprise the population of Nigeria (7), and the country’s unity has been consistently under siege: eight attempts at secession threatened national unity between 1914 and 1977. The Biafran War was the last of the secessionist movements within this period (3).

The concept of ethnicity requires definition. Ukpo calls an “ethnic group” a “group of people having a common language and cultural values” (10). These common factors are emphasized by frequent interaction between the people in the group. In Nigeria, the ethnic groups are occasionally fusions created by intermarriage, intermingling and/or assimilation. In such fusions, the groups of which they are composed maintain a limited individual identity. The groups are thus composed of smaller groups, but there is as much difference between even the small groups; as Chief Obafemi Awolowo put it, as much “as there is between Germans, English, Russians and Turks” (11).

The count of three hundred ethnic groups cited above overwhelmingly enumerates ethnic minority groups, those which do not comprise a majority in the region in which they live. These groups usually do not have a political voice, nor do they have access to resources or the technology needed to develop and modernize economically. They therefore often consider themselves discriminated against, neglected, or oppressed. There are only three ethnic groups which have attained “ethnic majority” status in their respective regions: the Hausa-Fulani in the north, the Ibo in the southeast, and the Yoruba (Soyinka’s group) in the southwest (11, 21)

The Nigerian Civil Service consists of employees in Nigerian government agencies other than the military. Most employees are career civil servants in the Nigerian ministries, progressing based on qualifications and seniority. Recently the head of the service has been introducing measures to make the ministries more efficient and responsive to the public.

The civil service is mainly organized around the federal ministries, headed by a minister appointed by the President of Nigeria, who must include at least one member of each of the 36 states in his cabinet. The President’s appointments are confirmed by the Senate of Nigeria. There are less than 36 ministries. In some cases a Federal minister is responsible for more than one ministry(e.g. Environment and Housing may be combined)and a minister may be assisted by one or more ministers of State. Each ministry also has a Permanent Secretary, who is a senior civil servant. The ministries are responsible for various[parastatals(government-owned corporations) such as universities (Education), National Broadcasting Commission, Information and Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. Other parastatals are the responsibility of the Office of the Presidency, such as the Independent National Electoral Commission, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Federal Civil Service Commission. The service has six additional units which provide services to all departments on the Civil Service:

  • Establishments & Record Office (E&RO)
  • Career Management Office (CMO)
  • Manpower Development Office (MDO)
  • Management Services Office (MSO)
  • Common Services Office (CSO)
  • Bureau of Public Service Reforms (BPSR)

Nigerian ethnicity and the civil service

The Civil Service is mainly organized around the federal ministries, headed by a minister appointed by the president, who must include at least one member of each of the 36 states in his cabinet. The president’s appointments are confirmed by the Nigerian senate. The civil service is present in the 36 states in the federation. In some cases, a federal minister is responsible for more than one ministry (e.g environment and housing may be combined), and a minister may be assisted by one or more ministers of state. Each ministry also has a permanent secretary, who is a senior civil servant. The ministries are responsible for various parastatals (government-owned corporations) such as universities (Education), National Broadcasting Commission (Information) etc. Other parastatals are the responsibility of the office of the presidency, such as the Independent National Electoral Commission, Economic and Financial Crime Commission and the Federal Civil Service Commission.

Nigeria is a complex country with numerous ethnic groups. These ethnic groups were brought together to form one country called Nigeria. Prior to 1914, Nigeria was two different countries known as the Southern and Northern protectorates. Nigeria gained full independence in October 1960 under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary government and a substantial measure of self-government for the country’s three regions. After the departure of the British colonial government, the Nigerian government took over the civil service that the colonialists left behind but did nothing to restructure or develop it. The system, instead of improving, become worse as the indigenes devoted more time in behaving like ‘African Oyinbo’, a term which is commonly referred to as ‘black man in a white man’s skin’!

As a result of this, various panels have studied and made recommendations to reform the civil service. Notable among them are: the Morgan Commission of 1963, the Adebo Commission of 1971, and so on. A major change occurred with the adoption in 1979 of a constitution modeled on that of the United State. Then again, 1988 civil service reorganization decree promulgated by General Ibrahim Babangida had a major impact on the structure and efficiency of the civil service. The later report of the Agida panel made recommendations to reverse some of the past innovations and to return to the more efficiently civil service of earlier years.

Apart from the aforementioned reforms, the civil service has been undergoing gradual and systematic reforms and restructuring since may 29, 1999 after decades of military rule. However, the system is still considered stagnant and inefficient, and the attempts made in the past by panels have had little effect on its efficiency and effectiveness.


The Nigerian Civil Service had its root from the British superstructure and the native system of administration created in 1900, (Ezindu, 2009). The few Nigerians who were recruited into the service mostly occupied the lower cadre and did insignificant jobs as the core areas of administration and service was carried out by the British Officials. Nigeria under Richards’ Constitution was divided into three separate regions along ethnic lines and these were the North, East and Western regions. The North whose citizens were less educated witnessed few of its citizens being employed into their civil service as against those of the south. After independence in 1960, effort was made by government to integrate and unify the civil service but, not without the effort of the Northern leader using its office to strike a balance if not increase the number Northerners over the Southerners in the central civil service through an affirmative action. Today, deep rooted ethnicity has eaten deep into the Nigerian social, political, economic and institutional fabric including its civil service.




Medical social work is a sub-discipline of social work, also known as hospital social work. Medical social workers typically work in a hospital, outpatient clinic, community health agency, skilled nursing facility, long-term care facility or hospice Medical social workers assess the psychosocial functioning of patients and families and intervene as necessary. Interventions may include connecting patients and families to necessary resources and supports in the community; providing psychotherapy, supportive counseling, or grief counseling; or helping a patient to expand and strengthen their network of social supports. Role of a medical social worker is to “restore balance in an individual’s personal, family and social life, in order to help that person maintain or recover his/her health and strengthen his/her ability to adapt and reintegrate into society” (Ordre professionnel des travailleurs sociaux du Québec, OPTSQ, 1999). Medical social workers typically work on an interdisciplinary team with professionals of other disciplines (such as medicine, nursing, physical, occupational, speech and recreational therapy, etc.)


Social work originates variously from humanitarian, religious and democratic ideals and philosophies and has universal application to meet human needs arising from personal-societal interactions and to develop human potential. Professional social workers are dedicated to service for the welfare and self-fulfilment of human beings; to the development and disciplined use of validated knowledge regarding human and societal behaviour; to the development of resources to meet individual, group, national and international needs and aspirations; and to the achievement of social justice. On the basis of the International Declaration of Ethical Principles of Social Work, the social worker is obliged to recognise these standards of ethical conduct

The Social Work Code of Ethics and Practice Domain

The social values which underpin this interactive definition of mental health are strongly congruent with the “humanitarian and egalitarian ideals” which form the value base of social work (Social Work Code of Ethics, p. 7). Further, the emphasis on “interaction” between person, group and environment fits closely with social work’s “person-in-environment” practice domain: “The primary focus of social work practice is on the relationship networks between individuals, their natural support resources, the formal structures in their communities, and the societal norms and expectations that shape these relationships. This relationship-centred focus is a distinguishing feature of the profession.” (CASW National Scope of Practice Statement, p. 2) Work in the mental health field requires an ability to work collaboratively and is strengthened by a systems perspective. As these knowledge and skill areas are emphasized in social work education, social workers are well positioned to play a significant role as our society strives to achieve mental health goals in the twenty-first century.

General work code of Ethical Conduct

3.2.1. Seek to understand each individual client and the client system, and the elements which affect behaviour and the service required.

3.2.2. Uphold and advance the values, knowledge and methodology of the profession, refraining from any behaviour which damages the functioning of the profession.

3.2.3. Recognise professional and personal limitations.

3.2.4. Encourage the utilisation of all relevant knowledge and skills.

3.2.5. Apply relevant methods in the development and validation of knowledge.

3.2.6. Contribute professional expertise to the development of policies and programs which improve the quality of life in society.

3.2.7. Identify and interpret social needs.

3.2.8. Identify and interpret the basis and nature of individual, group, community, national, and international social problems.

3.2.9. Identify and interpret the work of the social work profession.

3.2.10. Clarify whether public statements are made or actions performed on an individual basis or as representative of a professional association, agency or organisation, or other group.


3.3 Social Work code Relative to Clients

3.3.1. Accept primary responsibility to identified clients, but within limitations set by the ethical claims of others.

3.3.2. Maintain the client’s right to a relationship of trust, to privacy and confidentiality, and to responsible use of information. The collection and sharing of information or data is related to the professional service function with the client informed as to its necessity and use. No information is released without prior knowledge and informed consent of the client, except where the client cannot be responsible or others may be seriously jeopardized. A client has access to social work records concerning them.

3.3.3. Recognise and respect the individual goals, responsibilities, and differences of clients. Within the scope of the agency and the client’s social milieu, the professional service shall assist clients to take responsibility for personal actions and help all clients with equal willingness. Where the professional service cannot be provided under such conditions the clients shall be so informed in such a way as to leave the clients free to act.

3.3.4. Help the client – individual, group, community, or society- to achieve self-fulfilment and maximum potential within the limits of the respective rights of others. The service shall be based upon helping the client to understand and use the professional relationship, in furtherance of the clients legitimate desires and interests.

3.4 Social Work code Relative to Agencies and Organizations

3.4.1. Work and/or cooperate with those agencies and organizations whose policies, procedures, and operations are directed toward adequate service delivery and encouragement of professional practice consistent with the ethical principles of the IFSW.

3.4.2. Responsibly execute the stated aims and functions of the agency or organizations, contributing to the development of sound policies, procedures, and practice in order to obtain the best possible standards or practice.

3.4.3. Sustain ultimate responsibility to the client, initiating desirable alterations of policies, procedures, and practice, through appropriate agency and organization channels. If necessary remedies are not achieved after channels have been exhausted, initiate appropriate appeals to higher authorities or the wider community of interest.

3.4.4. Ensure professional accountability to client and community for efficiency and effectiveness through periodic review of the process of service provision.

3.4.5. Use all possible ethical means to bring unethical practice to an end when policies, procedures and practices are in direct conflict with the ethical principles of social work.

3.5 Social Work code Relative to Colleagues

3.5.1. Acknowledge the education, training and performance of social work colleagues and professionals from other disciplines, extending all necessary cooperation that will enhance effective services.

3.5.2. Recognise differences of opinion and practice of social work colleagues and other professionals, expressing criticism through channels in a responsible manner.

3.5.3. Promote and share opportunities for knowledge, experience, and ideas with all social work colleagues, professionals from other disciplines and volunteers for the purpose of mutual improvement.

3.5.4. Bring any violations of professionals ethics and standards to the attention of the appropriate bodies inside and outside the profession, and ensure that relevant clients are properly involved.

3.5.5. Defend colleagues against unjust actions.

3.6 Work codes Relative to the Profession

3.6.1. Maintain the values, ethical principles, knowledge and methodology of the profession and contribute to their clarification and improvement.

3.6.2. Uphold the professional standards of practice and work for their advancement.

3.6.3. Defend the profession against unjust criticism and work to increase confidence in the necessity for professional practice.

3.6.4. Present constructive criticism of the profession, its theories, methods and practices

3.6.5. Encourage new approaches and methodologies needed to meet new and existing needs.


Service to others is one of the main values in social work, from which all of the other values stem. Social workers acknowledge that serving others is more important than self-interest and put the needs of their clients ahead of their own. This can be difficult at times, and you’ll be expected to seek the advice of your supervisor or even participate in your own psychotherapy to help you deal with any personal issues that may arise. Additionally, the value of service means that you’ll be encouraged to volunteer some portion of your time – or working on a pro bono basis, according to the Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers.







Medical Social workers’ primary goal is to help people in need and to address social problems. Social workers elevate service to others above self-interest. Social workers draw on their knowledge, values, and skills to help people in need and to address social problems. Social workers are encouraged to volunteer some portion of their professional skills with no expectation of significant financial return (pro bono service).

Most of the ethics cases on which I consult involve complicated ethical decisions concerning social workers’ conflicting values, duties, and obligations. The most challenging ethical dilemmas require exceedingly difficult choices involving client confidentiality, dual relationships and boundary issues, conflicts of interest, informed consent, and documentation.

For example, social workers may have to choose between a client’s fundamental right to confidentiality and the social worker’s duty to disclose confidential information to protect a third party from harm. Or social workers may have to sort out complicated boundary issues when they live and work in rural communities, where it is often impossible to avoid dual relationships with clients.

If I encounter a problem not cover by the code I will follow my conscience and do what is right.



Nottingham, Christ; Dougall, Rona (2007), “A Close and Practical Association with the Medical Profession: Scottish Medical Social Workers and Social Medicine, 1940–1975”, Medical History, 51 (3), PMC 1894864

Burnham, David (2016), The Social Worker Speaks: A History of Social Workers Through the Twentieth Century, Routledge, p. 41–43, ISBN 978-1-317-01546-8

Lynne M. Healy, International Social Work: Professional Action in an Interdependent World, Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 9780195124460, p.24

G.R. Madan, Indian Social Problems (Vol-2): Social Disorganization and Reconstruction, Allied Publishers, 1967, ISBN 9788184244601, p.351

Kearney, Noreen; Skehill, Caroline (2005), “Chapter 8: An Overview of the Development of Health-Related Social Work in Ireland”, Social Work in Ireland: Historical Perspectives, Institute of Public Administration, p. 165–170, ISBN 978-1-904541-23-3

Sarah Gehlert, Teri Browne, Handbook of Health Social Work, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 9781118115916








The history of ethnic minority politics in Nigeria started with the Henry commission of 1959 when the minority groups in the southern and middle belt regions in the north and south of Nigeria ask for a separate region in order to beat the clause of marginalization and the denomination of the three other bigger ethnic groups in the north, west and east. This lead to other nationalities like the ijaws, nupe, Tivs, Jukuns, becoming agitated and seeking for recognitions, thus the history of ethnic minority politic in the country started.


The concept ethnicity and tribalism has always been a confused matter. Some scholars use the two concepts as though they carry the some  meaning and strongly inseparable. The origin of ethnicity began with the evolution of the Nigeria federalism. It was Sir Bourdillon who initiated the idea of federalism for Nigeria in 1939. He divided the country into provinces and regional councils along the three major ethnics in the country.



Nigeria’s three largest ethnic groups, the Hausa–Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo, represent 71 percent of the population (although as in most of Africa, ethnic labels are often imprecise, obscuring differences within groups and similarities among groups). Of the remaining 29 percent of the population, about one-third consists of groups numbering more than 1 million members each. The remaining 300-plus ethnic groups account for the final one-fifth of the population.

The Hausa, concentrated in the far north and in the Republic of Niger, are the largest of Nigeria’s ethnic nations. Most Hausa are Muslims engaged in agriculture, commerce, and small-scale industry. While most live in smaller towns and villages, others occupy several larger indigenous cities. Many people of non-Hausa origin, including the city-based Fulani, have become assimilated into the Hausa nation through intermarriage and acculturation. Other Fulani continue to depend on their livestock and have retained their own language, Fulfulde, and cultural autonomy.

The Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria incorporate seven subgroups—the Egba, Ekiti, Ife, Ijebu, Kabba, Ondo, and Oyo—each identified with a particular paramount chief and city. The oni of Ife is the spiritual head of the Yoruba. There is a strong sense of Yoruba identity but also a history of distrust and rivalry dividing the various groups. The majority of Yoruba are farmers or traders who live in large cities of precolonial origin.

The Igbo of southeastern Nigeria traditionally live in small, independent villages, each with an elected council rather than a chief. Such democratic institutions notwithstanding, Igbo society is highly stratified along lines of wealth, achievement, and social rank. Overcrowding and degraded soil have forced many Igbo to migrate to nearby cities and other parts of Nigeria.

Other large ethnic groups include the Kanuri, centered in Borno State; the Tiv, from the Benue Valley near Makurdi; the Ibibio and Efik in the Calabar area; the Edo from the Benin region; and the Nupe, centered in the Bida area. Although small by Nigerian standards, each of these lesser groups has more members than almost any of Africa’s other ethnicities.


NIGERIA is a federal constitutional republic comprising of 36states and its federal capital, Abuja. Nigeria as a nation is a constituent of several nationalities.

There are over 250 ethnic groups and the major ones are Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa. It is however very disturbing that Nigerians have become slaves to their ethnic origins instead of harnessing these diversities towards national development. Nigerians are fanatics when it comes to ethnicity. It is therefore not surprising for a Nigerian to get angry because he/she is wrongly associated with another tribe. This is not the true reflection of a federal nation. “One of the sociological problems hindering the growth of the nation is an multi-ethnicity”.

In addition, before the coming of the white man, the various ethnic groups were inter- dependent but they did not constitute themselves into one society. It was in 1914 that they were amalgamated. Nigeria is a British creation by uniting the various entities into a single country called the federal republic of Nigeria. Some Nigerians are of the view that ‘’Nigeria is a forced marriage which did not receive the approval of the couples involved’’

Furthermore, whatever is done in Nigeria always has an ethnic undertone be It, politics, employment and provision of social amenities. Tribal affiliations are always very strong and visible. Over the years, since independence there have been cases of ethnic violence resulting from allegiance to one’s ethnic group and this has not worked well for the development of the country. It is very common in Nigeria for an ‘’Igbo landlord’’ to turn down a would-be tenant simply because he is ‘’Hausa’’

Since independence, there has been the struggle for superiority and recognition among the various ethnic groups and this is what led to the Nigerian civil war from 1967-70. The war was fought between Igbo Biafrans and the federal government, mostly dominated by Hausas and headed by General Yakubu Gowon. Today in Nigeria, there is serious rivalry among these tribes such as political and religious rivalry.

However, despite all these, there are issues which point to the fact that ethnicity is not the problem in Nigeria but Nigerians themselves who choose to abuse ethnicity for their own tribal interest. There is nothing wrong with ethnicity. It can make and create avenues for healthy competitions in economic development. The period after independence saw a healthy competition between the major tribes in Nigeria. South-west led in cocoa production, groundnuts and cereals in the north while palm products and root crops dominated the economy of the south-east.












It is clearer now that, ethnic sentiments and the cut-throat struggle and competition among the ethnics in Nigeria today have a genesis in the political and economic activities which were the reasons for colonization and imperialism. So, ethnicity cannot be totally separated from colonialism. It was colonialism that forcefully brought the different ethnic groups who were initially separate, together to govern them in diversity. It was this forcefully union of the various ethnics that have generated sentimental feeling by the ethnic group against the others hence the state has proved to be a failed state for not guarantying the safety and provision of social amenities to the people.




























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