Racial discrimination is when a person is treated less favourably than another person in a similar situation because of their race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin or immigrant status. While Under population is exactly the opposite of overpopulation. Under population means an excess amount of resources for the number of people living in the area, or a shortage of people for the amount of resources that are produced.


Racial discrimination is when a person is treated less favourably than another person in a similar situation because of their race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin or immigrant status. For example, it would be ‘direct discrimination’ if a real estate agent refuses to rent a house to a person because they are of a particular racial background or skin colour.

It is also racial discrimination when there is a rule or policy that is the same for everyone but has an unfair effect on people of a particular race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin or immigrant status.

This is called ‘indirect discrimination’. For example, it may be indirect racial discrimination if a company says that employees must not wear hats or other headwear at work, as this is likely to have an unfair effect on people from some racial/ethnic backgrounds

Sometimes known as depopulation, under population is the reduction over time in a region’s population. The decline can be caused by several factors including sub-replacement fertility (along with limited immigration), heavy emigration, disease, famine, and war. History is replete with examples of large-scale depopulations. Many wars, for example, have been accompanied by significant depopulations. Before the 20th century, underpopulation  was mostly observed due to disease, starvation and/or emigration. The Black Death in Europe, the arrival of Old World diseases to the Americas, the tsetse fly invasion of the Waterberg Massif in South Africa, and the Great Irish Famine all caused sizable population declines. In modern times, the AIDS epidemic caused declines in the population of some African countries. Less frequently, underpopulation are caused by genocide or mass execution; for example, in the 1970s, the population of Cambodia declined because of wide-scale executions by the Khmer Rouge.

Sometimes the term underpopulation is applied to a specific economic system. It does not refer to carrying capacity, and is not a term in opposition to overpopulation, which deals with the total possible population that can be sustained by available food, water, sanitation and other infrastructure. “Underpopulation” is usually defined as a state in which a country’s population has declined too much to support its current economic system. Thus the term has nothing to do with the biological aspects of carrying capacity, but is an economic term employed to imply that the transfer payment schemes of some developed countries might fail once the population declines to a certain point. An example would be if retirees were supported through a social security system which does not invest savings, and then a large emigration movement occurred. In this case, the younger generation may not be able to support the older generation.


Racial discrimination refers to the separation of people through a process of social division into categories not necessarily related to races for purposes of differential treatment. Racial segregation policies may formalize it, but it is also often exerted without being legalized. Researchers Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, at the University of Chicago and MIT found in a 2004 study that there was widespread racial discrimination in the workplace. In their study, candidates perceived as having “white-sounding names” were 50% more likely than those whose names were merely perceived as “sounding black” to receive callbacks for interviews. The researchers view these results as strong evidence of unconscious biases rooted in the United States’ long history of discrimination (e.g., Jim Crow laws, etc.)[60] Devah Pager, a sociologist at Princeton University, sent matched pairs of applicants to apply for jobs in Milwaukee and New York City, finding that black applicants received callbacks or job offers at half the rate of equally qualified whites.[61][62] In contrast, institutions and courts have upheld discrimination against whites when it is done to promote a diverse work or educational environment, even when it was shown to be to the detriment of qualified applicants.[63][64] More than 30 years of field experiment studies have found significant levels of discrimination against non-whites in labor, housing, and product markets in 10 different countries.[65] With regard to employment, multiple audit studies have found strong evidence of racial discrimination in the United States’ labor market, with magnitudes of employers’ preferences of white applicants found in these studies ranging from 50% to 240%. Other such studies have found significant evidence of discrimination in car sales, home insurance applications, provision of medical care, and hailing taxis

While Under population exists when a population is too small, therefore unable to fully utilise the available resource endowments. Under population is also characterised by a situation where the available resources are capable of supporting a much larger population with no reduction in living standards. The situation is found in regions of low technical development such as equatorial Congo, Amazon River basin or the rich Prairie region of North America.

Relative under population is more common than absolute under population. Indeed, absolute under population is rarely seen and may be found in completely secluded societies where, the degree of replacement of population is less than unity. Relative under population occurs due to insufficient resource development. In developed economies, rural under population is more visible, whereas in backward countries, under population is linked to high mortality rate.


Causes of racial discrimination and under population are numerous but the causes can be outline below for each subject matter.

Causes of Racial discrimination:

Some of the causes of racial discrimination can be outline below;

-thinking one’s own culture is superior to another

-hatred for another ethnic groups or tribes

-having no respect or dignity for equality

Causes of under – population:

  1. Sub – fertility rate (total fertility rate):  The fertility rate in many developed and developing countries has dropped to about two children per women due to factors like literacy, economic development or urbanization (increasing the cost or standard of living) making the idea of having big families impractical. Changed attitudes toward contraception and an improvement in the social role of females have also affected this demographic attribute.
  2. Emigration:  Emigration is the movement of individuals from one country to another with the intention of permanently settling in their destination. Many factors contribute to this type of movement. They can be divided into ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors. ‘Push’ factors would be the detrimental elements associated with the current region or nation the individuals reside in like lack of employment, oppressive political conditions, poor economies etc. Whereas ‘pull’ factors would be the favourable characteristics of the country the individuals want to move to (like better employment opportunities, political freedom and economic stability etc.) Either way this movement always has a negative effect on the population of the current host.
  3. Disease:  Disease and illness has always caused a decline in the population. The emergence of new diseases like HIV/AIDS which has decreased the population globally.
  4. Famine:  Famine is the scarcity of food caused due to factors like crop failure and disproportionate population. Being a ‘push’ factor, it has an adverse effect on the population of a region or country.
  5. War and conflicts: People have waged wars since the middle ages and continue to do so. Advanced technology has made modern warfare a huge factor or element in the decline of population. Individuals fighting over resources and space end up killing each other on a massive scale due to the introduction of nuclear and chemical warfare which has a negative effect on the overall population of an area or region.


Impact of under population

Some of the impacts of under population can be outline and explain below;

  1. Unstable Economy:  Under – population has an adverse effect on the economy causing deflation (decrease in the overall price levels of goods and services). A decline in the population leads to lack of demand.

B.Decrease in pollution and environmental problems:  The pressure on natural resources and the basic infrastructure of an area decreases. Levels of pollutions are cut down too.

C.Population ageing:  Due to decreased rates of procreation, there is an increase in the social and economic pressure on the youth who have to expand the per capita output in order to support the economy. This also leads to a poor quality of life for the youth.

  1. Labour shortage:  Declining populations could create labour shortages which could have both positive and negative effects.
  2. Labour – intensive sectors of the economy would be adversely affected by such conditions. However a shortage would inevitably increase the demand for labour and potentially reduce unemployment.


The potential solutions for racism primarily involve education for both those in the majority as well as minority groups. The proposed solutions to racism are varied and diverse in nature, although most involve education and open communication between racial leaders and citizens on all sides. While some propose that the solution would involve giving minorities greater opportunity, most agree that racial tensions cannot be solved until members of all racial groups acknowledge issues within their group and develop plans for better cross-cultural understanding.while in the case of underpopulation, the solution to it is to encourage immigration as well as increase birthrate by encouraging parents to have more children.







Racial discrimination involves treating someone (an applicant or employee) unfavorably because he/she is of a certain race or because of personal characteristics associated with race (such as hair texture, skin color, or certain facial features). Color discrimination involves treating someone unfavorably because of skin color complexion.

Discrimination can occur when the victim and the person who inflicted the discrimination are the same race or color. Under population is a situation where the population is too small relative to the available resources. While over population refers to a situation where the population exceeds the available resources of a country. As a result of overpopulation, people will compete for the available resources and there will be a general fall in standard of living of the people. These two factors greatly influence the economy of a state of Nation.

Under population is the type of population that is less than the available resources of a country. It then means that the size of the population is so small that when combined with the available resources of a country and given the level of existing technology, it will secure minimum returns per head. In summary, under population is a situation where the population is too small relative to the available resources. The standard of living of the area can be increased if the population is increased.


Newman, D. M. (2012). Sociology: exploring the architecture of

everyday life (9th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-4129-8729-5. racism: Belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior.


“International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination”. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for

Human Rights. Retrieved December 23, 2011.


Garner, Steve (2009). Racisms: An Introduction. Sage.


“race (n2)”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 February



“Racism”. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2013. Retrieved 21 February



“Framework decision on combating racism and xenophobia”.

Council Framework Decision 2008/913/JHA of 28 November 2008. European Union. Retrieved 3 February 2011.


“International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination”. UN Treaty Series. United Nations. Archived from

the original on 2011-08-26. Retrieved 3 February 2011.


Bamshad, Michael; Steve E. Olson (December 2003). “Does Race

Exist?”. Scientific American. 289: 78–85. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1203-78. If races are defined as genetically discrete groups, no. But researchers can use some genetic information to group individuals into clusters with medical relevance.


Patrinos, Ari (2004). “‘Race’ and the human genome”. Nature

Genetics. 36 (S1 – S2). doi:10.1038/ng2150.


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