Qualitative analysis is a securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on unquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations. Qualitative analysis contrasts with quantitative analysis, which focuses on numbers that can be found on reports such as balance sheets. The two techniques, however, will often be used together in order to examine a company’s operations and evaluate its potential as an investment opportunity.
While Quantitative analysis refers to economic, business or financial analysis that aims to understand or predict behavior or events through the use of mathematical measurements and calculations, statistical modeling and research. Quantitative analysts aim to represent a given reality in terms of a numerical value. Quantitative analysis is employed for a number of reasons, including measurement, performance evaluation or valuation of a financial instrument, and predicting real world events such as changes in a country’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate.
pH is a measure of how acidic/basic water is. The range goes from 0 – 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs of less than 7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base. pH is really a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water.
Reagents was founded in 1969 as a manufacturer of laboratory chemicals, chemical solutions, and custom solutions. A reagent /riˈeɪdʒənt/ is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to see if a reaction occurs. The terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably—however, a reactant is more specifically a substance consumed in the course of a chemical reaction. Solvents, though involved in the reaction, are usually not called reactants. Similarly, catalysts are not consumed by the reaction, so are not reactants. In biochemistry, especially in connection with enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the reactants are commonly called substrates.
In synthetic organic chemistry, reagents are compounds or mixtures—usually composed of inorganic or small organic molecules—that cause a desired transformation of an organic compound. Examples include the Collins reagent, Fenton’s reagent, and Grignard reagents. In analytical chemistry, a reagent is a compound or mixture used to confirm the presence or absence of another substance, e.g. by a color change. Examples include Fehling’s reagent, Millon’s reagent, and Tollens’ reagent.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring
While Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true. The laws of valid inference are studied in the field of logic. Alternatively, inference is defined as the non-logical, but rational means, through observation of patterns of facts, to see new meanings and contexts for understanding indirectly. Of particular use to this application of inference are anomalies and symbols. Inference, in this sense, does not draw conclusions but opens new paths for inquiry. (See second set of examples.) In this definition of inference, there are two types of inference: inductive inference and deductive inference. Unlike the definition of inference in the first paragraph above, meaning of word meanings are not tested but meaningful relationships are articulated.
Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the side-chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways. They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups’ locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity, pH level, and side-chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.). In the form of proteins, amino acids comprise the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles, cells and other tissues. Outside proteins, amino acids perform critical roles in processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis.
Examples of amino acids includes Polar amino acids include serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, histidine and tyrosine. The hydrophobic amino acids include alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophane, cysteine and methionine.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are “strong bonds” such as covalent or ionic bonds and “weak bonds” such as Dipole-dipole interaction, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding.
Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond. Due to the matter wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves. This phenomenon limits the distance between nuclei and atoms in a bond.
Volumetric analysis is used to determine the value of a substance by using the volume of a known substance within the compound. This process, also known as titrimetric analysis, is most commonly used by chemists to quantify unknown concentrations in chemical reactions.