Nigeria’s economy is in recession. The contraction in GDP intensified in Q2, dragged down by depressed oil prices, falling oil production, a lack of foreign currency, and fuel and power shortages. In Q3, business confidence fell to an unprecedented low in September and the PMI was depressed in August and September.

The black market naira depreciated drastically in Q3 and at the outset of October, while the continuation of import restrictions kept the official exchange rate artificially strong. To make matters worse, a ceasefire between the government and the militant group whose attacks on infrastructure caused Q2’s drop in oil output seemed to fade in late September, renewing concerns about production. Much-needed support for the economy may come from an USD 1.0 billion AfDB-loan, which will likely be approved in November. Meanwhile, President Muhammadu Buhari plans a record budget of USD 22.6 billion for 2017, which still needs to be approved by lawmakers and is based on an oil price of USD 42.5 per barrel, to revive the ailing economy.Nigeria’s overdependence on oil is one reality that President Buhari’s government has to grapple with if it will survive the crash in the global oil prices. The good news is that every challenge posed to this administration is a prospect for them to make a change, just as they promised during the presidential campaign. Despite the pathetic situation of the economy, his economic team has been mum about the present state of affairs. And instead of the president to accept the responsibility of giving direction to the economy, he keeps blaming the immediate past administration for the present economic woes. He forgets the word of the German author Eckhart Tolle that says, “Discontent, blaming, complaining, self-pity cannot serve as a foundation for a good future, no matter how much effort you take.”

How does  this present recession  affects Nigeria Economy and what are    the implications  if any?


Nigeria economy is not immune from global happenings and the present global economic downturns. Every Nigeria citizen now recognises that Nigeria and the whole world is faced with the collapse of oil prices since  two years ago from $145.00 per barrel for bonny light a year ago to today’s price hovering just above $ 40.00 per barrel. The Nigeria economy is now in a state of crisis but not severely damaged. The cumulative results of past wrong policies are now slowly being addressed by the present  Yar’Adua government but critics argued that the Government have been too slow to put in place the Infrastructural development needed for economic growth for the nation and the Nigeria people. Critics argued that the present oil price situation therefore , only makes more acute the need for urgency in trying to fashion and implement correct policies  for a viable economy and for the resumption of economic growth.


What are the prevailing collapse and depression in the oil market?


Critics considered the below aspects as some of the reasons:


{1} The immediate implications for Government Budgets, and


{2} The implications for medium and long time management of the Nigeria economy




Nigeria government depend on oil for over 60% of its total revenues, and the country for over 90% of her foreign exchange earnings, while the state Governments are dependent to the extent of over 90% on the Federal government for their revenues and 10% from their internal generated revenues. The collapse of oil prices will surely have an immediate if not handle properly, disastrous impact on the budgets of all the Governments of the federation be it local, state and Federal as Nigeria economy is not insulated from the global economic crises.  As a result of the economic downturn, Nigeria Naira has been depreciated against the American Dollar since 2008. The practise of publishing revenues and expenditures promptly should be encouraged by the Federal Government re-echoing the issue of transparency .



Reports shows that one-third reduction in the budget releases of funds to state Governments and Federal ministries .The president, Alhaji Musa Yar’Adua recently argued for pay cuts for all public servants including the Governors and there should be a brave attempt by the National Assembly to carry out their oversight functions in ensuring the implementation of the 2009 budget as it is not in the nation interest to continuing to encourage waste at this period of global economic downturn . Faster depreciation of Naira against the Dollar is affecting the economy and adding to the suffering of Nigeria people. Government should do more to address the issues of unemployment and poverty in the country as these could lead to more crime in the country.



Nigerian Leaders should be very humble, attentive  and sympathetic to the suffering of the people. A proper response to the clear implications of these developments should be :


{1} Further drastic reduction of the costs of Government Operations as reforms is necessary to curb corruption in the country.


{2}Importantly, The  central Government must invest heavily by funding educational programmes and state government must be very prudent in their budgets  as many state governments expend over 60% of their budget on this sector alone paying ghost government workers, teachers salaries. Add personnel payments in the non-existing medical services and deprived the local governments from carrying out their oversight functions. This writer argues that the issue of the inter-relationship between the  local-state governments should be comprehensively address by the electoral reforms. This is necessary for speedy development in all the 774 local governments in the country.


{3} More efficient and effective but equitable cost recovery measures should be introduced by all the three-tie of governments.


{4} Governments at all levels should encourage private sector participation in the ownership where necessary and operation of educational , transport , Energy , Roads and Health institutions to help in curbing unemployment in the country. Government should diversify the economy and give priority to Agriculture by encouraging our unemployed youths into farming and farmers too, should be adequately compensated for their produce . If this is done, there will be mass production of food in the country for consumption and export .



Adult education in Nigeria is presently geared towards national development (Ewuzie, 2012). The objective of the process of adult education and national development is to get the adults, either as individuals or as a group, to learn and through learning to change their attitude and behaviour. The policy on education states the objectives of adult education as:

  1. To provide functional literacy education for adults who have never had the opportunity of any formal education
  2. To provide functional and remedial education for those young people who

prematurely dropped out of the formal school system

  1. To provide further education for different categories of completers of formal education system in order to improve their basic knowledge and skills
  2. To provide in-service and on-the-job vocational and professional training for different categories of workers and professionals in order to improve their skills
  3. To give the adult citizens of the country aesthetic, cultural and civic education for public enlightenment. Monye (1981) opines that all these objectives have one end in view-to equip the adult with everything he needs for life in order to be relevant to his society by helping to solve some of its problems. We have to recognize that development is of man, by man and for man. Man is the master of his destiny and adult education serves to bring about a fundamental change in man’s attitudes and lifestyle. To survive, people must have awareness and to become aware, they must be literate.

I believe that the present economic climate begets on the Government to come up with a realistic economic plan of diversification , reforms in the civil service , local and state levels , budgets streamlining by the National Assemblies  and central government being prudent and  transparent in its dealing with the states . The citizens especially the youths should not loose hope, be very flexible, focus and determined. I shall end this discourse with a quotation from one of  the greatest men of 21st century, the great Mahatma Gandhi of India . He said and I quote: “ The things that will destroy us are : politics without principle; pleasure without conscience; wealth without work; knowledge without character; business without morality; science without humanity; and worship without sacrifice”. This quotation becomes necessary when we consider the present global economic situation where greed has now become the order of the day The world economy has failed us, world leaders needs to rededicate themselves to the supreme God  . The era of responsibility is now dawn on us, let us all rise up to these challenges for a better world.

Adult education also plays a major role in social development. It is now widely admitted that growth will not reduce poverty unless poor people are able to actively participate in it.

Such participation can become effective to a large extent through adult education. Indeed, the African, and of course, Nigerian population will need some kind of formal and non-formal education and training to be able to benefit from basic health care, including sexual and reproductive health services, the development of new medicines, and thus be in a position to free itself from diseases that devastate poor people, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other parasites. Adult education will also be needed to enable the Nigerian poor to really take advantage of programmes aimed at protecting orphans and vulnerable children or drastically reducing the number of people without access to safe water and basic sanitation.

The role of adult education in development is not limited only to economic and social spheres. It also has a political dimension. There is a strong link between adult learning and democracy. This is so because, as acknowledged at the UNESCO Fifth International

Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg in 1997, “substantive democracy and a culture of peace are not given; they need to be constructed “(UNESCO, 1997). For democracy to be achieved, adult education is needed as to inform them of their rights and responsibilities as democracy also requires people to actively participate at local, national and global levels. It is today admitted that the lack of recognition of the need to involve civil society, especially grassroots organisations, by giving them a voice in decision-making and the means to participate effectively in society is one of the major causes of development failure in many

African countries. Abuse of human rights and social injustice leading to the exclusion of important segments of society, have also constituted stumbling blocks to economic and social progress on the continent and paved the way to violent conflicts (Seya, 2014).

Adult education may prove to be a powerful tool for favouring inclusive development through democracy, thereby ensuring peace and stability, as a number of studies have shown that prevention (through adult education) is much more effective than intervention. Prevention of political disorders and civil unrest can be made possible through various adult education strategies. A number of adult education policies promote democracy and peace have been proposed during the Fifth International Conference on Adult education (UNESCO, 1997). They tend to attain their objectives through various strategies that promote an active civil society, reinforce gender democracy and help to solve conflicts between different countries and groups to the extent that the world at large is experiencing the effects of multi-faceted globalization with varying degrees of impact on peoples and cultures. It is apparent from the foregoing that adult education is an indispensable vector for social, economic and political progress in any society.



It has been argued in this paper that adult education, referred to broadly as a transmission process of general, technical or vocational knowledge, as well as skills, values and attitudes mean for mature people, is a powerful tool for development, including poverty reduction, civic and social engagement. Adult education has been often recognised, in theory, as necessary to enhance development, especially in an era of globalization, not only because it produces human capital, but also because it enables people to become well-informed citizens, capable of thinking critically and owning their destiny through active participation. Unfortunately, this recognition has not often been translated on the ground into substantial and relevant programmes.

The low amounts of budgetary resources devoted to adult education by African countries reflected the low priority given to this education sub-system by the donor community, despite its inclusion in the global development initiatives adopted since the 90s. If this trend continues, Africa as a whole and Nigeria in particular will be deprived again of a significant human resources so much needed to meet its development challenges. Such as scenario should not be allowed to happen, otherwise the ensuring social, economic and political consequences would be catastrophic for a continent that already represents the most impoverished part of the world.


Resulting from the investigation for this paper, some recommendations for possible future courses of action can be made:

  1. Holistic View: There is still a call for a holistic attitude, beyond qualifications, certifications and economic benefits.
  2. Further Research and Data Collection: One of the main challenges to research and evaluation in the adult education sector is the huge complexity and diversity of educational provision. Therefore, it will be essential to provide better research, data

collection and analysis. More coherent studies for understanding the effects and causes of (adult) learning need to be developed.

  1. Development of Indicators: Indicators should be developed, which provide useful information for (inter)national policy makers, because wider benefits are difficult to measure quantitatively and more complex than one single data set. Indicators are important tool in order to assess benchmarks and to monitor the educational system..
  2. More Investment: It was clear from the consultation undertaken for this study that future research will depend on convincing government and research funding bodies. There is need to invest in the quality of adult learning provision

















[1] Allen D. (2013). Change in Adult Education in Nigeria

[2] Desjardins R., Schuller T. (2006). Understanding the Social Outcomes of Learning in

Measuring the Effects of Education on Health and Civic Engagement: Proceedings of the

Copenhagen Symposium, Paris: OECD.

[3] European Association for the Education of Adults (2010). The Role of Adult Education in

Reading Poverty EAEA Policy Paper Brussels: EAEA.

[4] Ewuzie R. (2012). Change in Adult Education in Nigeria.

[5] Feinstein L., Hammond C., Woods L., Preston J., Bynner J. (2003). The Contribution of

Adult Learning to Health and Social Capital, London: Centre for Research on the Wider

Benefits of Learning.








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