Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy. “Human capital” is sometimes used synonymously with “human resources”, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view (i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and economic growth). Likewise, other terms sometimes used include “manpower”, “talent”, “labour”, “personnel”, or simply “people”. Every organization is made up of two major components the human and material resources. Without suitable and adequate human and material resources, the objectives of any organization will be difficult to achieve. Human and material resources are input into the system through process in order to achieve the desired output. Human and material resources are important because it comprises the workforce of organizations. Human resource (HR) managers in Nigeria are involved with recruitment, training, career development, compensation and benefits, employee relations, industrial relations, employment law, compliance, disciplinary and grievance issues, redundancies etc.
A human resources department (HR department) of a company performs human resource management, overseeing various aspects of employment, such as compliance with labour law and employment standards, administration of employee benefits, and some aspects of recruitment and dismissal.
According to Adebayo (2000), the functions of a personnel department and personnel manger includes recruitment, selection, training and development, job evaluation and formulation of manpower policies in an organization.
In human resource management, Personnel selection is the methodical process used to hire (or, less commonly, promote) individuals. Although the term can apply to all aspects of the process (recruitment, selection, hiring, acculturation, etc.) the most common meaning focuses on the selection of workers. Personnel selection is the methodical process used to hire (or, less commonly, promote) individuals. Although the term can apply to all aspects of the process (recruitment, selection, hiring, acculturation, etc.) the most common meaning focuses on the selection of workers. In this respect, selected prospects are separated from rejected applicants with the intention of choosing the person who will be the most successful and make the most valuable contributions to the organization. Its effect on the group is discerned when the selected accomplish their desired impact to the group, through achievement or tenure. The procedure of selection takes after strategy to gather data around a person so as to figure out whether that individual ought to be utilized. The strategies used must be in compliance with the various laws in respect to work force selection.
RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Meaning and Procedure of Recruitment
Recruitment is an important process in the success of any organization particularly in adult education organization. It involves a number of issues. First, there must be determination of the projected number of positions to be filled in an organization. This is on the basis of required number of personnel, needed in the organization.
The personnel department has the support and expertise of employment specialist who assist the recruiting officer with the procedure to ensure that, the management are making wise decision in the recruitment processes. Singer (1990) and Ojo (1998), sees recruitment as a process of actively identifying. Potentially
qualified employee and encouraging them to apply for position in the organization. Aminu A.A (1995), stated that the main purpose of recruitment is to provide an organisation with a pool of potentially qualified candidate to select from. Sheila M. Rioux et al (1999), sees recruitment as the processes of identifying and attracting potential
candidates from within and outside the organization to begin evaluating them for future employment. Once candidate are identified, an organization can begin the selection process. This includes collecting, measuring and evaluating informations about the candidates’ qualifications for specific positions.
Stuart-Greenfield, (2009), a contributor to the American society for public administration, sees recruitment process as the best way to achieve success of any organization, he further stated that implementing more effective processes to recruit candidates and select the best and the brightest will improve one’s ability to meet the organizational human resources needs. Gomez-Mejia, Balkin and Candy (2004), also described recruitment as the process of generating a pool of qualified candidates for a particular job. The processes involves determining the characteristics required for effective performance and then measuring applicant on these characteristics. Similarly Olalekan (2006), noted that, the aim of recruitment is to attract qualified job candidates. He further stressed that in order to avoid waste of fund, recruiting efforts should be targeted solely at applicant who have the basic qualification for the job.
Recruitment individuals to fill a particular post within an organization can be done either internally by recruitment within the firm or externally by recruiting people from outside internal recruitment could be done by encouraging the current employees to apply for the positions within the organization, such recruitment gives the staff opportunity to move into firms of more desirable jobs, which may also create further openings that will require to be filled particularly adult education staff who are mostly on part time basis.
According to Carble and Judge (1996), organizations use internal job posting and employee referral to recruit and these relatively easy and inexpensive ways to identify candidates both inside and outside the organization. Internal job posting programme according to them, are also an excellent method of providing promotion opportunities for employees and minimizing employee complains of unfair treatment and discrimination.
Aminu (1995), noted that quite number of potential employees with the ambitions of changing their jobs exist, but with the opportunity that most of the personnel department exploit is attempting to fill the vacant position within the organization, by doing so it will help the organization to utilize their own personnel in filling the vacant positions before recruiting from outside the organization.
The internal sources of recruitment can be done through any of the following:
(iii). Recalls from layoff and reorganization of the organizational chart and demotion
Recruitment can also be done through external sources, in this; opening may be advertised on both print and electronic media as well as on the internet.
External source makes it possible to draw a wide range of talent and provide the opportunity to bring new ideas and experience into adult education organization. According to Boone and Kurtz (1984), external recruitment can be done through:
(i). Unsolicited Application
(iii). Employee Agencies
(iv). Professional bodies and also through recommendation.
External sources of recruitment are more costly, though the organization may end up with an employee who proves to be effective in practice.
Selection is part of the recruitment processes, it involves screening of candidates in order to identify from those coming forward, the individual must likely to fulfil the requirement of the organization. Torrington and Hall (1991), sees selection as one of the most difficult procedure of recruitment due to interest. Similarly Druker
(2001), sees selection as the process that represent the final stage of the decision-making in the recruitment process. He further explained that a wide range of technique is available to assist in carrying out selection which include among others, the interview test and references.
Selection as a process of screening of candidate may involves going into records, data sheet and curricula vitae (CV).Testing may be introduced to examine the quality of human resources relevant to perform available jobs or the task. According to Olulekan (2006), some of the tests usually used in selection of human resource are aptitude test, achievement, vocational interest and personality tests. The final stage of the selection process is what may be called the decision and offer employment. Normally a decision is made to offer employment to the most suitably qualified candidates after completion of the entire screening exercise.
Hogan (1991), noted that selection findings indicate that more organizations with highly effective selection systems experienced higher employee outcomes. He further stated that organization with effective selection system appears better to identify and select employee with right skills and motivation and to succeed in available positions as well as in the organization.
Placement is the process of putting people into certain position who have been selected for the job. Once a letter of employment has been given, the next stage is to place the newly recruited staff into their area of specializations. The professional adult education then take over to find out the area of the candidate’s skills and knowledge, can be suitable Egunyomi (2000), stressed that what is critical is that newly recruited candidates should be objectively placed in order to get the desire outcome.
Most organizations placed their newly recruited staff on temporary and probationary appointment for a period of time usually for the period of one year, at the end of this period, appointment could be confirm if the performance of the newly recruited staff is satisfactory, this should be applicable in adult education in Nigeria
IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGER IN NIGERIA
Human resources play an important part of developing and making a company or organization at the beginning or making a success at the end, due to the labour provided by employees. Human resources is intended to show how to have better employment relations in the workforce. Also, to bring out the best work ethic of the employees and therefore making a move to a better working environment
human resource manager are Individual within an organization responsible for hiring new employees, supervising employee evaluations, mediation between employees and bosses as necessary, and general overseeing of the personnel department.
Similar to other department managers, a human resource manager has two basic functions: overseeing department functions and managing employees. For this reason, a human resources manager must be well-versed in each of the human resources disciplines – compensation and benefits, training and development, employee relations, and recruitment and selection. Core competencies HR managers have are solid communication skills and decision-making capabilities based on analytical skills and critical thought processes
Human resource managers have strategic and functional responsibilities for all of the HR disciplines. A human resource manager has the expertise of an HR generalist combined with general business and management skills. In large organizations, a human resource manager reports to the human resource director or a C-level human resource executive. In smaller companies, some HR managers perform all of the department’s functions or work with an HR assistant or generalist that handles administrative matters. Regardless of the size of department or the company, a human resource manager should have the skills to perform every HR function, if necessary.
Compensation and Benefits
Human resource managers provide guidance and direction to compensation and benefits specialists. Within this discipline, human resources managers develop strategic compensation plans, align performance management systems with compensation structure and monitor negotiations for group health care benefits. Examples of human resource manager responsibilities include monitoring Family and Medical Leave Act compliance and adherence to confidentiality provisions for employee medical files. Human resource managers for small companies might also conduct open enrollment for employees’ annual elections pertaining to health care coverage.
Recruitment, selection and placement of human resource is a major part of an organization overall resourcing strategies which identify and secure people needed for the organization to survive and succeed. Better recruitment and selection procedure results in improved organisational outcomes. The more effectively an organization recruits and select candidates particularly in adult education organization the more likely they retain satisfied personnel. Human Resources is a business field focused on maximizing employee productivity. Human Resources professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can be specialists focusing in on recruiting, training, employee relations or benefits. Recruiting specialists are in charge of finding and hiring top talent. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations and reward programs. Employee relations deals with concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as harassment or discrimination. Someone in benefits develops compensation structures, family leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are Human Resources Generalists or Business Partners. These human resources professionals could work in all areas or be labor relations representatives working with unionized employees
Human resource (HR) managers are involved with recruitment, training, career development, compensation and benefits, employee relations, industrial relations, employment law, compliance, disciplinary and grievance issues, redundancies etc. The job involves keeping up to date with areas such as employment law, which change often.
Recruitment, selection and placement are processes that are critical to the accomplishment of any task of any organizations. Appointment of qualified and competent personnel’s appointment through the diligent observation of fair and transparent procedure ensure the success of organization. This is because once the procedure of recruitment, selection and placement has been adopted in the sector; it will motivate the adult education employee.
Better recruitment and selection procedure results in improved organizational outcomes. The more effectively organization recruitment and selections of candidates is, the more likely they are to hire and retain effective personnel. Therefore, the starting point to improve adult education is to get qualified and interested staff through competitive fair and objectives recruitment and selection procedure.
Adebayo, (2004). Power in politics Ibadan: Spectrum
Aminu A.A, (1995). Personnel Management (i). Mainasara printing Press.
Balami Y.G and Dibal (1997). Issues Related to Building Adult
Education Institutional Capacity in Nigeria. In Fajonyomi A.A & Idowu Biao. policy issues in Adult Education and Community
Development Maiduguri Manasara: Ibadan publishers Press.
Boone and Kurtz, (1984). Principles of Management in Aminu A.A Personnel Management Vol. (ii).
Bratton J. et-al (1999), Human Research Management Macmillan,
Drucker (2001), Management task, responsibilities practices. New
York:, Harper and Row.
Egunyomi D. (2000), Introduction to personnel Management Ibadan
Fan (2008). National Policy on Adult Education. All African
Liberman et al (1980). The Friston Report. An Inquiry into
Professional in Transition of Higher Education.