WRITE THE DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEUR AS AN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
An educational psychologist is a psychologist whose differentiating functions may include diagnostic and psycho-educational assessment, psychological counseling in educational communities (students, teachers, parents and academic authorities), community-type psycho-educational intervention, and mediation, coordination, and referral to other professionals, at all levels of the educational system. Many countries use this term to signify those who provide services to students, their teachers, and families while other countries use this term to signify academic training in the discipline of educational psychology, with no intention of preparing persons to provide services.
An educational psychologist is concerned with helping children or young people who are experiencing problems within an educational setting with the aim of enhancing their learning.
Challenges may include social or emotional problems or learning difficulties. Work is with individual clients or groups, advising:
• social workers;
• other professionals.
Client work involves an assessment of the child using observation, interviews and test materials. Educational psychologists offer a wide range of appropriate interventions, such as learning programmes and collaborative work with teachers or parents.
They also provide in-service training for teachers and other professionals on issues such as behaviour and stress management. Thus Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan
DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEUR AS AN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
Entrepreneurship is a multidimensional process.
A look at the vast array of research on entrepreneurs indicates that there is still no standard universally accepted definition of an entrepreneur. The definition used in a particular study is dependent on what one’s intent is, or what one hopes to accomplish. For the purpose of this study as an educational psychologist, entrepreneurs are defined as individuals who pursue opportunities with a long-term focus in mind (Miner, 1997; Begley, 1995). This definition recognizes that tendencies such as internal locus of control, achievement orientation, risk taking propensity and work values, are important in analyzing the psychology of entrepreneurs.
Although entrepreneurship is mostly associated with the fields of administration, management and economy, in fact it is an interdisciplinary subject. Entrepreneurship and enterprise as being a broad subject and conceptual field was studied within the field of
psychology, at least at the beginning, more than the fields of economy, administration and management. The studies of psychology over entrepreneurship have played an important role for a detailed consideration of the concept and in giving the concept the broader meaning that is used now. One of the first studies of psychology over entrepreneurship was conducted by Mc Clelland, Atkinson and Feather in the second half of twentieth century.
According to them, the motivation of individual and society is one of the most important factors that explain entrepreneurship and individual’s becoming an entrepreneur depends on the highest possibility of achievement (Korpysa, N.d). In other words, when the
possibility of achievement gets higher, entrepreneurial propensity rate increases. Studies in the field of psychology have focused on the details of the factors that play a role in entrepreneurship’s achievement (Baron, 2000).These studies stated that entrepreneurial ability of individual is connected with societies’ perception of success and to what extent individuals are affected by this perception. However, even if it was stated that culture influence entrepreneurship, it was observed that individual differences have important effects on entrepreneurship despite cultural commonality.
Psychology’s extensive interest for the subject matter of entrepreneurship at the beginning is closely associated with periodic interest to understand psychological dynamics of human
Entrepreneurship – Born, Made and Educated behaviors. Studies that were focused over people’s relationships with enterprises and
organizations realized that not only enterprises affect individuals, but also individuals affect enterprises. Therefore, when the characteristics of individuals were studied, it was wondered whether individuals with entrepreneurial characteristics affect enterprises more strongly so they looked for an answer for the question of “Who is the entrepreneur?” In this process, the data about entrepreneurship that psychology obtained became popular and the relationship between entrepreneurship and the characteristics like risk-taking, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, need for achievement and risk-management has been studied.
However, although psychology was in the first place in the development of entrepreneurship research, later using the findings of psychology in understanding entrepreneurship was abandoned. The fact that research that has been carried out in psychology field is often limited by character approaches and over-emphasis of the effects of personality over the consequences played a role in this divergence. However, in later years the picture changed again and empirical studies that put forward the importance of psychological variables increased. From then on studies over the characteristics of individual with entrepreneurial qualities and entrepreneurship culture have become widespread and research over entrepreneurship in the field of psychology has become the focus of interest again. When we consider it in general, it is possible to analyze the studies over entrepreneurship that psychology carried out and emphasized individual traits in two groups. One group of
these studies has looked for a connection between entrepreneurship and personal characteristics and proved that individuals with entrepreneurial qualities are self-controlled, self-confident and competitive people. They also have a great imagination and they do not avoid risks. Another group of study examined motivation resources of entrepreneurial individual and has discovered that entrepreneurship is nurtured by sources such as motivation for achievement, power distance and willingness for taking risks. Besides, the studies that focused on entrepreneurship’s relationship with culture try to uncover cultural resources that nurture and weaken entrepreneurship; therefore, entrepreneurship is also studied as an issue that draws socio-psychology’s attention. Nowadays, entrepreneurship research continues by making associations with psychological variables like cognitions, emotions, perceptions, behaviors and motivation and the effects of psychological variables over entrepreneurship cannot be ignored. Even if different countries seem to have different development policies, especially since 1980s, entrepreneurship has become more important due to competitive development program that countries have to apply because of neo liberal development policies. The fact that societies have to increase their share in international markets or maintain their own national markets depends on the existence of human resources who have entrepreneurial characteristics to a certain extent.
Entrepreneurship psychology indicates many intersection points between industrial/organizational psychology and entrepreneurship. First of all, organizations which are the central phenomenon of organizational psychology exist by means of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. Organizations have to renovate themselves regularly so as to continue their own existence and in order not to be destroyed by their competitors who aimed at the same targets in tough market conditions. Providing this renovation is only possible by watching over the possibilities and opportunities in the market. Therefore, some of the individuals in every organization must have entrepreneurial skills such as innovative thinking, creative, risk-taking, and powerful future design; they also have to be bold and self-confident. One of the main elements in this kind of organization is entrepreneurship.
This process leads industrial/organizational psychology researchers to study entrepreneurship process.
• Cameron, R. J. (2006). Educational psychology: The distinctive contribution. Educational Psychology in Practice, 22, 289-304.
• • Fagan, T. K., & Wise, P. S. (Eds.). (2007). School psychology: Past, present and future (3rd ed.). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. ISBN 978-0-932955-71-5.
• • Jimerson, S. R., Oakland, T. D., & Farrel, P. T. (Eds.).(2007). The handbook of international school psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN 978-1-4129-2669-0.
• • Mayer, R., & Alexander, P. A. (Eds.) . (2010). Handbook of research on learning and instruction. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-80461-5.
• • Reynolds, W. M., & Miller, G. J. (Eds.).(2003). Handbook of psychology. Vol. 7: Educational Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-38406-9.
• • Wittrock, M. C. (1992). «An empowering conception of educational psychology». Educational Psychologist, 27, 129-141.
• • Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (2003). Educational psychology: A century of contributions. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. ISBN 978-0-8058-3682-0.
• • Bonfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-22457-4.
• • Watkins, M. W., Crosby, E. G., & Pearson, J. L. (2001). Role of the school psychologist: Perceptions of school staff. School Psychology International, 22, 64-73.
• Fernández, J. (2008). Assessment of teaching quality: A circular model of evaluation. Madrid: Editorial Complutense. ISBN 978-84-7491-943-1.