Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the behavioral sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law. The term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as criminologia. Later, French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term criminology.
Police science is the study and research which deals with police work. Studies and research in criminology, forensic science, psychiatry, psychology, jurisprudence, community policing, criminal justice, correctional administration and penology all come under this umbrella term ‘police science’.
Social work is a professional and academic discipline that seeks to improve the quality of life and enhance wellbeing[1] of individuals, families, couples, groups, and communities through research, policy planning, community development, direct practice, crisis intervention, ensuring social welfare and security for those affected by social disadvantages such as poverty, psychosocial care to mentally and physically disabled, and raising voices against social injustice for social reforms, including social actions against violations of civil liberties and human rights. It is a progressive profession where one can be actively engaged in helping others to help themselves
As scholars interested in political processes, outcomes, behavior, and attitudes, political scientists generally intersect with the field of criminology when they study the institutions that create and implement crime policy and criminal law, and when they explore the opinions and political behavior of citizens in relation to crime or the criminal justice system. The approaches take many forms: for example, the organization and function of the criminal justice system itself (police, courts, prisons); the political bodies that enact, implement, and interpret the criminal law (legislatures, executives, and courts); the reciprocal relationship between criminal laws and electoral systems, political parties and social movements; and public opinion. While their methods and theoretical foundations vary, political science approaches to criminology have in common a fundamental understanding of crime and justice as political outcomes that are shaped by political institutions, attitudes, and behavior. For this reason, this bibliography avoids delving too deeply into predominately sociological, legal, or anthropological works that do not focus specifically on understanding how political processes (including both government institutions and citizens) confront crime issues. Political science analysis of crime and criminal justice can be grouped into two main periods. Early work in the 1960s and 1970s focused primarily on policing, courts, and prisons as political institutions at a time when crime and violence were on the rise and racial unrest characterized much of the urban experience. The central questions of this research era had to do with public and political responses to crime rates, how criminal justice agencies coped with rising rates of criminal behavior, and the implementation of crime policy
This body of work focuses criminology, police science and social work specifically and more on broader political dynamics that drive law and policy, such as partisan control of legislatures, public opinion, the presence of minority lawmakers, interest group dynamics, social movements, relationships between elite lawmakers and mass publics, and so on. This more recent scholarship is also more focused on the racial dimensions of crime and punishment, as well as the political implications and consequences of high rates of arrest and incarceration for democratic societies.

Axinn, June and Mark J. Stern (2008). Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-52215-6. OCLC 86038254.
Siegel, Larry J. (2003). Criminology, 8th edition. Thomson-Wadsworth. p. 7.
UK has developed new technologies for effective policing


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