COMPARE NIGERIA AND GHANA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Education is the process of facilitating learning. Knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits of a group of people are transferred to other people, through storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves in a process called autodidactic learning. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education is commonly and formally divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college, university or apprenticeship. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.
A right to education has been recognized by some governments. At the global level, Article 13 of the United Nations’ 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an education. Although education is compulsory in most places up to a certain age, attendance at school often isn’t, and a minority of parents choose home-schooling, sometimes with the assistance of modern electronic educational technology (also called e-learning). Education can take place in formal or informal settings.
EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level. The education system is divided into Kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. he Nigerian educational system has traditionally been called the 6-3-3-4 system. Each number represents the number of years spent at each level of education. The first 6 years are the numbers of years spent in Primary school; the next 3 years are spent in the Junior Secondary School (JSS); the next 3 years represent the Senior Secondary School (SSS); the last 4 years are the University years.
The years spent at the university vary from four to six years, depending on the course of study. Most of the courses in the Humanities take four years, while the courses in the Medical Sciences and Technology take over four years.
Recently, an amendment was made to the 6-3-3-4 system of education. The new educational system is the 9-3-4 system, which merges the 6 primary school years and the 3 Junior Secondary School years.
EDUCATION IN GHANA
Education in Ghana was mainly informal before the arrival of European settlers, who built a formal education system addressed to the elites. With the independence of Ghana in 1957, universal education became an important political objective. The magnitude of the task as well as economic difficulties and political instabilities have slowed down attempted reforms. The Education Act in 1987, followed by the Constitution of 1992, gave a new impulse to educational policies in the country. In 2011, the primary school net enrolment rate was 84%, described by UNICEF as “far ahead” of the Sub-Saharan average. In its 2013-14 report, the World Economic Forum ranked Ghana 46th out of 148 countries for education system quality. In 2010, Ghana’s literacy rate was 71.5%, with a notable gap between men (78.3%) and women (65.3%). The guardian newspaper disclosed in April 2015 that 90% of children in Ghana were enrolled in school, ahead of countries like Pakistan and Nigeria at 72% and 64% respectively.
STRUCTURE OF THE NIGERIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The Universal Basic Education, UBE, came as a replacement of the Universal Primary Education and an innovation to enhance the success of the first nine years of schooling The UBE involves 6 years of Primary School education and 3 years of Junior Secondary School education, culminating in 9 years of uninterrupted schooling, and transition from one class to another is automatic but determined through continuous assessment. This scheme is monitored by the Universal Basic Education Commission, UBEC, and has made it “free”, “compulsory” and a right of every child. Therefore, the UBEC law section 15 defines UBE as early childhood care and education. The law stipulates a 9-year formal schooling, adult literacy and non-formal education, skill acquisition programs and the education of special groups such as nomads and migrants, girl child and women, Al-majiri, street children and disabled people (Aderinoye, 2007
Students spend six years in Secondary School, that is 3 years of JSS (Junior Secondary School), and 3 years of SSS (Senior Secondary School). By Senior Secondary School Class 2 (SS2), students are taking the GCE O’Levels exam, which is not mandatory, but most students take it to prepare for the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. The Senior Secondary School ends on the WASSCE. Junior Secondary School is free and compulsory. It leads to the BECE, which opens the gate to Senior Secondary School. SSS curriculum is based on 6 core subjects completed by 2 or 3 elective subjects. Core subject are: English; mathematics; Economics; one major Nigerian language; one elective out of biology, chemistry, physics or integrated science; one elective out of English literature, history, geography or social studies; agricultural science or a vocational subject which includes: Commerce, food and nutrition, technical drawing or fine arts.
Students can also join, after the BECE, a technical college. The curriculum also lasts 3 years and leads to a trade/craftsmanship certificate
The government has majority control of university education. The country has a total number of 129 universities registered by NUC among which federal and state government own 40 and 39 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned. In order to increase the number of universities in Nigeria from 129 to 138 the Federal Government gave 9 new private universities their licences in May 2015. The names of the universities that got licenses in Abuja included, Augustine University, Ilara, Lagos; Chrisland University, Owode, Ogun State; Christopher University, Mowe, Ogun State; Hallmark University, Ijebu-Itele, Ogun State; Kings University, Ode-Omu, Osun State; Micheal and Cecilia Ibru University, Owhrode, Delta State; Mountain Top University, Makogi/Oba Ogun state; Ritman University, Ikot-Epene, Akwa- Ibom State and Summit University, Offa, Kwara State.
STRUCTURE OF GHANA EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The Ghanaian education system is divided in three parts: “Basic Education”, secondary cycle and tertiary Education. “Basic Education” lasts 11 years(Age 4-15), is free and compulsory. It is divided into Kindergarten(2 years), primary school(2 modules of 3 years) and Junior High school(3 years). The junior high school(JHS) ends on the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). Once the BECE achieved, the pupil can pursue into secondary cycle. Secondary cycle can be either general (assumed by Senior High School) or vocational(assumed by technical Senior High School, Technical and vocational Institutes and a massive private and informal offer). Senior High school lasts three years and ends on the West African Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE). Other secondary institutions leads to various certifications and diplomas. Tertiary education is basically divided into university (academic education) and Polytechnics(vocational education). The WASSCE is needed to join a university bachelor’s degree program. A bachelor’s degree lasts 4 years and can be followed by a 1 or 2 year Master. The student is then free to start a Phd, usually completed in 3 years. Polytechnics are opened to vocational students, from SHS or from TVI. A Polytechnic curriculum lasts 2 to 3 years. Ghana also possesses numerous colleges of education. New tertiary education graduates have to serve one year within the National Service Scheme. The Ghanaian education system from Kindergarten up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years. The academic year usually goes from August to May inclusive. The school year lasts 40 weeks in Primary school and SHS, and 45 weeks in JHS.
THERE EDUCATIONAL BUDGETING AND FINANCIAL SYSTEM
Education in Nigeria takes about 15% of the annual budget and the financial system flows from the federal to the local government areas.
Education in Ghana takes about 20% of the annual budget and the financial system flows from the central government to the local government areas.
Each country should try and improve on the funding of the educational system
Student enrolments should be encourage with incentives and other things that would lure them to school
• • Schultz, T.P. (2002). “Why Governments should Invest More to Educate Girls” World Development, Vol. 30 No.2 Pp 207 – 225.
• • Nussbaum, Martha (2003) “Women’s Education: A Global Challenge” Sign:: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 2003, vol. 29, no. 2 Pp 325 – 355.
• Aliu, S, (2001). “The Competitive Drive, New Technologies and Employment: The Human Capital Link”. A Paper presented at the Second Tripartite Conference of Manpower Planners. Chelsea Hotel, Abuja.
• Wang, Lianqin (2007), Education in Sierra Leone: Present Challenges, Future Opportunities, World Bank Publications, p. 2, ISBN 0-8213-6868-0
• • “Sierra Leone”. 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
• Wang, Lianqin (2007), Education in Sierra Leone: Present Challenges, Future Opportunities, World Bank Publications, p. 1 and 3, ISBN 0-8213-6868-0