WHAT IS MANUAL METHOD OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT; LIST 10 ADVANTAGES AND 10 DISADVANTAGES


WHAT IS MANUAL METHOD OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT; LIST 10 ADVANTAGES AND 10 DISADVANTAGES
INTRODUCTION
Management Information Systems (MIS) is the studies of people, technology, organizations, and the relationships among them.[1] This definition relates specifically to MIS as a course of study in business schools and refers to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems.
MIS professionals help organizations to maximize the benefit from investments in personnel, equipment, and business processes. MIS is people-oriented, with an emphasis on service. Although today it is increasingly built on computer hardware, software and networks, it does not necessarily have to be computer-based.
Management information systems are distinct from other information systems in that they are used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities.
TYPES AND TERMINOLOGY
The terms management information system (MIS), information system, enterprise resource planning (ERP), and information technology management are often confused. Information systems and MIS are broader categories that include ERP. Information technology management concerns the operation and organization of information technology resources independent of their purpose.
• Management information systems, produce fixed, regularly scheduled reports based on data extracted and summarized from the firm’s underlying transaction processing systems[7] to middle and operational level managers to identify and inform structured and semi-structured decision problems.
• Decision support systems (DSS) are computer program applications used by middle and higher management to compile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making. A DSS is used mostly for semi-structured and unstructured decision problems.
• Executive information systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarized reports coming from all company levels and departments such as accounting, human resources and operations.
• Marketing Information Systems are Management Information Systems designed specifically for managing the marketing aspects of the business.
• Office automation systems (OAS) support communication and productivity in the enterprise by automating workflow and eliminating bottlenecks. OAS may be implemented at any and all levels of management.
• School Information management systems (SIMS) cover school administration,and often including teaching and learning materials.
• Enterprise resource planning facilitates the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders.
ADVANTAGES
The following are some of the benefits that can be attained using MISs.
• Companies are able to identify their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employees’ performance record etc. Identifying these aspects can help a company improve its business processes and operations.
• Giving an overall picture of the company.
• Acting as a communication and planning tool.
• The availability of customer data and feedback can help the company to align its business processes according to the needs of its customers. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities.
• MISs can help a company gain a competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is a firm’s ability to do something better, faster, cheaper, or uniquely, when compared with rival firms in the market.
DISADVANTAGES
Organisations are confronted with many information management problems and issues. In many ways, the growth of electronic information (rather than paper) has only worsened these issues over the last decade or two.
Common information management problems or advantaneges include:
• Large number of disparate information management systems.
• Little integration or coordination between information systems.
• Range of legacy systems requiring upgrading or replacement.
• Direct competition between information management systems.
• No clear strategic direction for the overall technology environment.
• Limited and patchy adoption of existing information systems by staff.
• Poor quality of information, including lack of consistency, duplication, and out-of-date information.
• Little recognition and support of information management by senior management.
• Limited resources for deploying, managing or improving information systems.
• Lack of enterprise-wide definitions for information types and values (no corporate-wide taxonomy).
• Large number of diverse business needs and issues to be addressed.
• Lack of clarity around broader organisational strategies and directions.
• Difficulties in changing working practices and processes of staff.
• Internal politics impacting on the ability to coordinate activities enterprise-wide.
CONCLUSION
Implementing information technology solutions in a complex and ever-changing organisational environment is never easy.
The challenges inherent in information management projects mean that new approaches need to be taken, if they are to succeed.
This article has outlined ten key principles of effective information management. These focus on the organisational and cultural changes required to drive forward improvements.
The also outline a pragmatic, step-by-step approach to implementing solutions that starts with addressing key needs and building support for further initiatives. A focus on adoption then ensures that staff actually use the solutions that are deployed.

REFERENCES
http://mays.tamu.edu/info/what-is-mis/
• • Establishing and Managing Management Information Systems in Developing Countries” by Dr. Chris Prince Udochukwu Njoku.
• • E. Oz (2002). Management Information System’s. Course Technology (3rd ed.). p. 2. information system does not have to include electronic equipment
• • O’Brien, J (1999). Management Information Systems – Managing Information Technology in the Internetworked Enterprise. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-112373-3.
• • http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/computer-and-information-systems-managers.htm#tab-2
• • Laudon, Kenneth C.; Laudon, Jane P. (2009). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (11 ed.). Prentice Hall/CourseSmart. p. 164.
• Transaction processing systems (TPS) collect and record the routine transactions of an organization. Examples of such systems are sales order entry, hotel reservations, payroll, employee record keeping, and shipping.

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