EXPLAIN HOW HARDWARE HAS IMPROVE THE EFFIENCY AND REDUCING THE COST OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA


INTRODUCTION
Hardware use in education also known as Educational technology refers to the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology:
• educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning
• educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange
• educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS)
• educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called “Computer Studies” or “Information and Communication Technology (ICT)”
Related terms
Educational technology is an inclusive term for the tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology.[3]
However, modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today.[4] Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology, information and communication technology (ICT) in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI),[9] internet-based training (IBT), flexible learning, web-based training (WBT), online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms), m-learning, and digital education.
Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates, who point up particular potential distinctions. However, these descriptive terms individually emphasize a particular digitization approach, component or delivery method.[5] For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, but is otherwise indistinguishable in principle from educational technology. In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular “narrowly defined” aspect that was initially emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology.[5] For example, “virtual learning” in a narrowly defined semantic sense implies entering the environmental simulation within a virtual world,[10][11] for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[12][13] In practice, a “virtual education course” refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. “Virtual” is used in that broader way to describe a course that is not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated “virtually” with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn. Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, and videoconferencing.[14]
Bernard Luskin, an educational technology pioneer, advocated that the “e” of e-learning should be interpreted to mean “exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational” in addition to “electronic.”[15] Parks suggested that the “e” should refer to “everything, everyone, engaging, easy”.[16] These broad interpretations focus on new applications and developments, as well as learning theory and media psychology
EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level. The education system is divided into Kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education.
The formal education system in Nigeria includes:
• 6 years of primary schooling
• 3 years of junior secondary schooling
• 3 years of senior secondary schooling, and
• 4 years of university education, finally directing toward a bachelor’s level degree in the majority of the subjects.
HARDWARE IN NIGERIA EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
Hardware use in education is not restricted to high technology. Nonetheless, electronic educational technology, also called e-learning, has become an important part of society today, comprising an extensive array of digitization approaches, components and delivery methods. For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, but is otherwise indistinguishable in principle from educational technology.
Hardware use in education is the effective use of technological tools in learning. As a concept, it concerns an array of tools, such as media, machines and networking hardware, as well as considering underlying theoretical perspectives for their effective application.
Hardware use in education includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology applications and processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD-ROM, and computer-based learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web-based learning. Information and communication systems, whether free-standing or based on either local networks or the Internet in networked learning, underlie many e-learning processes.
Theoretical perspectives and scientific testing influence instructional design. The application of theories of human behavior to educational technology derives input from instructional theory, learning theory, educational psychology, media psychology and human performance technology.
Scope
Hardware use in education, also known as educational technology refers to the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology:
• educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning
• educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange
• educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS)
• educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called “Computer Studies” or “Information and Communication Technology (ICT)”
BENEFITS OF USING HARDWARE
Benefits of incorporating hardware into learning may include:
• Improved open access to education, including access to full degree programs
• Better integration for non-full-time students, particularly in continuing education,
• Improved interactions between students and instructors,[133]
• Provision of tools to enable students to independently solve problems,
• Acquisition of technological skills through practice with tools and computers.
• No age-based restrictions on difficulty level, i.e. students can go at their own pace.
• In 2010, 70.3% of American family households had access to the internet. In 2013, according to Canadian Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission Canada, 79% of homes have access to the internet. Students can access and engage with numerous online resources at home.

CONCLUSION
Hardware use in education and e-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self-paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor-led, synchronous learning. It is suited to distance learning and in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, which is termed blended learning. Educational hardware is used by learners and educators in homes, schools (both K-12 and higher education), businesses, and other settings.

REFERENCES
• UBEC. “About UBEC. Universal Basic Education Commission”. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
• • “Nigeria Education Profile”. U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Nigeria. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
• • “World data on Education” (PDF). UNESCO-IBE. 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
• • “Vocational education in Nigeria”. UNESCO-UNEVOC. 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
• • http://www.iscresearch.com/
• • http://www.iscresearch.com/information/isc-news.aspx
• • http://www.iscresearch.com/information/isc-news.aspx
• • http://www.economist.com/news/international/21636757-english-language-schools-once-aimed-expatriates-now-cater-domestic-elites-new
• • http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDRS/EXTWDR2012/0,,contentMDK:23004468~pagePK:64167689~piPK:64167673~theSitePK:7778063,00.html
• • Schultz, T.P. (2002). “Why Governments should Invest More to Educate Girls” World Development, Vol. 30 No.2 Pp 207 – 225.
• • Nussbaum, Martha (2003) “Women’s Education: A Global Challenge” Sign:: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 2003, vol. 29, no. 2 Pp 325 – 355.
• Aliu, S, (2001). “The Competitive Drive, New Technologies and Employment: The Human Capital Link”. A Paper presented at the Second Tripartite Conference of Manpower Planners. Chelsea Hotel, Abuja.

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