DISCUSS THE PSYCHOLOGY EFFECT OF HEALTH ON PATIENTS
Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the problem created by use of the word “complete” Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health.
While a patient is any recipient of health care services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physiotherapist, physician, physician assistant, advanced practice registered nurse, psychologist, podiatrist, veterinarian, or other health care provider.
Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences. The term “healthy” is also widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person’s surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background, lifestyle, and economic, social conditions, and spirituality; these are referred to as “determinants of health.” Studies have shown that high levels of stress can affect human health.
EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS ON THE PATIENT
Individuals with psychological disorders are at greater risk for decreased quality of life, educational difficulties, lowered productivity and poverty, social problems, vulnerability to abuse, and additional health problems. Education is often compromised when early-onset mental disorders prevent individuals from completing their education or successfully pursuing a career. Kessler et al. (1995) found that individuals with a psychological disorder were significantly less likely to complete high school, enter college, or receive a college degree, compared to their peers without mental illness. In addition, psychological disorders result in lowered individual productivity due to unemployment, missed work, and reduced productivity at work. Reduced earnings and decreased employment potential put mentally ill individuals at an increased risk of poverty.
Psychological disorders can also contribute to other health problems and stressors. For instance, patients with comorbid depression (depression co-occurring with another health condition) are three times less likely to adhere to medical treatment regimens than are non-depressed patients.
EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS ON FAMILIES/CAREGIVERS
The burden of caring for a mentally ill individual often falls on the patient’s immediate family or relatives. Families and caregivers of individuals with psychological disorders are often unable to work at full capacity due to the demands of caring for a mentally ill individual, leading to decreased economic output and a reduction in household income. Loss of income and the financial costs of caring for a mentally ill person put these households at an increased risk of poverty. Family members may also experience significant and chronic stress due to the emotional and physical challenges of caring for a mentally ill family member. Although the experience of caring for mentally ill relatives varies among families and cultures,
EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS ON SOCIETY
Although the specific societal impact of mental illness varies among cultures and nations, untreated mental illness has significant costs to society. In 2001, the WHO estimated that health problems cost developed nations between three and four % of their GNP (gross national product).
In addition, psychological effects of health issues on patients can exacerbate other public health issues, increasing the burden on national economies and impeding international public health efforts. In 2001, at least five to ten million people worldwide used intravenous drugs, and five to ten % of new HIV infections were due to transmission via intravenous drug use.
Some other psychological effects of health on patients can be outline below;
• It would lead to reduction in family income if the patient is the working bread winner of the house
• It would lead to serious emotional and nervous breakdown
• It could pile up pressure on family members when treatment bills begin to sour higher.
• The mental health of the patient may be affected, thus leading to isolation
• It could lead to the death of the patient if not properly handle by health experts.
• Where it is not properly reported to a counselor or an health expert, it could deteriorate to the point of affecting other person close by.
The physical healthcare environment is capable of affecting patients. This concept of ‘healing environments’ refers to the psychological impact of environmental stimuli through sensory perceptions. It excludes more physiological effects such as those produced by ergonomic (i.e. fall prevention) or facilitative (i.e. hygiene-related) variables. The importance of an atmosphere in the healthcare environment that promotes the health and well-being of patients is evident, but this environment should not negatively affect healthcare personnel. The physical healthcare environment is part of the personnel’s ‘workscape’. This can make the environment an important determinant of subjective work-related outcomes like job satisfaction and well-being, as well as of objective outcomes like absenteeism or quality of care. In order to effectively build or renovate healthcare facilities, it is necessary to pay attention to the needs of both patients and healthcare personnel.
The WHO recommends that developing and developed nations adopt more comprehensive preventative and interventional mental health programs to reduce the negative effects of illness on patients and their local and global communities.
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