An organization can be conceptualized as a collection of individuals deliberately structured within identifiable boundaries to achieve predetermined goals.”
• Organizations are social entities
• All organizations have a structure
• Organizations are designed to achieve specific goals
• Organizations have identifiable boundaries
• Organizations exist in a relatively permanent basis
• All formal organizations use specific knowledge (or technology) to perform work-related activities.
These features are visible in most organizations. In general, formal organizations are the means by which we produce and supply a variety of goods and services. In this text, I also use the terms “enterprise,” “corporation,” “firm,” and “company,” synonymously, although I recognize that each has a particular legal connotation.
Every organization has various types of goals. “Organizational goals are desired states of affairs or preferred results that organizations attempt to realize and achieve” (Amitai Etzioni). The idea of organizational goals has a long history in economics, in which the classic position posits an entrepreneur or ownership group which in turn establishes the goals of the firm. Alternatively, these goals may represent a consensus arrived at by all members of the organization.
Organizational Resources are all assets that are available to a firm for use during the production process. The four basic types of organizational resources are human, monetary, raw materials and Capital. Organizational resources are combined, used, and transformed into finished products during the production process.

Process of Organizational Resources
Human resources are the people who work for an organization. Their skills and knowledge are invaluable to the managers. Monetary resources are amounts of money used by managers to pay for goods and services for the organization. Raw materials are the elements used directly to manufacture products. Examples of raw materials would be the wood, rubber, metal and lead used to make a pencil. Capital resources are the machines used during the manufacturing process. Modern machines can greatly improve the efficiency of the manufacturing process. If an organization uses old obsolete machinery it may not be able to compete with an organization using more efficient machinery.
The organization is where resources come together. Organizations use different resources to accomplish goals. The major resources used by organizations are often described as follow:
(1) Human resources,
(2) Financial resources,
(3) Physical resources, and
(4) Information resources.
Managers are responsible for acquiring and managing the resources to accomplish goals. Human resource is systematic process of training and growth, by which individual gain apply knowledgeable insight and attitude to manage organization, work effectively. It emphasize the opportunity to apply ones knowledge and need to learn and grow by so doing knowledge is meaningless unless there is opportunity to apply it and this is achieved through exposure.
Human resource development as a theory is a framework for the expansion of human capital within an organization through the development of both the organization and individual to achieve performance improvement. Wikipedia, (2012). Adam Smith states “the capacities of individual depended on their access to education”. It is the integrated use of training; organization and career develop effort to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organization to perform current and future job through planned learning activities. It is the organized activities arranged within an organization in order to improve performance and or perform general growth for the purpose of improving the jobs, the individual or the organization. It includes planning and development, careers development, organization development.
According to Susan, (2012), Human Resources and its Development is a frame work for helping employees develop their personal and organization skills, knowledge and abilities. Training on the other hand is an organizational efforts aimed at helping an employee to acquire basis skills required for the effective and efficient execution of the functions for which he or she is hired. That is having focuses on Technical skills, supervisory skills, and relatively specific areas of accounting methods, material management and planning techniques

The term management can be and often is used in several different ways. Mary Parker Follett, described management as “the art of getting things done through people.” From Peter Drucker’s viewpoint, managers give direction to their organizations, provide leadership, and decide how to use organizational resources to accomplish goals. The term management in this thesis refers to the definition of management described by Richard L. Daft:
“Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources”
There are two important ideas in this definition:
(1) The four functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling and
(2) The attainment of organization goals in an effective and efficient manner.
Management is needed in all types of organized activities. Moreover, management principles are applicable to all types of organizations, including profit-seeking organizations (industrial firms, banks, insurance companies, small business, etc.) and not-for-profit organizations (governmental organizations, health care organizations. educations organizations, churches, etc.). Any group of two or more people working to achieve a goal and having resources at its disposal is engaged in management. Obviously, a manager’s job is somewhat different in different types of organizations, exists in unique environments, and uses different technology. However, all organizations need the common basic activities: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Management is also universal in that it uses a systematic body of knowledge including economics, sociology, and laws. This knowledge can be applied to all organizations, whether business, or government, or religious, and it is applicable at all levels of management in same organizations.

The objective of human resource manpower development is to provide a framework for employees to develop their competencies necessary for individual and organizational efficiency and productivity as well as career growth. The employer is responsible for devising programs geared toward an employee’s career development and job skills acquisition after employment through training, performance management and organization development. Manpower development is typically a part of the organization’s human resource strategy and aims to maximize human capital potential so as to attain strategic business objectives
The function of management is to plan, organize, staff, lead, and control. Every one of these functions is influenced to a great degree by how much money there is. Managers and programme staff simply cannot carry out their assigned responsibilities effectively without understanding their financial constraints.
Managers need to have some means for knowing what is happening with respect to their financial resources if they are to make informed management decisions. The notion that leaders of extension organizations are accountable to funding partners is one of the reasons managers need to keep track of how money is spent. The organization will be expected to report how much money there was, how much was spent, what it was spent for, and how much is left.
This responsibility is carried out by installing and managing a financial accounting system. That system may well be automated at some point, but a manual system will serve most needs at the outset. But regardless of how reports are produced and records maintained, they should be accurate and produced in a timely fashion so that staff can base their decisions on good information. A number of acceptable computer software programmes are available to meet this accounting need. It is generally unnecessary for most organizations to spend time and resources designing and implementing a unique system.

Materials Management is the planning, directing, controlling and coordinating those activities which are concerned with materials and inventory requirements, from the point of their inception to their introduction into the manufacturing process.
It begins with the determination of materials quality and quantity and ends with its issuance to production to meet customer’s demand as per schedule and at the lowest cost.
Thus, material and machines in the set up of organizational resources is an important function of an organisation covering various aspects of input process, i.e., it deals with raw materials, procurement of machines and other equipment’s necessary for the production process and spare parts for the maintenance of the plant. Thus in a production process materials management can be considered as an preliminary to transformation process.
It involves planning and programming for the procurement of material and capital goods of desired quality and specification at reasonable price and at the required time.
It is also concerned with market exploration for the items to be purchased to have up to date information, stores and stock control, inspection of the material received in the enterprise, transportation and material handling operations related to materials and many other functions. In the words of Bethel, “Its responsibility end when the correct finished product in proper condition and quantity passes to the consumer.”
Materials and machines contributes to survival and profits of an organization by providing adequate supply of materials at the lowest possible costs to the firm production capacity
The fundamental objectives of its activities can be:
Correct specification of material and components is determined. Also the material requirement in agreement with sales programme is assessed. This can be done by analysing the requisition order of the buying department. With this standardisation one may have lower cost and the task of procurement, replacement etc. may be easier.
It should endeavor to keep the operating costs low and increase the profits without making any concessions in quality.
(iii) Receiving and controlling material safely and in good condition.
(iv) Issue material upon receipt of appropriate authority.
(v) Identification of surplus stocks and taking appropriate measures to produce it.
The outcome of all these objectives can be listed as given below:
(i) Regular uninterrupted supply of raw-materials to ensure continuity of production.
(ii) By providing economy in purchasing and minimising waste it leads to higher productivity.
(iii) To minimise storage and stock control costs.
(iv) By minimising cost of production to increase profits.
(v) To purchase items of best quality at the most competitive price.

Resources are money-derived. You can spend money and immediately acquire a resource. For example, a book is a resource because you can immediately purchase it. A physical server is a resource because you can buy one and have it shipped to you. Thus, computers joined in the fray of increasing production and reduction in time spent by man for manufacturing and general production of goods and services. However, without man and materials, machines will be useless. They need to be operated by man and fed with materials. That again is a doubtless fact. Money Without money, no venture or enterprise can motivate workers, get quality and sufficient materials, get the right machines and maintain them or even ensure that time is properly managed. Money management, when not properly organized has been the most known factor involved in collapse of enterprises in history. The quantity and quality of money expended in ventures have a direct bearing on the fruitfulness of same over time. Accounts department have been revolutionaries over the years, by man, to ensure maximum operations of surviving business organizations. Where there is not enough money, no good workers, materials, or machines can be employed or purchased or acquired. In other words, such a venture will be wasting its time existing in the first place.


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