I.INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION AND ATHLETE PERFORMANCE
Motivation is a theoretical construct, used to explain behavior. Motives are hypothetical constructs, used to explain why people do what they do, for example, when they use some strategy to achieve a goal. According to Maehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are”. Wikipedia readers will have a motive (or motives) for reading an article, even if such motives are complex and difficult to pinpoint. At the other end of the range of complexity, hunger is frequently the motive for seeking out and consuming food.
Athletic Performance could mean Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
Motivation is the foundation all athletic effort and accomplishment. Without your desire and determination to improve your sports performances, all of the other mental factors, confidence, intensity, focus, and emotions, are meaningless. To become the best athlete you can be, you must be motivated to do what it takes to maximize your ability and achieve your goals.
Motivation, simply defined, is the ability to initiate and persist at a task. To perform your best, you must want to begin the process of developing as an athlete and you must be willing to maintain your efforts until you have achieved your goals. Motivation in sports is so important because you must be willing to work hard in the face of fatigue, boredom, pain, and the desire to do other things. Motivation will impact everything that influences your sports performance: physical conditioning, technical and tactical training, mental preparation, and general lifestyle including sleep, diet, school or work, and relationships.
The reason motivation is so important is that it is the only contributor to sports performance over which you have control. My There are three things that affect how well you perform. First, your ability, which includes your physical, technical, tactical, and mental capabilities. Because ability is something you are born with, you can’t change your ability so it is outside of your control.
Second, the difficulty of the competition influences performance. Contributors to difficulty include the ability of the opponent and external factors such as an “away game” crowd and weather such as temperature, wind, and sun. You have no control over these factors
Playing sports at any level of competition, from pickup games in your backyard to collegiate and professional levels, provides many benefits. From improving cardiovascular health to improving your feelings of self-esteem, sports can impact your life in significant ways. But your success in sports, and even what you can expect to get out of the experience, is dependent on many different factors. Both mental and physical factors affect your performance in sports, so if you believe your performance is lagging, try to consider as many factors as you can as possible causes. Motivation can influence athlete on the following ways;
1. Muscular Strength and Endurance
Every task you can imagine in sports, from throwing a ball to jumping over a hurdle, involves the action of your muscles. Some sports, such as power lifting, require a high level of muscular strength to produce a brief but powerful force. Others, such as marathon running, require incredible muscular endurance to sustain the strength to move your body for hours at a time. You can improve your muscular strength and endurance by practicing your particular sport, as well as working out in the weight room. A research review from the December 2004 issue of the “Journal of Exercise Physiology Online” suggests that performing workouts with heavier weight and a lower number of repetitions are better for strength, while working with moderate weight and higher numbers of repetitions is preferable for muscular endurance.
2. Cardiovascular Capacity
The muscles that you can see aren’t the only muscles that impact your sports performance. Your heart, which is part of your cardiovascular system, is crucial because it ensures that oxygenated blood reaches muscles throughout your body that help you run, jump and throw. To improve your cardiovascular capacity, perform cardio exercises such as running, swimming, aerobics or even dancing or dance-inspired workout programs such as Zumba.
Being confident in yourself, your teammates and your skills is vital for sports performance. Having confidence will give you a positive attitude and help you visualize and achieve success. If you are not confident that you can beat your opponents or improve upon your previous performance, your negativity may prove you right. According to Jim Taylor, Ph.D., confidence is “is the single most important mental factor in sports,” so you should not overlook this factor.
4. Strategic Thinking
Many sports are just as much a mental game as they are a physical one, so strategic thinking is an important factor for success. Thinking strategically means you understand how players interact on the field or court and how you can employ plays that will help you defeat your opponents. By anticipating the moves of your opponents and reacting to plays as they develop, you can greatly improve your chances of winning.
Finally, motivation will impact performance. It is also the only factor over which you have control. Motivation will directly impact the level of success that you ultimately achieve. If you are highly motivated to improve your performances, then you will put in the time and effort necessary to raise your game. Motivation will also influence the level of performance when you begin a competition. If they’re competing against someone of nearly equal skill, it will not be ability that will determine the outcome. Rather, it will be the athlete who works the hardest, who doesn’t give up, and who performs their best when it counts. In other words, the athlete who is most motivated to win. Motivational models are central to game design, because without motivation a player will not be interested in progressing further within a game. Several models for game play motivations have been proposed, including Richard Bartle’s. Jon Radoff has proposed a four-quadrant model of game play motivation that includes cooperation, competition, immersion and achievement. The motivational structure of games is central to the gamification trend, which seeks to apply game-based motivation to business applications.
2. EFFECTS OF MOTOR EDUCABILITY OF THE ATHELETE.
Human beings use movement to learn about their world, to function in the world as they grow and mature, and to maintain healthy bodies. Individuals must learn to move and at the same time move to learn. Children explore their worlds through movement and make fundamental links between action and reality through movement.
Understanding how individuals learn motor skills (motor learning) i.e using motor educability requires an appreciation for the following factors.
• Motor Development: how the capacity of children to produce motor skills naturally matures
• Motor Control: how the human neurological system controls movement
• Sport Psychology: how to motivate individuals to want to learn motor skills and participate in sport and exercise
• Pedagogy for Physical Education: how the learning environment can be organized to optimize the acquisition of motor skills
Motor educability focuses on the most effective ways to facilitate the acquisition of skills by understanding or manipulating three aspects of the learning process for motor skills, as illustrated in Figure 1.
Motor educability research has held a predominant place in both physical education and psychology for more than 100 years. The early work of Robert Woodworth (1899) examined the conditions that affect movement accuracy and began a long history of research in this area. In the early twenty-first century, two fundamental approaches (models) describe the acquisition of motor skills and the challenges that face the learner. The information-processing focus is grounded by the work of such researchers as James Adams (1971), Steven Keele (1968) and Richard Schmidt (1975). An alternative explanation of motor skill acquisition comes from a dynamical systems approach followed by Karl Newell (1991) and Walter, Lee, and Sternad (1998). This approach emphasizes self-organization as a function of specific control parameters and environmental conditions as a way to understanding motor behavior.
Research from motor educability focuses on understanding how individuals acquire and perform motor skills, and serves as the basis for informed practice in such professional fields as physical education, occupation therapy, sports medicine, and physical therapy. In order to illustrate the contributions of motor learning to professional practice, three examples have been selected.
Providing effective models/demonstrations. Historically it was believed that providing ideal models was the best way to transmit information to learners. This assumption suggested that teachers or professional models should provide demonstrations to facilitate the acquisition of motor skills. By the early twenty-first century, research had shown that providing “learning models” who are similar to the peer learners, and who are shown modifying their skills, are more effective than the traditional perfect model. In practice, this suggests that models who are individuals, similar to the learner, should be shown trying to learn a motor skill, receiving feedback, and improving as a result of this feedback. Teachers should therefore focus on selecting classmate children to model, and to provide feedback that allows the models to improve during the process of providing the demonstration.
Practice variability (contextual interference).
Learning environments that provide reinforcement for the immediate performance of desired skills has often been the focus of physical education programs. The short-term benefits of practice that result does not take into account the need to consider the long-term benefits of various practice strategies.
The learning environment must be structured with motor educability in mind. it influences activity initiation and persistence. Self-motivation is also an important dimension in the forethought phase of self-regulation (Zimmerman, 2000). Many of the recommendations are cast in self-determination theory because teachers, therapists and athletes can influence factors such as achievement and choice. An extensive body of research supports these factors as affecting perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness, the three needs posited in self-determination theory. In other words, these factors increase or decrease intrinsic motivation via modifying perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Vallerand, 2007).
1. Maehr, Martin L; Mayer, Heather (1997). “Understanding Motivation and Schooling: Where We’ve Been, Where We Are, and Where We Need to Go”. Educational Psychology Review 9 (44).
2. Stretton, Hugh; Orchard, Lionel (1994). Public goods, public enterprise, public choice : theoretical foundations of the contemporary attack on government (1. publ. ed.). Basingstoke u.a.: Macmillan u.a. ISBN 0333607244.
3. Wright, Robert (1995). The moral animal : evolutionary psychology and everyday life (1st Vintage books ed. ed.). New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-76399-6.
4. Ryan, Richard; Edward L. Deci (2000). “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions”. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25 (1): 54–67. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020.
5. Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., Tonks, S., & Perencevich, K. C. (2004). Children’s motivation for reading: Domain specificity and instructional influences. Journal of Educational Research, 97, 299-309.
6. Dewani, Vijay. “Motivation”. slideshare. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
7. Mark R. Lepper, David Greene and Richard Nisbet, “Undermining Children’s Intrinsic Interest with Extrinsic Reward; A Test of ‘Overjustification’ Hypothesis, ” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 28, 1973, 129‐37.
8. Barbara A. Marinak and Linda B. Gambrell, “Intrinsic Motivation and Rewards: What Sustains Young Children’s Engagement with Text?, ” Literacy Research and Instruction 47, 2008, 9-26.
9. Wilson, T. D., & Lassiter, G. D. (1982). Increasing intrinsic interest with superfluous extrinsic constraints. Journal of personality and social psychology, 42(5), 811-819.
10. Cherry, Kendra. “Introduction to Operant Conditioning”. About.com. Retrieved 22 March 2013.