THE EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON NIGERIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN RELATION TO ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world.
Adult education is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained learning activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values. Adult education can take place through “extension” school (e.g., Harvard Extension School) or “school of continuing education” (e.g. Columbia School of Continuing Education). Adult education frequently occurs at schools, colleges and universities, libraries, and lifelong learning centers. The practice is at times referred to as andragogy to distinguish it from pedagogy.
Globalization is deeply controversial, however. Proponents of globalization argue that it allows poor countries and their citizens to develop economically and raise their standards of living, while opponents of globalization claim that the creation of an unfettered international free market has benefited multinational corporations in the Western world at the expense of local enterprises, local cultures, and common people. Resistance to globalization has therefore taken shape both at a popular and at a governmental level as people and governments try to manage the flow of capital, labor, goods, and ideas that constitute the current wave of globalization.
To find the right balance between benefits and costs associated with globalization, citizens of all nations need to understand how globalization works and the policy choices facing them and their societies. Globalization101.org tries to provide an accurate analysis of the issues and controversies regarding globalization, without the slogans or ideological biases generally found in discussions of the topics.
EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON NIGERIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The internationalization of higher education can be linked to various internal and external changes in the international system. Externally, there have been changes in the labor market, which have resulted in calls for more knowledge and skilled workers, and workers with deeper understandings of languages, cultures and business methods all over the world. Education in Nigeria is becoming more invaluable to individuals. In today’s Nigeria’s educational environment, education provides individuals with a better chance of employment, which in turn leads to a better lifestyle, power and status. The modification of knowledge as intellectual property has occurred particularly with regard to connecting the intellectual work of universities with community, business, and government interests and priorities. While such a tendency is often welcomed by so-called applied disciplines, it causes tensions between the more profitable applied subjects of science and technology, and those of basic theoretical enquiry, particularly in arts and humanities. It also creates institutional winners and losers.
IN RELATION TO ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM
Adult education is concerned not with preparing people for life, but rather with helping people to live more successfully. Thus if there is to be an overarching function of the adult education enterprise, it is to assist adults to increase competence, or negotiate transitions, in their social roles (worker, parent, retiree etc.), to help them gain greater fulfilment in their personal lives, and to assist them in solving personal and community problems. (Darkenwald and Merriam 1982: 9)
Because of dramatic global educational gains, adult education school graduation has now become the norm in most industrialized countries. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reports that by 2009, the Nigerian federation had fallen from 1st in Africa to 8th in the proportion of young adults (ages 18 to 24) receiving a high school diploma within the calendar year. This lower position does not indicate a drop in Nigeria’s graduation levels; rather, it testifies to the success other nations have had ambitiously expanding their secondary school systems and raising their graduation rates. Although the country actually showed a modest increase in secondary school graduation from 2005 to 2009, this achievement is dwarfed by the striking gains of a number of countries. Among the 28 African countries with comparable data for 2009, Nigeria ranked 12th in the percent of the overall population (including adults over the age of 24) achieving secondary school graduation, which is 15 or more percentage points behind countries such as Portugal, Slovenia, Finland, Japan, Ireland, and Norway (OECD, 2011).this is a growing sign of how globalization has impacted on the adult system of education in the country with far reaching consequences.
The effects of globalization on Nigerian educational system have been far-reaching. While the living standards of the world are still highly uneven, 400 million people have moved out of extreme poverty since 1980—more than at any other time in human history. The growth and urbanization of a global middle class is creating huge new markets for goods and services of all kinds. Since 2000, despite frequent political and economic crises that cause it to dip temporarily, the global economy has been expanding (Zakaria, 2008). The world’s economic center of gravity is also shifting: 50 percent of growth in gross domestic product (GDP) occurs outside the developed world, a fact that is fundamentally changing business models. Already, one in five U.S. jobs is tied to exports, and that proportion will increase (U.S. Census Bureau, 2004).
Globalization is often viewed as a zero-sum game in which one nation’s economic growth comes at the expense of another. But the reality is more complicated than that. Competition for industries and for high-skill, high-wage jobs has undoubtedly become more intense; especially adults who now prefer to go back to school and acquire a degree.
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