1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
The provision of adequate facilities, supplies and equipment are as important as providing adequate incentive for the athletes, but the maintenance of such adequate facilities, supplies and equipment use by many often constitute a managerial problems. Traditionally, at the primary schools level, facilities, supplies and equipment management are usually the responsibilities of those persons who are in-charge of physical education and sports programme. The facilities for which they are responsible include outdoor facilities – such as playgrounds, pools, skate parks, courts and fields – and indoor facilities – such as locker and shower rooms, natatorium, racket, sport courts, weight and exercise rooms, arenas, climbing walls, and gymnasiums, their supplies and equipment. Facilities, supplies and equipment management includes not only the effective scheduling, operation, and maintenance of such facilities, supplies and equipment but also, at times, planning new structures to keep pace with the demand for participation in physical education and sports programmes of the school.(Crompton 2005; Cohen 1996; Flynn 1993; Pate et al 1997).The primary school physical education programme is characterized by individual and lifetime sports as well as by team game activities. This emphasis, together with the popularity of recreational and interscholastic sport, and the fact that facilities, supplies and equipment are typically needed for recreational use. The cost of materials and labour is rising as a result of inflation, making it very difficult for new capital building projects to go forward. High interest rules make it difficult to get bond issues passed for facility construction. Energy conservation and sustained maintenance and repair costs must also be taken into consideration. Supplies are those materials that are expendable and have to be replaced at frequent intervals such as shuttle cocks, tennis balls, while physical education equipment refers to those items that are not considered expendable, but are used for a period of years, such as parallel bars, volleyball standards, soccer goals, strength training equipment are need all needs to be considered in the managerial budgeting of the sports administrator.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The frequent mass failures witness in WAEC examinations in the country can be link to ineffective planning. Administrators and managers of primary schools in the area fails to see monitoring as a vital tool in primary school administrative effectiveness and this have affected students and the overall performance of the schools. This was due to mal-administration and the bottle necks now tied to procurement policies in the area.
These menace slowed the overall development of primary schools in the area. Therefore, one need to ask, will the introduction of facilities and equipment in the primary schools reduce the problems of ineffectiveness in the administration as well as the system. What is the impact and effects, to what extent are it used by the school administrators and students, these questions constitute the problems of the study.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to examine the implications of lack of facilities and equipment in our primary schools. This study will
1. Give reasons for the mass failures in secondary schools
2. Determine the benefits of student’s success in examinations.
3. Identify the challenges in modern day facilities provision and lastly
4. Examine the strategies for salvaging the situation.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
1. What are the implications of mass failures in our schools?
2. What are the benefits of large student success?
3. What are the challenges’ of examination failures?
4. What are the strategies for remedying the situation?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will reveal the reasons for the mass failure of Nigerian candidates in WAEC examinations especially in Port Harcourt LGA. The study will help highlight the challenges associated with it and adopt strategies for it remedies in the schools.
Lastly it is hoped that the study will awaken the consciousness of the general public on the need for students improvements in our secdondary schools.
1.6 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is delimited to the mass failure of Nigerian candidates in waec examination in portharcourt council area. This research is delimited to identifying the causes and remedies of mass failures in waec examinations in the council area.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Literature review related to this study will be reviewed under the following sub-headings;
The role of WAEC is that of standard-bearer. It tests candidates based o n the syllabus and ensures that standards are maintained. The problem of mass failure in WAEC examinations should therefore be located where it really belongs and that is the classrooms.
A close look at the public schools and what goes on there shows that nothing good can come out of most of the schools as they do not have facilities to prepare the candidates for the WASSCE.
Most of the candidates are not prepared for the examination and so fail in large numbers or get their results cancelled for cheating.
Schools are acquiring computers and Internet access at rapid rates. Teachers need to learn how to operate the computers and integrate them effectively into their instruction. Understanding the process that teachers go through to infuse technology into their instruction is essential to help facilitate the successful integration of computers into classrooms.
This is a descriptive case study of five teachers’ perceptions of the process of implementing technology into their teaching. The teachers’ thoughts were collected through a variety of data collection methods including interviews, observations of both class periods and planning sessions, and e-mail correspondence. Profiles of the context in which each of the teachers were working are described along with their perceptions of the process they have experienced in integrating technology into their instruction.
Time and access issues are the overarching issues which computer integration is dependent upon. The time and access issues apply both to school and home settings for teachers. Integrating computers into their teaching takes so much time that teachers often feel like a first-year teacher rethinking, redesigning, and creating curriculum activities which utilize computer technology effectively within the classroom setting. Time and support need to be provided to teachers at the planning stage of the lesson. The time teachers have to practice and plan technology lessons is a critical factor in determining if computers will be used effectively to achieve instructional objectives.
Teachers tend to learn by default rather than by design. They learn software applications and machine operating systems as they encounter tasks and glitches rather than through planned or guided instruction. Teachers perceive glitches as just a part of the process of using technology and perpetual in nature. However, teachers have varying amounts of control over solving glitches and can be held up anywhere from five minutes to five months depending on the situation. The computer is a complex teaching tool, however, teachers remain optimistic about its potential positive impact for students in the classroom.
This study deals with methodology adopted in carrying out an effective study. The methodology adopted is discussed under the following sub-heading; Research design, Population, Sample and sampling techniques, Instrumentation, Validity, Reliability, Administration of instrument and methods of data analysis.
3.2. RESEARCH DESIGN
The research design to be adopted for this study will be the descriptive survey research design. This design is adopted because the study deals with or intends to put the options of a sample population and use the findings obtained to refer to the whole population.
3.4. POPULATION OF THE STUDY.
The population for this study will comprise forty (50) secondary schools in Portharcourt Local Government Area.
3.5. SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIGUES
A total of 10 secondary schools will be randomly selected from the 50 secondary schools. A sample of 100 respondents will be selected among the for the study. The researcher made use of the stratified sampling technique in arriving at this.
The instrument that will be used for this study will be self-designed item questionnaire titled, “MASS FAILURE OF NIGERIAN CANDIDATES” (MFNC). The instrument will be structured into two sections A and B. section A will be used to get a demographic details of respondents, while section B will be used for gathering answers to the questionnaire. The questionnaire will contain questions and will be adopted on the modified 4-point likert scale of;
Strongly Agree SA- 4points
Agree A- 3points
Disagree D- 2points
Strongly Disagree SD- 1point
In order to ensure the validity of the instrument, a draft copy will be submitted to the research supervisor for scrutiny so as to ascertain the appropriateness of the language used. Corrections, modifications and amendment made by the supervisor will be used to enhance the content and validity of the instrument.
To ascertain the reliability of the instrument, the test re-test approach will be adopted. Ten (10) copies of the instrument will be administered to respondents outside the actual sample size. Then it will be retrieved and recorded after two weeks. Ten (10) copies again of the instrument will be administered to the same group and their responses will then be correlated using Pearson’s product moment correlation.
3.9. ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENT
The researcher will personally administer the instrument to the respondents and they will be followed up to ensure that they follow the instructions, while the questionnaire will also be collected by the researcher.
3.10. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The data collected will be collated and computed with the use of mean and rank order to analyses the researcher questions. The data obtained will be presented in approaches of weighted mean. For the analysis, items were calculated as stated above. Any score below 2.5 after calculation of the mean would be rejected and above 2.5 will be accepted.
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