POLLUTION AND ITS AQUATIC LIFE


POLLUTION AND ITS AQUATIC LIFE
INTRODUCTION
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff, wind-blown debris and dust. Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients. It is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algal growth.
Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. In this way, the toxins are concentrated upward within ocean food chains. Many particles combine chemically in a manner highly depletive of oxygen, causing estuaries to become anoxic.
When pesticides are incorporated into the marine ecosystem, they quickly become absorbed into marine food webs. Once in the food webs, these pesticides can cause mutations, as well as diseases, which can be harmful to humans as well as the entire food web.
Toxic metals can also be introduced into marine food webs. These can cause a change to tissue matter, biochemistry, behaviour, reproduction, and suppress growth in marine life. Also, many animal feeds have a high fish meal or fish hydrolysate content. In this way, marine toxins can be transferred to land animals, and appear later in meat and dairy products.
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water. Communities of organisms that are dependent on each other and on their environment live in aquatic ecosystems. The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems.
POLLUTION AND AQUATIC LIFE
For centuries the oceans have been treated like sewage dumps. Polluting the oceans is a horrible act and the result can be devastating to all living things. Many people don’t think about that when they go and pollute the beaches. Now it’s time that all people take a stand and help clean up this tragic mess we have made over millions of years. Two- thirds of marine life is endangered now. There are three main reasons why they are all endangered. One reason is that with all the trash and chemicals in the ocean water it becomes difficult for the marine life to breathe. That will kill them really quick. Next, is that many animals like turtles, choke on garbage because they think its food. The last main reason is when toxic waste harms one organism; it will end up harming a whole food chain of marine life. There is a long list of pollutants in the ocean including garbage, toxic waste, vehicle and boating pollution, waste water, oils, farming, and agriculture. The top two major pollutants are toxic waste and chemicals. There are ways to stop some of these polluting habits but they won’t completely stop it for good. Think of how you can help in your own little way. It affects it because the animals will die because of all the pollution also because of what we humans like litter or oil gets thrown into the ocean and kills the fish and other animals in the ocean. When people dump waste or spray chemical sprays anywhere, when there is rain, they get washed to the rivers then straight to the waterfalls then go to the oceans polluting marine life that kills corals, aquatic mammals, fishes, sea birds (that eat fish), sea snakes, crustaceans, amphibians, and reptiles (that eats fish and other sea creatures) Other animals that eat fish will become poisoned because if fish gets poisoned, it wont die it will just keep growing and will become a mutant and, when something eats the mutant, it will get poisoned too and, when a mother eats a mutant (or something else that ate the mutant) will be worse as if she will pass her poison to newborn babies drinking her milk.
CONCLUSION
Pollution is a bad thing that should be stopped. We are killing all marine life. So use environmentally safe sprays. We need to do all we can to help stop pollution. it’s not only killing animals but it’s also killing us, humans. Water Pollution gets into marine animals lungs and kills them. Pollution is just like a poison to us. on contact it kills them. Every year more and more are showing up floating on top of the water dead. We need to stop this.

REFERENCES
1. “Pollution – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary”. Merriam-webster.com. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
2. Spengler, John D.; Sexton, K. A. (1983). “Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective”. Science 221 (4605): 9–17 [p. 9]. doi:10.1126/science.6857273.
3. Hong, Sungmin; et al. (1996). “History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice”. Science 272 (5259): 246–249 [p. 248]. doi:10.1126/science.272.5259.246.
4. David Urbinato (Summer 1994). “London’s Historic “Pea-Soupers””. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2006-08-02.
5. “Deadly Smog”. PBS. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2006-08-02.

CONDUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT IN UNIPORT
INTRODUCTION
The environment of the university of Port Harcourt (UNIPORT) is a very rich one. The University of Port Harcourt, Unique UNIPORT as it is popularly known by her students, staffs and alumni is an institution of higher learning owned by the federal republic of Nigeria. Located in a strategic point along the popular east west road in choba community, a community 20KM northwest of the garden city of Port Harcourt, the oil and gas capital of Nigeria. The university is a foremost center of teaching and research in the oil rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
The University was established in 1975 as a College of the University of Lagos. It attained the full status as a university in 1977 when it gained full autonomous status from the University of Lagos. The University has since grown into a full blown university offering quality education and moral succor to the thousands of youths from the Niger Delta region, the Country and abroad with her motto as “For Enlightenment and Self-Reliance”.

The University of Port Harcourt is on a mission to pursue academic excellence, advancement of knowledge and community service through quality teaching, life-long learning, social inclusion, strengthening civil society and policy-relevant research that addresses the challenges of contemporary society. To achieve this Mission, the University is guided by the spirit of enquiry, self-reliance, fairness, ethical and professional standards of the disciplines. With a vision of being ranked amongst the best universities in Africa, renowned for its teaching, research, creativity and innovation”. While employing the philosophy of total commitment to academic freedom, tolerance, probity, equal opportunity and respect for cultural diversity. The university consists of the three colleges namely:
• College of health sciences consisting of the faculties of basic Medical Sciences, clinical sciences, dentisty and pharmaceutical sciences.
• College of Engineering consisting of faculty of process and energy systems engineering, faculty of infrastructure system engineering and faculty of production power systems and communication engineering.
• College of Natural and Applied Sciences which consists of Faculties of Biological sciences, chemical sciences and physical sciences.
CONCLUSION
The university is housed on three campuses located adjacent to themselves at the intersection of the east west road and NTA-Mgbuoba road. The Campuses are the Choba Park (the take off campus), Delta Park and the University Park (the permanent site).
The university boast of a student strength of between between thirty five to forty thousand (35000 – 40000) and a staff strength of more than ten thousand (10000).

INFRASTRUCTURAL IMPACT IN THE ENVIRONMENT
A road cuts through pristine rainforest to give a community access to the city. A dam creates a reservoir to provide freshwater to a growing town. A platform that is miles from the shoreline gives access to oil reserves deep below the ocean floor.
These are all examples of infrastructure—physical structures that provide the underpinnings for modern society. Infrastructure is a necessary part of the development associated with a growing human population, but it can also have devastating impacts on the environment. The road through the rainforest may fragment habitat or cut off the migration route for an endangered species. The dam may have diverted water from freshwater habitats already struggling through a drought. A spill from the oil platform may have killed marine organisms and left the shoreline polluted.
Environmental concerns are not always considered during the design, planning and construction of infrastructure projects. WWF works with governments, industry and other leaders to encourage the consideration of sustainability in these efforts, including examining innovative ways reduce environmental impact and protecting sensitive habitat that may be irrevocably damaged by these projects.some of the infrastructural impact in the environment can be outline below;
Infrastructure development, notably for residential and commercial purposes, threatens biodiversity
The expansion of the human-built environment into the natural one—infrastructure development—has a significant impact on biodiversity, mainly through the destruction, degradation and fragmentation of natural habitats. It has been identified as a key threat to many bird species, with residential and commercial development posing a particular concern for globally threatened birds.

Energy production and mining is a threat in some areas
the global demand for energy and for minerals and metals is experiencing unprecedented growth. Consequently, extractive development is taking place in areas never before exploited, many of them important for biodiversity. The resulting impacts are wide-ranging: in some areas, high density oil and gas drilling fragments and disturbs natural habitats, in others mountain top removal for coal results in wholesale destruction Offshore, there is the threat of marine pollution. The establishment of remote mines and their associated road networks can facilitate human migration and settlement, triggering habitat degradation, hunting, and further infrastructural development. While many energy and mining companies are developing planning approaches to avoid, mitigate, rehabilitate and even offset their unavoidable negative impacts, there are also many that do not have such policies, and governments do not always have the capacity or commitment to regulate their activities effectively.

Dams and barrages are an increasing threat
Dams, barrages, embankments, canals and other major hydro-engineering schemes may have serious impacts on river-basin ecosystems and their resident populations of birds and other organisms. Large dams in particular have had widespread negative impacts on biodiversity, and have disrupted many existing ecosystem services.

Transport networks can have far-reaching impacts
Transport networks, including roads, railways, shipping lanes and flight paths, are proliferating worldwide. Transport networks can play a leading role in economic development, but poor planning can have far-reaching negative impacts on ecosystems, including destruction and fragmentation of habitats, spread of invasive alien species and direct mortality

Artificial structures kill millions of birds each year
Artificial structures of all kinds, from fences to cell-phone masts, electric pylons and wind farms, pose a direct threat to many birds, particularly those on migration. Huge numbers of birds are killed or injured by collision with these structures. In the case of large birds an additional threat is electrocution on poorly designed power lines. Many casualties are of common species, but collisions and electrocutions also have significant impacts on threatened birds.Often, deaths could be avoided through better design and the use of simple bird-protection devices.

PUBLIC SMOKING & ENVIRONMENT IN AKWA IBOM STATE.
INTRODUCTION
Akwa Ibom is a state in Nigeria named after the Qua Iboe river. It is located in the coastal South-Southern part of the country, lying between latitudes 4°321 and 5°331 North, and longitudes 7°251 and 8°251 East. The State is bordered on the east by Cross River State, on the west by Rivers State and Abia State, and on the South by the Atlantic Ocean and the southernmost tip of Cross River State.
Akwa Ibom is one of Nigeria’s 36 states with a population of over 5 million people and more than 10 million people in diaspora. It was created in 1987 from the former Cross River State and is currently the highest oil and gas producing state in the country. The state’s capital is Uyo with over 500,000 inhabitants . Akwa Ibom has an airport (Akwa Ibom International Airport) and two major sea ports on the Atlantic Ocean with a proposed construction of a world class seaport Ibaka Seaport at Oron. Along with English, the main spoken languages are Ibibio, Annang, Eket, Igbo and Oron languages.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted or inhaled. Most commonly the substance is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant which has been rolled into rice paper into a small, round cylinder called a “cigarette”. This is primarily practiced as a route of administration for what has come to be termed “recreational drug use” because the combustion of the dried plant leaves releases active substances into the body. In the case of cigarette smoking these substances are contained in a mixture of aerosol particles and gasses and include the pharmacologically active alkaloid nicotine; the vaporization creates heated aerosol and gas to form that allows inhalation and deep penetration into the lungs where absorption into the bloodstream of the active substances occurs. In some cultures, smoking is also carried out as a part of various rituals, where participants use it to help induce trance-like states that, they believe, can lead them to “spiritual enlightenment”.
Cigarettes are primarily industrially manufactured but also can be hand-rolled from loose tobacco and rolling paper. Other smoking implements include pipes, cigars, bidis, hookahs, vaporizers, and bongs. It has been suggested that smoking-related disease kills one half of all long term smokers but these diseases may also be contracted by non-smokers. A 2007 report states that, each year, about 4.9 million people worldwide die as a result of smoking.[1]
Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. Tobacco smoking is today by far the most popular form of smoking and is practiced by over one billion people in the majority of all human societies. Less common drugs for smoking include cannabis and opium. Some of the substances are classified as hard narcotics, like heroin, but the use of these is very limited as they are often not commercially available.
The history of smoking can be dated to as early as 5000 BC, and has been recorded in many different cultures across the world. Early smoking evolved in association with religious ceremonies; as offerings to deities, in cleansing rituals or to allow shamans and priests to alter their minds for purposes of divination or spiritual enlightenment. After the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, the practice of smoking tobacco quickly spread to the rest of the world. In regions like India and Sub-Saharan Africa, it merged with existing practices of smoking (mostly of cannabis). In Europe, it introduced a new type of social activity and a form of drug intake which previously had been unknown.
Perception surrounding smoking has varied over time and from one place to another; holy and sinful, sophisticated and vulgar, a panacea and deadly health hazard. Only relatively recently, and primarily in industrialized Western countries, has smoking come to be viewed in a decidedly negative light. Today medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading causes of many diseases such as lung cancer, heart attacks, COPD, erectile dysfunction, and can also lead to birth defects. The inherent health hazards of smoking have caused many countries such as Singapore to institute high taxes on tobacco products and anti-smoking campaigns are launched every year in an attempt to curb tobacco smoking.

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