MEANING OF ALZEHEIMER


1. MEANING OF ALZEHEIMER
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease, is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him.[1] Most often, AD is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer’s can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million people worldwide with AD. Alzheimer’s is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050.
Although Alzheimer’s disease develops differently for every individual, there are many common symptoms. Early symptoms are often mistakenly thought to be ‘age-related’ concerns, or manifestations of stress. In the early stages, the most common symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events, known as short term memory loss. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with tests that evaluate behaviour and thinking abilities, often followed by a brain scan if available; however, examination of brain tissue is required for a definitive diagnosis. As the disease advances, symptoms can include confusion, irritability, aggression, mood swings, trouble with language, and long-term memory loss. As the person’s condition declines they often withdraw from family and society.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ALZEHEIMER AND SENILE DEMENTIA
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person’s ability to carry out daily activities.
AD begins slowly. It first involves the parts of the brain that control thought, memory and language. People with AD may have trouble remembering things that happened recently or names of people they know. A related problem, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), causes more memory problems than normal for people of the same age. Many, but not all, people with MCI will develop AD.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause long term loss of the ability to think and reason clearly that is severe enough to affect a person’s daily functioning. For the diagnosis to be present it must be a change from previous baseline mental function.Dementia becomes more common with age. While only 3% of people between the ages of 65–74 have dementia, 47% of people over the age of 85 have some form of dementia. As more people are living longer, dementia is becoming more common. Dementia is not a specific disease. It’s an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of cases. Vascular dementia, which occurs after a stroke, is the second most common dementia type. But there are many other conditions that can cause symptoms of dementia, including some that are reversible, such as thyroid problems and vitamin deficiencies.

REFERENCES
1. Berchtold NC, Cotman CW. Evolution in the Conceptualization of Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease: Greco-Roman Period to the 1960s. Neurobiology of Aging. 1998;19(3):173–89. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(98)00052-9. PMID 9661992.
2. Brookmeyer R, Gray S, Kawas C. Projections of Alzheimer’s Disease in the United States and the Public Health Impact of Delaying Disease Onset. American Journal of Public Health. 1998;88(9):1337–42. doi:10.2105/AJPH.88.9.1337. PMID 9736873.
3. 2006 prevalence estimate:
 Brookmeyer R, Johnson E, Ziegler-Graham K, Arrighi HM. Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. 2007 [Retrieved 18 June 2008];3(3):186–91. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2007.04.381. PMID 19595937.
 World population prospects: the 2006 revision, highlights [PDF]. 2007 [Retrieved 27 August 2008].
4. “What is Alzheimer’s disease?”. Alzheimers.org.uk. August 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
5. Waldemar G, Dubois B, Emre M, Georges J, McKeith IG, Rossor M, Scheltens P, Tariska P, Winblad B. Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Disorders Associated with Dementia: EFNS Guideline. European Journal of Neurology. 2007;14(1):e1–26. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01605.x. PMID 17222085.
6. “Alzheimer’s diagnosis of AD”. Alzheimer’s Research Trust. Retrieved 29 February 2008.

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