Models are several concepts that can guide the development and review of all types of curricula at both the state and national levels.
Objective model; proposed by Ralph Tyler in 1949, is also referred to as the classical, rational or academic model which contains content that is based on specific objectives (Urebvu, 1990). It follows a logical and sequential as well as shows a relation among curriculum components. The objectives specify the expected learning outcomes in terms of specific measurable behaviors. The model is comprised of four main steps which include, agreeing on broad aims which are analyzed into objectives, secondly, constructing a curriculum to achieve these objectives, followed by the refining of the curriculum in practice through testing its capacity in achieving its objectives, and lastly, communicating the curriculum to implementers through the conceptual framework of the objectives (Urebvu, 1990).
It is important to note that the objective model was an eye opener to the scholars such as Tyler and therefore contributes massively in Tyler’s model of curriculum design and it is for this reason that Tyler’s model of curriculum process is sometimes called the means-objective model. The model is linear in nature, starting from objectives and ending with evaluation. In this model, evaluation is terminal in the sense that, objectives form the basis for the selection and organization of learning experiences. Objectives also form the basis for assessing the curriculum and are derived from the learner’s contemporary life and subject specialist (Tyler, 1949).
Tyler’s model for curriculum designing is based on the following four questions: What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experiences can be provided that is likely to attain these purposes? How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
To Tyler, evaluation is a process by which one matches the initial expectation with the outcomes. It is done at each stage of the curriculum design and content, materials and methodology are derived from the objectives.
Wheeler’s model is a cyclical model. The key elements are analyzing the initial situation, identifying aims and objectives, selecting and organizing content, selecting and organizing learning activities, and selecting an evaluation or assessment process. This model which Wheeler called the circular model has five procedures which are: Selecting an objective, choosing learning experience, choosing content, organizing and integrating learning experience and content, and evaluating.
Wheeler (1967) contends that, aims should be discussed as behaviors referring to the end product of learning which yields the ultimate goals and these ultimate goals can as well be thought of as outcomes, additionally wheeler says that aims are formulated from the general to the specific in curriculum planning. This results in the formulation of objectives at both an enabling and a terminal level. Content is distinguished from the learning experiences which determine that content.
Does the Situational Model bring us any closer to a workable and useful model to guide our curriculum work? Certainly it asks us to consider the context of curriculum and this is important. If we go back to our original view of curriculum as the translation of educational ideas into practice then we simply cannot discount the importance of context and the external and internal factors that impinge on the contexts in which we work. But does the Situational Model lock us into another series of five steps which cannot deal with all the complexity that Holt portrays?
I would argue that we should abandon the search for models. What we could do is to use the work of Skilbeck and others to define the essential Elements of curriculum. These would be
Situational analysis
Statements of intent (aims, objectives, outcomes)
Implementation and organisational strategies
Monitoring and evaluation.

Firstly the cyclical model has a feedback mechanism as compared to the objective model, in the sense that it provides students with ways to measure their progress or accuracy.
Whenever there is new information which needs to be incorporated in the curriculum, the cyclic model readily incorporates it in the curriculum which is never the case in the objective model which seems to be impossible to receive or incorporate more information. This makes the spherical model to be more flexible as compared to the objective model which is more on a rigid side.
The other difference is that cyclical models present the curriculum design process as a continuing activity, which is constantly in a state of change as new information, and practices become available, while in the objective model it is hard to determine continuity is possible or not.
In addition Cyclical models emphasize the importance of Situational Analysis, so that the subsequent curriculum will accurately reflect the needs of the learners for whom it is intended and at the right time and the right place, which is a difficult thing to do in the objective model because of the its rigidity to adjust and suite the intended learners.

Probably the most well-known curriculum model is Ralph Tyler’s Objectives or Rational Planning Model. This is clearly a model for the curriculum or a prescriptive model. It sets out what curriculum workers should do. Tyler’s work Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction was first published in 1949. Rumour has it that Tyler left his lectures notes lying around and his students thought they were so good that they had them published. Perhaps this is something to which we should all aspire!
For Tyler the curriculum process involved four fundamental questions. It was a rational and orderly process of answering the following questions.
• What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
• What educational experiences are likely to attain the purposes?
• How can these educational experiences be organised effectively?
• How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
The ‘purposes’ in the first of these questions became known as objectives and hence the model became known as the Objectives Model. Objectives were to be written in terms of changed learner behaviour which could be readily measured. Tyler’s work advocated a broad view of objectives but many of those that followed him supported a more narrow view. In the United States, in particular, there was strong support for the use of ‘behavioural objectives’ where behaviours had to be clearly specified in objectives which used verbs such as to write, to recite and to identify. Verbs such as to know, to understand and to appreciate were not to be used.
The Objectives Model attracted much criticism. It was claimed that writing objectives was difficult and time consuming, particularly in the form demanded by writers like Mager (1962) who argued that each objective had to contain a statement of the ‘behaviour’ to be attained, the’ conditions’ under which it would be demonstrated and the ‘standards’ by which it would be judged.

Norton, J.K., & Norton, M.A. (1976). Foundations of Curriculum Building. Boston: Ginn.
Tyler, R.W (1949). Basic Principles of curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Urevbu, A. (1994). Curriculum Studies. Harlow: Longman House.
Wheeler, D.K (1967). Curriculum Process. London: University of London Press.
Http//www. wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative-curriculum studies and organization, accessed: 23-10-2009


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