ELECTRONIC EMPLOYEE RECORDS AND HUMAN RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEM IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR.


CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
In most organizations particularly business organizations, most of what goes on consists largely of transactions. A transaction is a recorded event having to do with routine business activities. This includes everything concerning the product or service in which the organization is engaged: production, distribution, sales, order and stock-taking. It also includes the materials purchased, employees hired, taxes paid and so on. Today in most organizations, the bulk of such transactions are recorded in a computer-based information system.
Computer-based information systems are systems that tend to have clearly defined inputs and outputs that enable and provide necessary facilities for accurately and efficiently managing an organizational process. It could be sales, order or record keeping of staff. Information system is a collection of people, procedures, software, hardware and data. Connectivity allows computers to connect and share information, thereby greatly expanding the capability and usefulness of an information system. Computer-based information systems are meant to reduce the stress in managing businesses or organizational procedures.
Management Information System (MIS) is one of the major types of computer-based information systems. It uses the database of an organization in producing well structured forms of reports.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The development of personnel management dates back to the period of World War I around the year 1915 and more recently to the human relations movement of 1935 – 1950.
In one of the studies of Elton mayor, he discovered that psychological factors as well as social factors influence individuals at work rather than physical factors.
Specific reasons for the development of personnel management include: –
(i) As a result of increasing influence of trade unions,
traditionally personnel administration took on the role of
pacifying the trade unions, so that management could be free
to run the companies without interference from employees.
(ii) The formulation of minimum wages low costs and individual legislations increased the need for a team of personnel specialties.
(iii) As the union became more sophisticated and powerful the
need for highly skilled individual relations should increase.
(iv) The increasing size of business, government and other
institutions brought new dimension into the profession of
personnel management. .
Traditionally, it was practiced in homes where the father is the head of the family. It was he who planned what the family should do, the type of farming, size and where to sell the harvested products. His wives and children helped in the process, no external recruitment was involved, so the more wives and children a man had, the more likely it was that the family be well-of. The recent practices of personnel management in Nigeria is tied up with history and development of the public services, private companies and civil services.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS.
The management of human resources has remained the most complex aspect of many organizations. In fact, this had been the reason why most management scientists in the research identified personnel management as the backbone of any organization.
Following the problem in Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, there were cases were files get missing, cabinet gets jammed delaying the presentation of certain information about the staff, destruction of files and records in the case of fire outbreaks, time required to record as well as presenting an Information and also the cost of purchasing files, paper and furniture and fixtures.
Lack of effectiveness in their methods of record keeping, further compounds the problem.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this project work include;
• Timely and quality output to managers for decision making
• Providing specific type of output according to specified input
• It also aims at providing a well secure database management system
Most importantly, this project work aims at eliminating the problems
encountered in the manual system of personnel management
operations by the use of this computerized Personnel Management
System software.

1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
This work could be useful for personnel managers or officers in an organization as well as those involved in research work on personnel management. However, this research work would let us know that the success of an organization largely depends on the assessment and appraisal of individuals and company employee’s potential, performance and how well the organization can strive to equip all its workers.
Hence, this research work will be of immense assistance to the organizational environment because personnel will be able to find the best solution to the various personnel problems as the computerized personnel management information system software will play a very big role in removing the stress in record keeping.
There are many other advantages, and some of them are listed below.
• It saves a lot of time in processing personnel information.
• Database access is fast, reliable and secure in term of
authorized access using data encryption and decryption.
• Transactions are secured (login page).
• It helps in reducing the costs of labour, fixtures and stationary
(Paper, files, pens, marker and so on.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work will concentrate on staff employment form which includes the name, sex, location in fact information about the staff, performance assessment, retirement and handling of some queries like; updating staff record, deleting staff record and searching for staff information via Rank, Department or ID as the case may be. It is a case study of Nigeria Petroleum Corporation Lagos.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Due to time constraint, finance and confidentiality of information, program developed covers all aspect of employment, assessment and retirement. What ever is left out is as a result of the stated limitations.

1.8 ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
During the process of data collection, information relating to personal management was obtained from Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation Lagos. The information was collected from the admin staff during the course of my industrial attachment. Hence, it is assumed that all the data collected are correct and contains no false information.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS/ VARIABLES
Personnel: It is a department in an organization that deals with
employees records, hiring or retirement.
Management: It is the co-ordination of all the resources of an
organization through the process of planning,
organization, directing and controlling.
Public sector: The industries and services that are owned and
run by the government.
Private sector: The industries and services that are owned and
run by private companies.
System: A method or set of procedures even personnel working
together as a whole to achieve a goal.
Data: Numbers, Text or image which is in the form suitable for
storage in or processing by a computer, or an incomplete
information.
Information: A meaning full material derived from computer
data by organizing it and Interpreting it in a
specified way.
Input: Data entered into a computer for storage or processing.
Output: Information produced from a computer after processing.
Information System: A set of interrelated components that
collect (or retrieve), process, store and
distribute information to support decision
making and control in an organization.
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 DEFINITION OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION SYSTEM
There are abundant definitions of personnel management, personnel management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual organization and societal objectives are accomplished. Armstrong (2000), defines personnel management thus;
(a) Personnel management is concerned with obtaining, developing and motivating the human resources required by the organization to
achieve its objectives.
(b) Developing and organization structure and climate and involving
management style which will promote cooperation and commitment throughout the organization.
(c) Lastly ensuring that the organization meets its social and legal responsibilities towards its employees with regard to the conditions of
employment.
In a book by Jamie and John (2007), Defined Personnel management as part of management concerned with people at work, their positions and their relations within a particular organization.
According to Unamka and Ewurum (1995), stated that personnel management is the recruitment, selection, development and motivation of human beings who work for a firm or corporation.
Microsoft Encarta (2008) defines personnel management as a part of management concerned with people at work and their relations within a firm. The main functions of the personnel manager usually include staff recruitment, training, and welfare. The term personnel management is somewhat misleading in that it is usually line managers who manage the work force, while personnel managers provide a mainly supportive and advisory service.
Edward (2005) stated that the success of an organization depends on the capacities and capabilities of its personnel. Unless an organization devotes enough resources on the development of its human resource, it would not get the required output from its personnel. An organization’s commitment to the development of human resource has to be reflected in its policies, procedures, practices, customs and ideals.

2.2 INFORMATION SYSTEM
With cognizance to Buckingham (1998), An Information System can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
Basically an Information System handles the flow and maintenance of Information that supports a business or some other operation. It contains information about significant people, places and things within the organization or in the environment surrounding it. Information is derived from meaningful interpretation of data.
A system which assembles, stores, processes, and delivers information relevant to an organization (or to a society), in such a way that the information is accessible and useful to those who wish to use it, including managers, staff, clients and citizens. An information system is a human activity (social) system, which may or may not involve the use of computer systems. Also, in addition to supporting decision-making, information systems help workers and managers to analyze complex problems, to develop new products and to integrate the various modules and departments. Moreover the ‘transmission losses inter-departmental communication are reduced considerably leading to better coordination and improved transparency (information sharing) within the organization as a whole.

2.3 FUNCTIONS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
According to Laudon and Laudon (1991), Three activities provide the information that organizations need. These activities are Input, Processing and Output. ‘Input’ consists of acquisition of the ‘raw data’, which is transformed into more meaningful packets of ‘Information’ by means of ‘Processing’. The processed information now flows to the users or activities also called as ‘Output’. The shortcomings are analyzed and the information is sent back to the appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate and refine the input. This is termed as ‘feedback’.
Examples of ‘Information Inputs’ would be Transactions, events which would undergo ‘processing’ in the form of sorting, listing, merging and updating resulting in ‘outputs’ such as detailed reports, lists and summaries. Another example would be in the manufacturing environment with ‘information inputs’ such as design specs material requirements and the SOPs (standard operating procedures). These would be ‘processed’ by the information system by modeling and simulation techniques and would result in standard production models along with the overall cost of the production process which is calculated by the information system from the knowledge base containing material costs, hourly labor costs and other indirect costs; hence, almost totally eliminating a distinct costing function in the scheme of things.

2.3.1 Functions of an information system

FIG 2.1: Functions Of An Information System
However an information system cannot just be broadly described as an Input-Process-output mechanism in vacuum. It is required to provide major organizational solutions to challenges and problems posed in the business environment. Hence a manager needs to be not just computer-literate but also have a good idea of the organizational structure and functions as a whole. This concept is illustrated in FIG 2.1.
Also, at the heart of the issue, Information systems should not be confused with information technology. They exist independent of each other and irrespective of whether they are implemented well. Information systems use computers (or Information Technology) as tools for the storing and rapid processing of information leading to analysis, decision-making and better coordination and control. Hence information technology forms the basis of modern information systems.

2.4 TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
According to Laudon (2003), the purpose of computer-based information systems is to provide managers and various categories of employees with the appropriate kind of information to help them make decisions. The six major types of information systems corresponding to each organizational level (the four levels shown in figure above) are:
2.4.1 Types of Information system

FIG 2.2: Types Of Information System

1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): serve the operational level of an organization. It is a computer-based information system that keeps track of the transactions needed to conduct business. It records day-to-day transactions such as customer orders, bills, inventory levels, and production output. It also helps to generate databases that act as the foundation for the other information systems.
2. Knowledge work systems (KWS) is also known as Expert systems (ES). Expert system is a set of interactive computer programs that help users solve problems that would otherwise require the assistance of a human expert. It is also known as knowledge based system (KBS).
3. Office automation systems (OAS) to serve the knowledge level of an organization. It is a computer-based information system intended for workers or employees of all levels which combines various technologies to reduce the manual labour required in operating in an efficient office environment.
4. Decision-support system (DSS) is a computer-based information system that provides a flexible tool for data analysis. It helps in predicting changes that may influence the data in the future. It simply analyzes data. It helps to analyze a wide range of problems, such as the effect of events and trends outside an organization. Like the MIS, the DSS draws on the detailed data of the transaction processing system.
5. Management information systems (MIS) serve the management level of the organization. It is a computer-based information system that produces standardized reports in a summarized structured form.
6. Executive support systems (ESS) serve the strategic level of an organization. It is an easy-to-use system that presents information in a very highly summarized form. It helps in developing strategic plans and decision making. It is also known as executive information system.

2.5 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
According to George (2003),A management information system (MIS) is a computer-based information system that produces standardized reports in summarized structured form. It helps to support middle managers. A management information system can also be defined as a computer-based information system that uses data recorded by a transaction processing system (TPS) as input into programs that produce routine reports as output. A MIS differ from a transaction processing system in a significant way. Whereas a transaction processing system creates databases, a MIS requires databases. Indeed, an MIS can draw from the databases of several departments. Thus, a MIS requires a database management system (DBMS) that integrates the database of the different departments. Middle managers need summary data often drawn from across different functional areas.
Inputs consist of processed transaction data such as bills, orders, and paychecks, plus other internal data. Outputs consist of summarized, structured reports; budget summaries, production schedules e.t.c. A MIS is intended principally to assist middle managers – specifically to help them with tactical decisions. It enables them to spot trends and get an overview of current business activities. Managers at this level usually receive information in the form of several kinds of reports:
I. Summary reports
II. Exception reports
III. Periodic reports
IV. Demand reports

• Summary reports show totals and trends. An example would be report
showing
total sales by office, by product and by salesperson, as well as total
overall sales.
• Exception reports show out-of-the-ordinary data. An example would
be an inventory
report listing only those items of which fewer than 10 are in stock.
• Periodic reports are produced on a regular schedule. Such daily,
weekly, monthly,
quarterly, or annual reports may contain sales figures, income
statements, or balance sheets. They are usually produced on paper,
such as computer printouts.
• Demand reports produce information in response to an unscheduled
demand.
A director of finance might order a demand credit – background report on an unknown customer who wants to place a larger order. Demand reports are often produced on a terminal or microcomputer screen, rather than on paper.
Management information systems produce reports that are predetermined. That is, they follow an already defined format and always show the same kinds of content.

2.6 ORIGIN OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
Personnel management originated from our forefathers and was a practice in home where by the father is the head of the family. It was he who planned what the family should do, the type of farming, size and where to sell the harvested product. His wives and children helped in the process no external recruitment was involved, so the more wives and children a man had, the more likely it was that the family be well off. The history of personnel management is short in one sense, but long in another. modern personnel management dates back only to the 1940s, personnel problems requiring managerial attention date back to the time of the industrial revolution but it is relatively new in Nigeria (Cole 1997 personnel management theory and practice).

2.7 OBJECTIVES OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
According to Agwu (1999), the objectives of Personnel Management are: –
(i) To satisfy the individuals that is patronizing the organization.
(ii) To make an effective contribution to the achievement of the objectives of the organization.
(iii) To make an effective contribution to the fulfillment of its
social responsibilities to the objectives of personnel and
means of achieving them depends on the type and
size of the organization, the environment in which it operates
and the style with which it operates.
There are no absolute principles and practices. This solely
depends on the organization involved and their set out rules.

2.8 FUNCTIONS OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
Unamka and Ewurum (1995), listed the functions of personnel management to include: –
(i) Employment which involves manpower planning, recruitment, selection and placement of staff.
(ii) Training and development.
(iii) Wages administration and
(iv) Disengagement
But basically the functions are almost or even the same with that stated above which are;
1. Personnel, management is responsible for coordinating all recruitment activities for the organization including development and processing of qualified candidates to fill open positions.
2. It also provide job motivation through the issuing of leave form, promotion form, retirement form, etc to staff of the organization as at when due.
3. It helps to boast staff performance through performance evaluation.

2.9 FACTORS AFFECTING PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
Bachelor (1985), states that the factors affecting personnel management is divided into two which are external and internal factors. He says that these factors have affected the performance of staff and this has given anxiety to personnel administrators in the public sector.
According to him, the external factors include: –
(i) Technological challenges
(ii) Government challenges and
(iii) Education challenges.
In the same vein, he gives the internal factors as: –
(i) Integration
(ii) Development and
(ii) Procurement.

2.10 PROBLEMS OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
Anyanwu (2003), gives the problems of personnel management as:-
(a) Shortage of qualified manpower
(b) Paucity of data.
(c) Attitude of workers
(d) Pressure from friends an relations
(e) Level of unemployment

2.11 SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO THE PERSONNEL
MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS.
In the application of solution to these existing problems and for continued efficiency and effectiveness of the personnel in contemporary work organizations, Anyanwu (2003), enumerates the following essential points which he says should be strictly adhered to but with some degree of flexibility to allow for:
• Social change
• Employment of qualified people
• Reduction of external pressure on personnel managers,
• Commitment of workers to their job,
• Training to up date their knowledge
• Finally, provision of the necessary tools for work and other logistic considered quite germane to productivity.

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM
3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM
The existing system at Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation is a manual method in which once a staff is employed, a file is created or opened for him or her and of his/her credentials are documented manually in the file. Hence the need for a file cabinet for the safe keeping of these staff files arises as staff number increases. Manual search operation is conducted on the file cabinet each time the management is looking for particular staff information, so this method is prone to error, alteration and there is the tendency of losing files as a result of theft, fire outbreak, or even technical malfunction.

3.2 FACT FINDING METHODS USED
There are two main sources of data collection in carrying out this study, information was basically obtained from the two sources which are:
(a) Primary source
and
(b) Secondary source

3.2.1 Primary Source
Primary source refers to the sources of collecting original data in which the researcher makes use of empirical approach such as personal interview, questionnaires or observation.
In my research I used the interview method for my primary source of Information, this is done by asking question from staff of the personnel department in the organization and as well as other departments too. I also used a method of observation were I was attentive to all the activities of the department, studying their activities and recording them down on daily basis or as required.

3.2.2 Secondary Source
The need for the secondary sources of data for this kind of project cannot be over emphasized. The secondary data were obtained by me from magazines, Journal, newspapers, library source and most of the information from the library research has been covered in my literature review in the previous chapter of this project.

3.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM
The objective of the existing system includes:
1. To keep record of all the staff of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation in a file.
2. Managing staff performance and promotion of staff.
3. Updating staff records when the need arises.
4. Checking the staff strength of the company.

3.4 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

FIG3.1: Organizational Structure

3.5 INPUT ANALYSIS
The input to the system is the staff employment form. It contains detail information of the staff. This forms the input to the system and it contains:

STAFF ID ………………………………………
STAFF NAME ……………………………………………….
SEX ……………………………………………….
ADDRESS ……………………………………………….
QUALIFICATION ……………………………………………….
PHONE ……………………………………………….
DATE OF BIRTH ……………………………………………….
DATE.EMPLOYED ……………………………………………….
DEPARTMENT ……………………………………………….
LEVEL ……………………………………………….

FIG 3.2: Input Analysis “Existing System”

3.6 PROCESS ANALYSIS
The information gathered was processed into a more meaningful format for entry into the files. The forms filled by company staff are processed to produce a comprehensive report on the staff background, performance etc.

3.7 OUTPUT ANALYSIS
The output from the system designed is generated from the system inputs. More of the output generated is on staff information, performance, etc. These reports can also be presented as hard copy.

3.8 INFOMATION FLOW DIAGRAM

FIG 3.3 : Information Flow Diagram

3.9 PROBLEMS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM
Some of the problems identified in the present system include:
(a) The speed of processing data manually is low and prone to
errors.
(b) So many files, papers, drawers, filing cabinets are used.
These occupy space and makes data transfer cumbersome.
(c) There are no adequate security measures employed in any
manual system of data processing and storage. As a result
of this, some confidential files and documents could
consciously or unconsciously be exposed and these files
are not properly checked and restricted.
(d) Slow and inefficient database system which lacks cohesion.
(e) The lack of a central database that is directly accessible by
staff and management in its decision-making procedures.

3.10 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE NEW SYSTEM
The new system will help to solve all the problems inherent in the existing system. The justification for the new system includes:
• Timely staff record registration.
• Timely processing of employee information.
• Error free processing of data.
• It is inexpensive to administrators.
• Transactions are secured (Authentication).
• It is cost effective.

CHAPTER FOUR
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW SYSTEM
4.1 DESIGN STANDARD
The standard of the design includes:
1. Design an input format that will enable the user capture all the necessary data on staff employment and assessment.
2. Structure a database system that will store all the information using Microsoft access.
3. Design a well formatted output that will present information to management in a meaningful format containing necessary information.
4. Employ a top-down methodology in the design to enable a central control menu for accessing other sub systems.

4.2 OUTPUT SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN
The output design was based on the inputs. The report generated gives a meaningful report to the management. The system designed generates reports using the search operation which can be; (Search via staff ID, By department or by Rank)
These outputs can be generated as softcopy or printed in hard copy.

4.3 INPUT DESIGN AND SPECIFICATION
Computer is designed in such a way that some times it is called GIGO, denoting that what goes in is what comes out. The input forms are designs generally based on the necessary data that needs to be entered into the system. The data are captured through the keyboard and stored on a magnetic disk in an access database.
The new system is composed mainly of two input forms, they include:-
a) Staff recruitment form
b) Assessment form

4.3.1 Staff Employment Form
STAFF ID ………………………………………………….
FULL NAME ………………………………………………
RESIDENTIAL.ADDRESS ………………………………
SEX ………………………………………………………….
DATE OF BIRTH ……………………………………………
MARITAL STATUS …………………………………………
HEIGHT ………………………………………………………
ACADEMIC.QUALIFICATIONS …………………………
AGE ……………………………………………
DATE RECRUITED ……………………………………………
POST ……………………………………………
NEXT OF KIN ……………………………………………
DEPARTMENT ……………………………………………
BASIC SALARY ……………………………………………
PHONE NO ……………………………………………
E-MAIL ……………………………………………
FIG 4.1 Staff Employment Form “New System”
4.3.2 Assessment Form
STAFF ID ……………………………………………
NAME ……………………………………………
DATE ……………………………………………
ASSESSMENT.REPORT ……………………….
FIG 4.2 Assessment Form “New System”

4.4 FILE DESIGN
Files held in this project are made up of different data types. These types are integer, character, double, date, etc. some of the files used are designed and linked with database. Also in the project design, Microsoft access database was used. Below is the database specification for the files used.

4.4.1 Structure For File “Staff”
FIELD NAME DATA TYPE SIZE
ID TEXT 20
NAME TEXT 40
ADDRESS TEXT 100
DATE OF BIRTH DATE\TIME 8
SEX TEXT 10
AGE LONG 4
STATUS TEXT 20
HEIGHT TEXT 10
DATE RECRUITED DATE\TIME 8
QUALIFICATION TEXT 50
DEPARTMENT TEXT 50
RANK TEXT 30
NEXT OF KIN TEXT 50
REMARK TEXT 50
CONDITION TEXT 50
REASON TEXT 150
BASIC SALARY DOUBLE 8
TABLE 4.1 Structure for file “staff”

4.4.2 Structure For File “Assessment”

FIELD NAME DATA TYPE SIZE
ID TEXT 20
NAME TEXT 40
DATE DATE \ TIME 8
REPORT TEXT VARIABLE
TABLE 4.2: Structure for file “Assessment”

4.5 PROCEDURE CHART / DESIGN

FIG 4.3: Top down design of Personnel management information system

4.6 SYSTEM FLOWCHART

FIG 4.4: System Flowchart

4.7 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
The requirements needed to implement this system are as follows:
4.7.1 Hardware Requirements
The software designed needed the following hardware for an effective operation of the newly designed system.
1. A system running on Pentium 2 or higher processor
2. The random access memory (ram) should be at least 512mb.
3. Enhanced keyboard.
4. At least 20 GB hard disk.
5. V.G.A or a colored monitor.

4.7.2 Software Requirements
The software requirements includes:-
• A window 98 or higher version for faster processing.
• Microsoft access database (mdb)
• Visual basic version 6.0.

4.8 PROGRAM FLOWCHART

FIG 4.5: The Main Menu Flowchart
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
5.1 SUMMARY
In this project work, I present how personnel roles and functions are administered in an organization. However, I also identified various difficulties confronting an organization in realizing its target, aims or objectives as well as making suggestions and recommendations to the management in order to improve it system generally.
Once again, I have examined the concept of personnel management and I feel that it would be of useful purpose to the readers, students of management, managers of companies as well as administrative practitioners. Hence, personnel management information software was development to assist managers keep track of employee’s record.

5.2 CONCLUSION
The role of personnel management has become an integral part of an establishment set up in Nigerian society. The results of this study coupled with the relative observation in similar organizations in this country have shown an indication that personnel management, as oxygen is to human lungs, is a function that cannot be under-estimated and over rolled in any organization where efficiency of operation is a matter of consideration. The workforce or manpower resource of an organization is the most valuable asset and as such, this aspect of managerial role requires urgent and special attention.
Therefore, for an organization to run effectively, it must have adequate finance, and put some checks in place to cancel out problem of delay, cost, technical malfunctions as stated in the problem this new system will eradicate. And also the organization has to take care of its employees in order that they could contribute their quotas towards achieving individual and organizational goals.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS.
After a careful study of the computerization of personnel management information and its various functions in an organization, the following recommendations should be taken into consideration.
Firstly, if people consider the various problems of personnel management the wastages of organization human and material resources should be kept to a practical minimum level. This is because we cannot do without personnel management in any organization. Hence the need for the implementation of this personnel management information software developed in this project work.
Secondly, it is clear that there are many people who have inborn capabilities for management. This is a natural trait, which could be better off if the government can improve the appropriate training and techniques for proper utilization of these traits to accomplish the original objectives.
Thirdly, the personnel department should be competent to advice on the best and most modern techniques, technologies and practices to provide a professional support and monitoring services in the area of this study.
Lastly, Workers should be given their rights and there should be the establishment of mutual co-operation between the employer and the employees with view of eradicating conflicts problems of fatigue, lay-off and improving the industrial harmony within the organization.
Furthermore, the individual needs which become paramount for his joining the organization, should always be given priority attention. This will not only motivate him and increase his productivity but will also give him brighter chances of better career prospects in the enterprise and at the same time, self actualize himself.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Agwu,A.A (1999). Functions and objectives of Personnel
Management. 2nd ed., Akwa: Optimum Publisher

Anyanwu, G. (2003). Review of Personnel Management, Management
System In Nigeria. Vol 4, Pg78
Barnes, J.G and Cumby, C.(2000). The Cost Of Quality In Service-
Oriented Companies, Making Better Customers’ Decision
Through Improved Cost Information. Vol 6, San Diego
Conference.
Bachelor, J. (1985). Management Information System, Daily Improvement
On Personnel Management. Vol 6, Pg44
Burkingham, H. (1998). Information system analysis.
California: Olive Publishers
Cole, W. (2001). Personnel Management Theory And
Practice. San Diego California: City Press
Edward, T.(2005). Preview Of Personnel Management
System, New York City: Geffen Publishing Company
Flippo, A.(2000). Personnel Management. London: Hallmark Press
George Wills (2003). Management Information System,.
London: Webster Publisher
Gronroos, C. (1990). Service management And Marketing,
“Managing The Moments Of Truth In Service Competition”.
Massachusetts/Toronto: Lexington Books.
Jamie, K. and John, G. (2007). Personnel Management And
Structure. New York City: New York Press
Laudon .J.P and Laudon K.C. (1991). Functions Of
Information System. London: Webster Publisher,.
Lucy, t. (2001). Management Information Systems. 1st ed., London: Dp
Publishers,
Microsoft Corporation (2004). Programmer’s Guide, Microsoft
Visual Basic Programming System For Windows, Version
6.0. New York City: Microsoft Press.
Microsoft Encarta (2008). Personnel Management. New York City:
Microsoft Corporation
Mihir, B. and Phillip, R. (2005).Introduction To Modern
Management Information System. California USA: California Printing
Press
Unamka and Ewurum (1995). Personnel Management
Functions. Lagos State: Ekon Press
Vossen, G. (1999). Data Models, Database Languages
and Database Management Systems. New York city: Adison-Wesley
Publishing Company.

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A

“WELCOME SCREEN”

Picture 1:Welcome Screen

APPENDIX B

“INPUT FORM”

Picture 2:Input Form

“ASSESSMENT FORM”

Picture 3: Assessment form

APPENDIX C

“OUTPUT FORM”

Picture 4:Output Form

APPENDIX D

“THE PROGRAM SOURCE CODES”

Private Sub Command1_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
Dim t As String
t = App.Path & “\images\no.jpg”
frmrecuitment.Picture1 = LoadPicture(t)
frmrecuitment.Show
frmrecuitment.cmddelete.Enabled = False
frmrecuitment.cmdupdate.Enabled = False
frmrecuitment.cmdsave.Enabled = True
Private Sub Command2_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
frmpromotion.cmbid.Clear
With frmrecuitment.memberdata
.DatabaseName = App.Path & “\Reportsheet.mdb”
.RecordSource = “select * from members”
.Refresh
.Recordset.MoveFirst
Do Until .Recordset.EOF

frmpromotion.cmbid.AddItem .Recordset.Fields(“id”)

Recordset.MoveNext
Loop
End With
frmpromotion.Show vbModal
End Sub
Private Sub Command3_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
FormBhv.Show
End Sub
Private Sub Command5_Click()
Frame2.Visible = True
txtid.Text = “”
frmrecuitment.cmddelete.Enabled = False
frmrecuitment.cmdupdate.Enabled = True
frmrecuitment.cmdsave.Enabled = False
End Sub
Private Sub Command6_Click()
Frame2.Visible = True
txtid.Text = “”
frmrecuitment.cmddelete.Enabled = True
frmrecuitment.cmdupdate.Enabled = False
frmrecuitment.cmdsave.Enabled = False
End Sub
Private Sub Command11_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
frmquery.Show
End Sub
Private Sub CmdCls_Click()
If MsgBox(“Do you want to quit this application?”, vbYesNo) = vbYes Then
MsgBox (“Thanks for using this application”)
End
End If
End Sub
Private Sub Cmdsearch_Click()
On Error Resume Next
Dim t As String
t = App.Path & “\images\no.jpg”
frmrecuitment.Picture1 = LoadPicture(t)
t = App.Path & “\images\” + txtid.Text + “.jpg”
frmrecuitment.Picture1 = LoadPicture(t)
With frmrecuitment.memberdata
.DatabaseName = App.Path & “\Reportsheet.mdb”
.RecordSource = “select * from members”
.Refresh
.Recordset.MoveFirst
Do Until .Recordset.EOF
If FrmMainMenu.txtid.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“id”) Then
frmrecuitment.Show
frmrecuitment.txtid.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“id”)
frmrecuitment.txtname.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“name”)
frmrecuitment.txtaddress.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“address”)
frmrecuitment.Combsex.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“sex”)
frmrecuitment.txtbirth.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“date of birth”)
frmrecuitment.txtage.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“age”)
frmrecuitment.Combstatus.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“status”)
frmrecuitment.txtheight.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“height”)
frmrecuitment.txtdate.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“date recruited”)
frmrecuitment.txtqaul.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“qualification”)
frmrecuitment.combdept.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“department”)
frmrecuitment.Combrank.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“rank”)
frmrecuitment.txtkin.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“next of kin”)
frmrecuitment.txtbasic.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“basic salary”)
frmrecuitment.txtphone.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“phone”)
frmrecuitment.txtemail.Text = .Recordset.Fields(“email”)
Frame1.Visible = False
Exit Do
End If
.Recordset.MoveNext
Loop
End With
End Sub
Private Sub Command1_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
Dim t As String
t = App.Path & “\images\no.jpg”
frmrecuitment.Picture1 = LoadPicture(t)
frmrecuitment.Show
frmrecuitment.cmddelete.Enabled = False
frmrecuitment.cmdupdate.Enabled = False
frmrecuitment.cmdsave.Enabled = True
End Sub
Private Sub Command10_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
FrmNnpc.Show
End Sub
Private Sub Command11_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
frmquery.Show
End Sub
Private Sub Command12_Click()
MsgBox ” You can contact us on cell using 08085632779, 01-76737738 or via E-mail nnpc@nnpcgroup.com ”
End Sub
Private Sub Command2_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
frmpromotion.cmbid.Clear
With frmrecuitment.memberdata
.DatabaseName = App.Path & “\Reportsheet.mdb”
.RecordSource = “select * from members”
.Refresh
.Recordset.MoveFirst
Do Until .Recordset.EOF
frmpromotion.cmbid.AddItem .Recordset.Fields(“id”)
.Recordset.MoveNext

Loop
End With
frmpromotion.Show vbModal
End Sub

Private Sub Command3_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
FormBhv.Show
End Sub
Private Sub Command4_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
frmretire.cmbid.Clear
With frmrecuitment.memberdata
.DatabaseName = App.Path & “\Reportsheet.mdb”
.RecordSource = “select * from members”
.Refresh
.Recordset.MoveFirst
Do Until .Recordset.EOF

frmretire.cmbid.AddItem .Recordset.Fields(“id”)
.Recordset.MoveNext
Loop
End With
frmretire.Show
End Sub

Private Sub Command5_Click()
Frame2.Visible = True
txtid.Text = “”
frmrecuitment.cmddelete.Enabled = False
frmrecuitment.cmdupdate.Enabled = True
frmrecuitment.cmdsave.Enabled = False
End Sub
Private Sub Command6_Click()
Frame2.Visible = True
txtid.Text = “”
frmrecuitment.cmddelete.Enabled = True
frmrecuitment.cmdupdate.Enabled = False
frmrecuitment.cmdsave.Enabled = False
End Sub
Private Sub Command7_Click()
CommonDialog1.ShowHelp
End Sub
Private Sub Command8_Click()
FrmMainMenu.Hide
frmAbout.Show
End Sub
Private Sub Label4_Click()
Frame2.Visible = False
End Sub
Private Sub Timer1_Timer()
Label2 = Date
Label3 = Time
Label6.Move Label6.Left – 50
If (Label6.Left + Label6.Width) < 0 Then
Label6.Left = Me.ScaleWidth + 10
End If
End Sub
Private Sub Form_Click()
Form2.Show
Unload ScreenSaver
End Sub
Private Sub Form_KeyPress(KeyAscii As Integer)
Form2.Show
Unload ScreenSaver
End Sub
Private Sub Timer2_Timer()
If Image2.Visible = True Then
Image2.Visible = False
Else
Image2.Visible = True
End If
End Sub
Private Sub Timer3_Timer()
If Image1.Visible = True Then
Image1.Visible = False
Else
Image1.Visible = True
End If
End Sub
Private Sub Timer4_Timer()
If Image3.Visible = True Then
Image3.Visible = False
Else
Image3.Visible = True
End If
End Sub
Private Sub cmdsave_Click()
With frmrecuitment.memberdata
.DatabaseName = App.Path & "\Reportsheet.mdb"
.RecordSource = "select * from members"
.Refresh
If frmretire.cmbid.Text = .Recordset.Fields("id") Then GoTo 100

100 With frmretire.Data1
.DatabaseName = App.Path & "\Reportsheet.mdb"
.RecordSource = "select * from Retirement"
.Refresh
.Recordset.AddNew
.Recordset.Fields("Date").Value = frmretire.Label7.Caption
.Recordset.Fields("ID").Value = frmretire.cmbid.Text
.Recordset.Fields("Name").Value = frmretire.txtname.Text
.Recordset.Fields("Condition").Value = frmretire.cmbcondition.Text
.Recordset.Fields("Reason").Value = frmretire.txtreason.Text
.Recordset.Update

MsgBox "Your Data Has Been Saved Successfully"
End With
frmretire.cmbcondition.Text = ""
frmretire.txtreason.Text = ""
frmretire.txtname.Text = ""
frmretire.cmbid.Text = ""
Unload Me
20
FrmMainMenu.Show
End With
With frmrecuitment.memberdata
.DatabaseName = App.Path & "\Reportsheet.mdb"
.RecordSource = "select * from Members"
.Refresh
If frmretire.cmbid.Text = .Recordset.Fields("ID").Value Then
.Recordset.Delete
End If
End With
End Sub
Private Sub Timer1_Timer()
Label7.Caption = Date
End Sub
Private Sub cmdOK_Click()
Unload frmabt
End Sub
Private Sub cmdSysInfo_Click()
MsgBox "Not Available at the moment"
End Sub
Private Sub cmdAdd1_Click()
cmdAdd1.Visible = False
Command5.Enabled = True
txtFields(1).Visible = True
cmdAdd1.Top = 4200
cmdSubmit1.Top = 4200
Command13.Top = 4200
Command5.Top = 4200
lblLabels(4).Visible = False
Label16.Visible = False
TxtPres.Visible = False
lblLabels(7).Visible = False
Text4.Visible = False
lblLabels(8).Visible = False
Text6.Visible = False
Label17.Enabled = False
'For i = 2 To txtFields.UBound
txtFieldss.Enabled = True
txtFieldsf.Enabled = True
txtFields(6).Enabled = True
txtFields(7).Enabled = True
txtFields(8).Enabled = True
txtFieldss.Text = ""
txtFieldsf.Text = ""
txtFields(6).Text = ""
txtFields(7).Text = ""
txtFields(8).Text = ""
TxtPres.Text = ""
Text4.Clear
Label16.Caption = ""
Text6.Text = ""
'Next i
txtFields(1).Text = "P_" & Mid(e1.Caption, 10, 4)
txtFieldss.SetFocus
cmdSubmit1.Visible = True
End Sub
List5.RemoveItem List5.ListIndex
End Sub
Private Sub Timer1_Timer()
e1.Caption = Mid(e1.Caption, 1 + 1, Val(Len(e1.Caption) – 1)) & Mid(e1.Caption, 1, 1)
End Sub
Private Sub Timer10_Timer()
On Error Resume Next
List2.ListIndex = List1.ListIndex
List3.ListIndex = List1.ListIndex
List4.ListIndex = List1.ListIndex
List5.ListIndex = List1.ListIndex
End Sub
Private Sub Timer3_Timer()
'Frame1.Top = Frame1.Top – 100
'If Frame1.Top <= 5760 Then
'Timer3.Enabled = False
'End If
End Sub
Private Sub Timer4_Timer()
Frame3.Left = Frame3.Left – 120
If Frame3.Left = 6600 Then
Text1.Text = “”
Text2.Text = “”
Text1.Enabled = True
Timer6.Enabled = False
End If
End Sub
Private Sub Timer7_Timer()
Label19.Caption = Time
End Sub
Private Sub Timer8_Timer()
Label20.Caption = Date
End Sub
Private Sub Timer9_Timer()
If Label21.Visible = True Then
Label21.Visible = False
Else
Label21.Visible = True
End If
End Sub

BE FRUITFUL AND MULTIPLY


INTRODUCTION
The cultural mandate or creation mandate is the divine injunction found in Genesis 1:28, in which God, after having created the world and all in it, ascribes to humankind the tasks of filling, subduing, and ruling over the earth. ..
To be fruitful signifies to transmute and sublimate the sexual energy in order to grow spiritually. The word multiply refers to the procreation of the human species.
There are two types of children mentioned in the Bible: the children of God and the children of men. Children of God are those who are the outcome of Sexual Magic, when there is no spilling of semen. Children of men are those who are the outcome of passionate pleasure by the spilling of semen.
Genesis 1:28
God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.”
Genesis 9:1
Then God blessed Noah and his sons, saying to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth.

HUMAN UNDERSTANDING
And God blessed them,…. The man and the woman he had made, with all the blessings of nature and Providence; with all the good things of life; with his presence, and with communion with himself in a natural way, through the creatures; and particularly with a power of procreating their species, as follows,

and God said unto them, be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth: if this is not an express command, as the Jews understand it, for marriage and procreation of children, it seems to be more than a bare permission; at least it is a direction and an advice to what was proper and convenient for the increase of mankind, and for the filling of the earth with inhabitants, which was the end of its being made, Isaiah 45:18. This shows that marriage is an ordinance of God, instituted in paradise, and is honourable; and that procreation is a natural action, and might have been, and may be performed without sin,

and subdue it; the earth; not that it was in the hands of others, who had no right to it, and to be conquered and taken out of their hands; but is to be understood of their taking possession, and making use of it; of their tilling the land, and making it subservient to their use:

and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the face of the earth; which was giving them an universal and unlimited dominion over all the creatures; of which see an enumeration in Psalm 8:6.
In the Judeo-Christian scripture called בראשית (Berashith) or Genesis is a statement that is often quoted but rarely understood.
This is how it has been studied in English for many centuries:
“And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
So God created man in his [own] image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply…” – Genesis 1
Since this verse was originally written in Hebrew, the meaning can be found in the Hebrew words and letters. Let us look at a more accurate translation that preserves several key Hebrew words.
First, however, it must be understood that the Hebrew scripture does not have the word “God,” as written in English. Instead, the entire first chapter of Genesis refers to אלהים Elohim. The Hebrew word Elohim is plural, and is derived from El (God) united with Eloah (Goddess), forming the plural Elohim, which means “God and Goddess” or “Gods and Goddesses.” Therefore, Genesis or creation is a work of Gods, male and female, which is only natural, since all other forms of creation are sexual, too.
“Then אלהים [Elohim] said, “Let Us [God and Goddess] make Adam in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let [Adam] rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” Elohim created Adam in their own image, in the image of Elohim [they] created Adam; male and female [in other words, androgynous] Elohim created [Adam]. And Elohim blessed them [the nephesh chaiah], and Elohim said unto them, ‘Be fruitful, and multiply [רבה]…'” – Genesis 1:28
The second important point here is that Adam is created in the image (tselem) of the Elohim: male-female, in other words, as an androgynous being. Only later is Adam divided into two sexes. Thus, the command given in this passage is not for those who are already divided into two sexes (such as you and me).
Finally, the English translations render רבה as “multiply,” but the word itself is actually “Rabbi.” Therefore, the command is correctly interpreted as an instruction given to the androgynous Adam—or those who have restored that level of spiritual development in themselves by returning to Eden and solving the mistake made by Adam and Eve—and that command is: “Be fruitful, be a Rabbi (a Master).”
Thus, you can see quite easily that the actual meaning of this scripture is vastly different from what is taught commonly.

BIBLICAL UNDERSTANDING
Genesis Chapter 1 verse 28 states: “Be fruitful and multiply.”
To be fruitful signifies to transmute and sublimate the sexual energy in order to grow spiritually. The word multiply refers to the procreation of the human species.
There are two types of children mentioned in the Bible: the children of God and the children of men. Children of God are those who are the outcome of Sexual Magic, when there is no spilling of semen. Children of men are those who are the outcome of passionate pleasure by the spilling of semen.
We need to engender children of God and then struggle for their spiritual growth. – Samael Aun Weor, The Perfect Matrimony
In Gnosis we seek spiritual birth through the transmutation of the sexual energy, which Jesus spoke of in the Gospel (John 3). However, as Samael Aun Weor explains, even the engendering of physical children can be accomplished without resorting to fornication.
God said, “Be fruitful and multiply.” God did not say, “Be fruitful and fornicate.” Therefore, seminal ejaculation is a crime; seminal ejaculation is brutal fornication.
In ancient times, in paradise, reproduction was performed without seminal ejaculation, without the orgasm of man or woman.
The tenebrous lucifers of the ancient Earth-Moon taught the humans how to ejaculate the semen. This is how humans lost their powers. This is represented by Adam and Eve’s departure from Eden.
Therefore, Gnosis does not teach anything that goes against Nature. Not spilling the semen is what is natural, what is normal.
Hence, Gnosis does not teach sexual refinement, it teaches what is truly natural and normal. – Samael Aun Weor, The Yellow Book
CONCLUSION
The cultural mandate or creation mandate is the divine injunction found in Genesis 1:28, in which God (YHVH), after having created the world and all in it, ascribes to humankind the tasks of filling, subduing, and ruling over the earth.

REFERENCES
• Gary North, Dominion & Common Grace: The Biblical Basis of Progress. Tyler, TX: Dominion Press., 1987
• Smith, Gary Scott, ed. God and Politics: Four Views on the Reformation of Civil Government — Theonomy, Principled Plurlaism, Christian America, National Confessionalism. Phillipsburg, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1989, ISBN 0-87552-448-6

THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SECRETARIES IN THE CIVIL SERVICE


TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – – Pages
Dedication – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Acknowledge – – – – – – – – iii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents – – – – – – – v
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – 8
1.3 Justification of Study – – – – – 9
1.4 Scope of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.5 Limitation of the Study – – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 The Secretaries Career and job Satisfaction – 11
2.2 The Role of a Secretary in the Civil Service – 14
2.3 The Challenges of the Nigerian Secretaries – 17
2.4 Productivity in the Civil Service – – – – 19
2.5 Productivity Problems in the Nigerian Civil service – 23
2.6 Attitude of a Civil Servant to Work – – – 26
2.7 Enhancing Productivity in the Civil Service – 30
CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Methodology of the Study – – – – – 35
3.2 Design of the Study – – – – – – 35
3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – 35
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – 36
3.5 Sample of the Study – – – – – – 36
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – 36
3.7 Administration of Instrument – – – – 37
3.8 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 37

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this study is to compare the reviews of the civil service commission professional in the countrPy toward their work in light of the radical changes in the administrative environment that have occur during the 1990s. In the course of the study, we develop and test a questionnaire to examine how the environment on downsizing and reorganization in the 1990s, has affected the productivity, morale administrative attitude and practice of senior professional in the civil service. Before presenting our survey results, however, we will present short overviews of the existing literature regarding both downsizing and restructuring and comparison of civil service job satisfaction.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Downsizing and restructuring are practices which have become increasingly prevalent in the post decade, affecting most occupational positions, encompassing all employment positions and impacting on various lines of administrative leaders. The effects of downsizing have been particularly significant in civil service. By forcing efficiency with fewer resources, fiscal constraints have increased the demand for the delivery of more effective and better quality public programs and service. In many cases, this demand has translated into a smaller, more flexible civil service. This emphasis on administrative accountability, transparency in public spending, and alternative service delivery has resulted in a leaner service. So it has the recent focus on policy frameworks, consolidated budgeting process and the trend towards more flexible pay and staffing requirement in the civil service administration.
For example, the federal civil service and state civil service commission has outline its plans for downsizing and restructuring in its “framework for action” (The Federal Government of Nigeria, Secretary of the Cabinet, 1997). The key aspects of downsizing and restructuring included in this document are focusing on core administrative aim: ensuring quality service to the public: achieving a smaller and more flexible service; becoming more integrative and cohesive; and finally, securing better standards of accountability in terms of how public resources are allocated.
To some, logic dictates that downsizing is in effective means of achieving these ends. In an era of consolidation intensive completion and advanced technologies, there is pressure to reduce expenses over the post five years. The downsizing and restructure initiatives undertaken in the country are topical of both state government and Federal Government around the country. Many explanation have been offered in are attempt to understand in increased exercise of Downsizing and restructure of course, many of these revolve mound economic realities such as increasing competition pressures, the forces of globalization, the effects of new technologies on productivity and so on. However, (Mikinley, Sanchez and Scheck 1995), drawing on institutional theory, suggest that three (3) types of social forces help to explain the prevalence of downsize in recent years. These forces are constraining forces, and leaning forces. Constraining forces are those which pressure decision-makers to do what appears to be the “right thing” and to keep abreast with contemporary administrative trends, in today’s terms would involve becomes more efficiency and effectives. Closing forces are the result of imitating the steps taken by other administration. This imitation is labeled “Benchmarking” finally, learning forces are generated when an administration interacts with the network of professional, academic institutions and consultants in it’s environment and “learns” what are currently view as best practices whether the reasons for the spread of downsizing are economic or social, theoretical or practical, however, the fact remains that the practical appears to be becoming permanent. At the beginning of decade, it was unusual for a white collar worker to experience job displacement as a result of downsizing and restructuring. Today, especially in civil service where positions where once revered for their apparent security, job cuts and lay-offs one matter of course. This drastic change in job security begs an examination of the impact of downsizing and restructuring and it implications for productivity, job satisfaction and the well-being of employees. The question then became, how has the practice of downsizing and restructuring impacted on the morale of those affected?
Example: According to Ayagbonwy (1988), stated that a happy employee is a productive one, for civil service to succeed, there must be job satisfaction. Job satisfaction leads to high productivity, many scholars have tried and attempted to give a working definition of what job satisfaction is all about. Gruneberg (1978), despite the tremendous amount of information available, a positive result to the working definition of job satisfaction, there are still controversies as does the question of the nature of job satisfaction. According to Hopock and Kjagbonwy (1988), Job satisfaction is the combination of psychological, physiological and environment circumstance that make a person being contented with a job.
Job satisfaction was the employee, emotional, moral and mind setting and well captured by the work as to give the best to the work.
The opposite of job satisfaction is job dissatisfaction; it has a negative impact on the service growth. Many workers in the civil service of the lower class always resign from working as soon as they are able to obtain another high paid employment. The common indicator of unsatisfactory job conditions in our ministries is the result of absenteeism and truancy which is the syndrome, (Not on the seat) some workers openly state their dissatisfaction on the job which even demoralized their colleagues at work place. The satisfaction worker derive job from the job that depends solely on the extend to which the job and everything that is associated with the job like needs, expectations and value.
In the aspect of productivity, various definitions of productivity exist in literature. Traditionally; however, the concept of labor productivity is associated with visible, tangible act.
Economist for insurance, defines productivity as output per labor cost productivity is thus seen as the ratio of the service or organization total output to a total input productivity, mathematically is input equals to labor, capital, materials, time and energy.
Technically, according to Nwagboa, Koonts et al (1980), they saw productivity as something that has a significant relationship to efficiency, effectiveness and performance. As with performance, productivity comprises efficiency and effectiveness.
Productivity is seen as a quantitative weighted measure of how efficiently as given set of resources is used to achieve a given set of objectives of targets.
However, the secretaries are the back bone of the office in every organization or ministries; No management or administration can succeed without the secretaries, No doubt in the position of secretaries, the effective development of the ministries or organizations is vital, their roles towards the achievement of the goals and objectives are very important.
The research therefore is to investigate the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in the civil service.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of every study and investigation is usually to discover new facts and more ideas that will help in adding up to the additional knowledge from individual contribution or group. (Dr. Ukegbu 1998).
The main purpose of the study is to investigate and ascertain the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in the civil service.
In a precise term, the study will carry out a systematic inquiry on the following:
 To prove the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of the secretaries in the civil service.
 To prove the role of secretaries in the administrative goals and objective.
Having actual existence outside the mind, it is hoped that the research of this study will prove and suggest as suitable for a purpose where necessary the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in the civil service

1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The research will justify the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries, Hopefully, it will have a distinctive feature of having a structure that provides a connection on the gap created in the area of the secretaries in the civil service structurally, it will create an awareness to the productivity of secretaries in the civil service and other business operators on the need of job satisfaction.
The findings on this topic will give the study of materials and source to discover facts to guide on what and where to put in a specified place in a satisfactory condition for improving the quality of service afford.
It will also create on avenue for further research in educational
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The range of this subject covers the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of the secretaries in the civil service.
The study will centre the interest and the activity of secretary in civil service, most suitable aim on the federal civil service commission and the state civil service commission.
1.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study of materials work on the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in the civil service, it will carryout the source to discover facts to process the limiting of the study, and this covers very ground as the secretaries are the main centre of all activities ministries which move in a circle around the central point.
However, there is no good research work has forbid officially to carryout without some problems due to limited time and material available to the source to discover facts, the general attitude of the society towards research work is the information about job satisfaction which may be the limiting factors in this study.
The study has been limited to two areas of civil service in Nigeria, these two areas’ are as follows:
1. Federal civil service commission
2. State civil service commission

CHAPTER TWO
2.1 THE SECRETARIES CAREER AND JOB SATISFACTION
Looking from the analogy, it is clearly observed that the definition of the word secretary always rest on the profession, a dignified status in the administration. The word encyclopedia defined secretaries as stenographers who have been promoted to more responsible jobs. A stenographer usually performs only the duties that have been directly assigned to her. But a secretary often does work that requires more initiative, responsibility and executive ability.
This occupation is expected to be among those with largest number of new jobs. Opportunities should be best for applicant with extensive knowledge of software applications.
The secretaries today perform fewer clerical tasks and are increasingly taking on the roles of information and communication. As the reliance on technology continues to expand in offices, the role of the office professional has greatly evolved.
Office automation and administrational restructuring have led secretaries and administrative assume responsibilities once reserved for professional staff. In spite of these changes, however, the core responsibilities for secretaries have remained much the same, they are performing and coordinating an offices, administration activities, storing, retrieving and integration information for dissemination to staff and clients. (Dr. Halison 1997).
Secretaries perform variety of administrative and clerical duties necessary to run an organization efficiently. The serve as information and communication head for an office; plan and schedule meetings and appointments; they organist and maintain paper and electronic files, they manage projects, conduct research and disseminate information by using the telephone, mail services, websites and e-mail. they also handle travel and guest arrangements.
Secretaries use a variety of office equipment, such as fat machines, photocopies, scanners, videoconferencing and telephone system. In addition, secretaries often use computers to do tasks previously handled by the coordinators and professionals, such as; create spreadsheets; compose correspondence, manage databases, and create presentations, reports and documents using desktop publishing software and digital graphics.
According to (Dickson Mark 1999) that may secretaries now provide training and orientation for new staff, conduct research on the internet, and operate in troubleshoot new office technologies. They also may negotiate with vendors, maintain and examine lease equipment, purchase supplies, manage areas such as stockrooms or corporate libraries and retrieve data from various sources. At the same time, the office head or coordinator have assumed many tasks traditionally assigned to secretaries such as keyboarding and answering the telephone. Because secretaries do less dictation and word processing, they now have time to support more members of the executive staff. Secretaries and administrative assistants work in teams to work flexibly and share their expertise.
Specific job duties vary with experience and titles secretaries provide high-level administrative support for an office and for top administrative heads in government and other organization. (Mr. Ajayi E. C. 1994) generally, they perform fewer clerical tasks than do secretaries and more information management. In addition to arrange conference calls and supervising other clerical staff, they may handle more complex responsibilities such as reviewing incoming memos, submissions, and reports in order to determine their significance and to plan for the distribution. They also prepare agendas and make arrangements for meetings of committees and executive boards. They also may conduct research and prepare statistical reports.

2.2 THE ROLE OF A SECRETARY IN THE CIVIL SERVICE
The secretary has been described by some authorities as a catalyst because of her interesting role with multi-level employees using the permanent secretaries as my example.
The most senior civil servant in a department is the permanent secretary. Each supports the government minister who heads their department and who is accountable to parliament for the department’s actions and performance (Sir Bob Karslake 2012)
The permanent secretary is the accounting officer for their department, reporting to parliament. They must make sure that their department spends the money allocated to them appropriately.
The permanent secretary leading a department is also responsible to the cabinet secretary and head of the home civil service for the effective day-to-day management of their department and its civil servant.
The head of the civil service is supported in this by all his permanent secretaries through the civil service governance boards. The Boards consider the issues that are important to all departments and decide on the best way forward for the whole civil service. The civil service steering Board (CSSB) chaired by the Head of the home civil service is responsible for the strategic leadership of the civil service.
Beneath this are also sub-groups which develop policies and proposals on long-terms issues such as leadership, employee relation and capability. In the way all of the permanent secretaries are involved in the long-term development of the civil service. The governing bodies of our leaders need to set a clear overall direction for the civil service so that all our different organizations work as a coherent and effective whole.
The permanent secretaries (known by other name in some departments) are the non-political civil service heads and accountable officer or chief executives of government departments, who generally told their position for a number of years at a ministry as distinct from the changing political secretaries of state to whom they report and provide advice.
Normally, a secretary is a member of the clerical staff whose fundamental functions are concerned with the preparation, preservation and presentation of correspondence or communication in all forms within and outside the service. Reading, writing, calculations, research, filing, following up, telephoning, typing, transcribing and many other responsibilities are all parts of secretary’s tools of the trade.
The mastery of office, skills, ability to assume responsibility initiative and judgment are paramount in the secretarial function.

2.3 THE CHALLENGES OF THE NIGERIA SECRETARIES
The fast growing economy requires people who can make quick decision and take prompt actions. High standards of performance are the order of the day.
Educational requirements for jobs have changed and increased tremendously, post previously held by high school graduates one at present being held by university graduates and professionals. Skill requirement of jobs constantly increase because of technological changes (Eni, 1986). The traditional practice whereby secretaries depend on the advancement of their bosses for promotion is declining.
Secretarial personal have been recognized as members of the management team (Shaw 1977), pay rise and promotions are earned on the basis of individual efforts and accomplishments.
Business now demand advanced secretarial skills in areas of business communication, operation of office related machines and organizing ability. Employable personality is constantly emphasized by employers. The base of secretarial subject has been broadened to include a wider range of skills and abilities hitherto unknown to secretaries.
Appraisal system for secretaries have been devised and perfected. Because business is able to set high standards, it can get people who can meet the requirements.
The functions of the business office have become increasingly complex. In addition to technical skills and ability successful office workers must exercise sound judgment and creative insight. Therefore, technical skills alone are no longer enough for employment.
A secretary needs to have a sound knowledge of his employer’s duties. Particular knowledge of the person’s products and procedures of the service in which he has works. In the absence of the employer, it can frequently be called upon to make decisions. He is often consulted for information and advice on multitude of questions which he must provide right answers.
The new breed of secretaries must be prepared to face the challenges of the changing technology and complexities of services. They must also be prepared to chart other professional course if the secretarial professional status is to stand the test of time. The individuals must persist through thick and thin. A survey to determine what areas of knowledge and skills secretary need most in order to function effectively revealed that policies and procedures were more important than skills in shorthand and typewriting (Shaw 1997). Knowledge or business product and services by the secretary helps in the handing most of the interpersonal interdepartmental problem which arise in the daily course of duties.
The background knowledge against which the civil service functions also assists the secretary in the efficient discharge of duties and relationship with other organizations in the country. The secretary is obviously a very important person in both ministries and other private sectors.

2.4 PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CIVIL SERVICE
The civil service is the major institutional structure used by government to implement its policies and programmes. It is composed of the various ministries and department and the bureaucrats and professionals who work within. (Ayiola 1987). Identify the main functions of the civil service as comprising of execution of government policy, the initiation of public policy and advising government of the full implication of policy options open to government decisions and procedures.
In view of the fact that the civil service are public service which payment are so small in terms of her input does not mean that they are not effective in their services. The performance in the civil service especially the secretaries cannot be viewed as being low. As with performance, productivity comprises efficiency and effectiveness. Productivity is seen as a quantitative weighted measure of low efficiently a given set of resource is used to achieve a given set of objectives or job targets.
Efficiency is the ratio of input invested to output obtained. An efficient worker is one who achieved high output with minimum input. Put differently, efficiency means lower cost in terms of means activities, resources and maximum output in term of the accomplishments and result.
Efficiency is important because resources are generally limited. Organizations and individuals make the most out of the tattle resources available to achieve optimum result: hence output accomplishments and results are maximized.
Taking from the perspective, the civil service commission in 1974 clearly expressed high hopes of the Nigeria civil service in the changing world and states as stated below:
The new style public servant is conversant with the objectives and broad outline of the development plan and knows his role in the achievement of targets that come within the area of his responsibility, whether large or small. He is result-oriented and as such is not so much interested in minute a file or writing a “memo” as is worth actually to tackle those political, scientific, economic and technical problems of the modern society. As an instrument of development, it has to be aware of development within the country and outside the country, and the new techniques to apply. According to (Rober to 1972). The passage of time constantly opens to the central government new field of action happen on the ground; he wants to see results. He does not merely administer the established order by processing matters that come before him, he manages and that is, he makes things happen by organizing men and materials in order to achieve the particular objectives of his ministry or organization within time target. Such management is a vital factor in Nigeria’s drive for development.
The above perception of the function and significance of the civil service as articulated by Jerome Udoji’s commission has stated in a nutshell the task ahead of the developing civil service of Nigeria. The civil services as an organization has gone through various structural reforms alone certain prescribed norms, ostensibly to enable it meet the new challenges of development administration in the future. It is against the foregoing developmental roles and significance in the civil service industry that its productivity concerns can be better appreciated and studies against the background of work altitude. Taken from chief Udoji’s view, he expressed high hope of optimism on the skill, role and determination of the Nigeria civil service, to succeed; it becomes surprising that today the general perception of the civil service is that of ineptitude, inactivity, low productivity, negative work attitude, corruption and so on. It is hypothesized that high productivity is predicate on a traffic change of negative work altitude of the Nigeria public officer.
Despite the above difficulties in measuring and quantifying productivity in the civil service, coupled with factors militating against increased productivity as highlighted above, it is imperative that certain parameters must be established to enable management evaluate the productivity of individual (MBO) to set target for individual worker and organization will be help full.
With these techniques, it is possible to say how many files and administrative officer can attend to how many pages of documents a typist should be able to types within specific number of days etc.

2.5 PRODUCTION PROBLEMS IN THE NIGERIA CIVIL SERVICE
The problem of productivity in Nigeria ranks high in government’s contending issues. For this reason, there is a full fledge ministry of labor and productivity and national productivity centers scattered in the zones all over the country. These centers are to promote productivity awareness and consciousness among Nigerian in the various sectors of the economy. There is also the national productivity day. In the civil service, seven reforms including the 1988, 1997/98 and the 2000 reform have been affected to ensure enhanced productivity, among others. These efforts are indicative of government concern for higher productivity as the bedrock of growth and development. The efforts are also a reflection of the dept of the problem of productivity in Nigeria in general and civil service in particular.
The problem of productivity has also been the concern of scholars in Nigeria; many have agreed that there is low productivity (output) in civil service. That the productivity is low as an incontrovertible fact, many empirical studies have conformed the fact. The most recent works of (Adebayo 1981), (Olugbemi 1987), (Dike 1985) (Philip and Olusanya 1997) are testifable works to this facts. (Adebayo 1981) listed thirteen factors that are responsible for efficiency in public service in Nigeria a follows:
1. Faculty recruitment,
2. Faculty posting and frequent posting,
3. Inadequate training,
4. Deteriorating health
5. Incompetent supervisors
6. Lack of clear objectives
7. Conflict between administration and professional
8. Undue advancement,
9. Lack of helpful political direction
10. Massive purges of the public publics (1975 and 1997
11. False declaration of age
Olugbemi (1987) observed failure in development, low and fallen moral discontinuity in policy, replacement of the merit principle, societal impact on the service, amalgamation of the generalists and professionals, duplication of jurisdiction overlap of burgeon size of the service and operational factors. Olusanya (1997) added that the 1975 purge, corruption, poor reward system, the abolition of the poor permanent secretary as well as that of head of service and the politicization of the service under the 1988 reform. These factors one said to be the problems of productivity in Nigeria civil service.

2.6 ATTITUDE OF CIVIL SERVANT TO WORK
Attitude is defined as a way of thinking, an individual characteristic way of responding to an objective or solution. It is based on his experience and that lead to certain behavior or expressions of certain opinion, also known as self-confident or hostile behavior.
Attitude determines the employees approach to work. In the absence of attitudinal measurement data of work attitude of Nigeria civil servants by psychologists, a cursory observation of daily experience behavior reveal some basic negative attitude which are not helpful to increase productivity. (Omolayeye 1988) puts it that one of the biggest factors regarding progress in productivity in the country is attitude to work and general indiscipline in relation to work. He added that Nigerians have money but do no want to work hard, those who work hard are said to be doing “Afamaco work” (No man’s Job).

In Nigeria, there is the belief that there is general apathy towards government work, which according to (Uchi 1998) said, it is hardly identifiable, badly suffers any. There is also this belief that government has a social responsibility to provide and keep citizens in employment whether it is economically reasonable to do so or not. This is the reason why government establishments are usually over bloated and those without specific schedule of duties come to office, sign the attendance register and disappear into the thin air. And there was a belief that once you get into government work it will almost be impossible to get out until retirement. But the military regimes broke the myth in 1975, 1995, and 1997 respectively when they carried put service of retrenchment exercises at the federal civil service.
Attitude to work is a critical determinant of productivity in any business public, or organization. It has to do with the feedings, habits and belief that pre-dispose a positive or negative attitude to work. Some beliefs, habits feelings ad motives are supportive of positive work ethics and behavior and therefore necessary for the performance of specific jobs. On the other hand, there may also be experience and behaviors that are supportive of negative attitude to work. The attitude affects the way a worker relates to, conceives and views his job. It shows how committed, dedicated, hard working and performing a work is in relation to the objectives of the organization. As a result of these belief and many other factors, the work altitude of the Nigeria civil servant has lately been characterized by inefficiency, poor achievement of results, shoddy handling of services, abuse of office, lack of initiative, lack of maintenance, culture conflicts, delays corruption, high cost of projects and quality of work output, poor low commitment.
Moral and low productivity- include callousness, insensitivity, non-responsiveness, lateness to duty, idleness, laxity, indiscipline, sleeping in duty, rudeness to superiors, insubordination, drunkenness, use of foul language, gross negligence, disobedience, dishonesty, lying, false claims and many other bad unethical behaviors and misconduct now pervade the work force in the public sector and some public servant and some public servant and some private organization.
We must however, add that some public servants are working hard. Well dedicated and conscientious in their services to their country e.g. Dr. Richard Ofuru, the permanent secretary ministry for education Rivers State. These are the people that keep the machinery of the state going on. Closely related to work attitudes are work ethics. Ethics are code of conducts by which human beings have their lives regulated for the general good of all. Ethics enables us to judge the correctness and wrongness of an action. These are the basic of work ethics and are set rules that govern the behavior of workers in their place of work.
There are different code of conduct governing the different professions nevertheless, code such as punctuality, honesty, dedication; confidentiality and loyalty are common and highly cherished in all organizations, the civil service inclusive the degree of adherence to these codes of conduct in Nigeria public service leave much to be desired.

2.7 ENHANCING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CIVIL SERVICE
Any meaningful attempt at increasing productivity in the Nigeria civil service must focus alteration on the workers and his attitude to work, the job which must be evaluated through work study, the management whose supervisory role must be reassessed and strengthened; the internal work environment must meet its obligations to the workers as an employer.
Every Nigerian intellectual who has an opportunity to talk and write on productivity has made a umber of recommendations to enhance productivity in Nigeria. For example, Engr. P. U. Ajayi, in one of the productivity lectures organized by NPC, talks about improvement of productivity through motivation. He emphasized financial and non-financial incentives. Under non-financial coordinating, controlling and motivating workers so that they can provide goods and services, he added that labor union must seen themselves as partners with government in enhancing productivity.

Osunde, in his opinion, listed the following; provision of necessary gadgets, such as fans and air conditions in officer, adequate office accommodation, and employer has a significance part to play. The question them is, how do we improve the attitude of the Nigerian public service workers? The government in the past made several attempts through the activities of the directorate of social mobilization (Mamsef) and now the National Orientation Agency (NOA), the War against Indiscipline and Corruption (WAIC). In November 1999, the president launched a programmes of “A National Rebirth” all aimed at re-orientating Nigerian towards a new outlook in the new democratic dispensation.
As mentioned earlier, an altitude determines the employer’s approach to his work which either may be positive or negative. For example, a person who come to work punctually and performs his duties conscientiously has a positive attitude before taking up employment in an organization but many other may not. In many cases, employees do not have special vocation towards their work and unless their attitude can be changed and redirected towards positive ends in their Jobs. They may never be successful employees. Attitude varies according to the nature of job. To train and re-direct people attitudes, may prove difficult because of the time people seek employment, they may have developed certain basic attitudes.
Furthermore, attitude that are deep-rooted in people and cannot easily be changed and re-directed through a carefully designed programmes of training and ministering. The following methods have been found useful and rewarding.
a. The trainee (worker) could be made to benefit from on the job experiences of other employees who posses the appropriate attitude to work. Every worker in the service is not bad, for example, a perpetual late comer could be requested to work with a person who is very punctual and who will monitor him closely.
b. The trainee could also be attached to a senior employee who has the appropriate attitude and good personal qualities that can influence the trainee. The senior employee could then coach the trainee on the virtue of good attitude at work.
c. The use of case studies: This is to involve a group of employees in the discussion of case studies that emphasize relevant attitudes to particular different jobs at specific times. This can be done at an implant seminar/workshop.
d. Another method is to involve trainees in the discussion of each others attitude. In this way, they indulge in self-criticism and appraisals which may prove positive at the end. Such discussion will show what other people think about their attitudes and this can lead to a change of bad attitudes and habits.
All or many of these methods can be used profitably without disruption of normal work in the ministries and will cost government very little than full blown conferences and seminars. This brings to focus the role f management in enhancing productivity in the public service management team in the ministries refers to the ministers/commissioners at chief executives, permanent secretaries as administrative head and directors and assistant directors. They should lead/manage by examples. These people should be able to co-ordinate the human resources of government, retrain every employee to develop the right attitude to work required in the civil service.
As Dr. Michael Omolayde, a one time managing director of leventis puts it, when a human being is well trained, well remunerated and well motivated; he is capable of achieving higher productivity through experience acquired higher on the job. In a similar view, A.P Leventis (Director, Leventis Group of Companies) quoting F. Latin Chairman of W. R. & co. puts it like this “productivity management depends on the recognition that people are the key to productivity”. It is up to top management to create the productive organization than to recruit and develop good people and to make compensation adequate.

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
This chapter is primarily concerned with the design and procedures adopted in data collection and analysis. The design work are presented under the following headings: design of the study, Area of the study, population of the study, simple of the study, entrustment for data collection, validation of the instrument, administration of the instrument and method of data analyses.

3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY
This research is simply a research survey study which seeks to determine and investigate the effects of job satisfaction in the productivity of secretaries in the civil service.

3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY
The research is a case study of secretaries at the federal civil service commission and the state civil service commission. It would investigate the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in civil service.

3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The secretaries in the federal civil service and state civil service commission would constitute the population of study. A total number of fifty (50) secretaries, each were drawn from the two ministries sharing twenty five within, to form the population.

3.4 SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
A total number of fifty (50) secretaries, each would be drawn from federal civil service and state civil service, sharing twenty five within the ministries and simple to determine the real population of research.

3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
The instrument used for data collection would be questionnaire, containing structured questions. The questionnaire was designed to elicit responses on the research questions.

3.6 ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT
The researcher would personally administer the questionnaire. This will be done in order to reduce non-response rate. A total number of one hundred (100) copies of the questionnaire would be administered.

3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
This collected data would be displayed in a tabular form and analyzed, using simple percentage. The research questions would be answered.

BOKO HARAM


THE BOKO HARAM SET

(ORIGIN, IDEOLOGY AND MODE OF OPERATION)

INTRODUCTION
Boko Haram was created in 2002 in Maiduguri, the capital of the northeastern state of Borno, by Islamist cleric Mohammed Yusuf, who led a group of radical Islamist youth in the 1990s. The group aims to establish a fully Islamic state in Nigeria, including the implementation of criminal sharia courts across the country. Paul Lubeck, a University of California professor studying Muslim societies in Africa, says Yusuf was a trained Salafist (a school of thought often associated with jihad), and was strongly influenced by Ibn Taymiyyah, a fourteenth-century legal scholar who preached Islamic fundamentalism and is an important figure for radical groups in the Middle East.
The sect calls itself Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati Wal-Jihad, or “people committed to the propagation of the prophet’s teachings and jihad.” It’s widely known as Boko Haram, which colloquially translates into “Western education is sin,” for its rejection of Western concepts such as evolution and the big bang theories.
ORIGIN
The sect calls itself Jama’atul Alhul Sunnah Lidda’wati wal jihad, or “people committed to the propagation of the prophet’s teachings and jihad.” The name, Boko Haram, was given to the group by residents of Maiduguri, Borno state where the group was formed. “Boko” means “fake”, but is used to signify Western education, while “Haram” means “forbidden”, so Boko Haram colloquially translates into “Western education is sin.”
Boko Haram’s origins are believed to have been influenced by the teachings of Maitatsine, Mohammed Marwa, a Muslim fundamentalist, who rejected the influence of the education system imposedd by the British when they conquered the Sokoto Caliphate in 1903. Its followers also strictly adhere to a phrase from the Koran which states, “Anyone who is not governed by what Allah has revealed is among the transgressors”.
Boko Haram was created in 2002 by Mohammad Yusuf (1970-2009), a radical Islamist cleric, in Maiduguri, Borno state, in northeastern Nigeria. He set up a religious complex, called Markaz, following his expulsion from two mosques in Maiduguri by Muslim clerics for propagating his radical views. The complex included a mosque and an Islamic school. Many poor Muslim families in Nigeria, and neighbouring countries, sent their children to the school to get a proper education which the government of Nigeria has failed to provide. The centre had ulterior political goals to to create an Islamic state and impose Sharia laws, and it soon became a recruiting ground for future jihadis to fight the state.
For the first seven years of its existence, Boko Haram’s operations were relatively peaceful, and they typically only criticized northern Muslims for participating in what the group considered to be an illegitimate, non-Islamic state, but in 2009 the government began investigating reports that Boko Haram members were arming themselves, and when Boko Haram members defied a ban on riding motorcycles without helmets, this led to deadly clashes with Nigeria security forces. The incident was suppressed by the army and about 700 people are estimated to have been killed. The group’s founder, Mohammad Yusuf, was also arrested and was later killed while still in police custody. His father in-law and other sect members were also killed in circumstances which human rights groups have called extra-judicial killings. Mohammad Yusuf’s lifeless body was shown on television and the security forces declared that Boko Haram had been eradicated.
However, after Mohammad Yusuf’s death, Boko Haram carried out its first terrorist attack in Borno state in January 2010 and four people were killed. Since then, Boko Haram has increased the frequency and intensity of its attacks with increased suicide bombings and assassinations spreading from Maiduguri to Abuja.
IDEOLOGY
Boko Haram was founded as an indigenous group, turning itself into a Jihadist group in 2009. It proposes that interaction with the Western world is forbidden, and also supports opposition to the Muslim establishment and the government of Nigeria.
The members of the group do not interact with the local Muslim population[42] and have carried out assassinations in the past of anyone who criticises it, including Muslim clerics.
In a 2009 BBC interview, Mohammed Yusuf, then leader of the group, stated his belief that the fact of a spherical Earth is contrary to Islamic teaching and should be rejected, along with Darwinian evolution and the fact of rain originating from water evaporated by the sun. Before his death, Yusuf reiterated the group’s objective of changing the current education system and rejecting democracy. Nigerian academic Hussain Zakaria told BBC News that the controversial cleric had a graduate education, spoke proficient English, lived a lavish lifestyle and drove a Mercedes-Benz.
In the wake of the 2009 crackdown on its members and its subsequent reemergence, the growing frequency and geographical range of attacks attributed to Boko Haram have led some political and religious leaders in the north to the conclusion that the group has now expanded beyond its original religious composition to include not only Islamic militants, but criminal elements and disgruntled politicians as well. For instance Borno State Governor Kashim Shettima said of Boko Haram: “[they have] become a franchise that anyone can buy into. It’s something like a Bermuda Triangle.” The group has also forcibly converted non-Muslims to Islam.
Dr Ahmad Murtada of the Islamic Studies Department, University of Bayero, Kano has noted in his research into Mohammed Yusuf and Boko Haram that the core principles of the group are: an emphasis on ‘Hakimiyyah’ [sovereignty to God’s law]; a belief that they are the “Saved Sect” mentioned in the Prophetic Tradition of Islam; prohibiting studying in Western educational centres of learning as they consider them to be based on non-Islamic traditions and colonialism, they thus criticise Saudi Arabia for its usage of “Western” educational methods; prohibiting working in any governmental institution or civil service role; a contorted interpretation of the edicts of scholars from the classical tradition such as Ibn Taymiyyah to support their rebellions and use of violence; post-2009 a close relationship with al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and further incorporation into the global Jihadi and Takfiri worldview. Boko Haram have thus been widely rejected and repudiated by adherents of the Salafi tradition in Nigeria.
MODE OF OPERATION
In March 2012, it was reported that Boko Haram had taken a strategy to simulate convoys of high-profile Nigerians to access target buildings that are secured with fortifications. Boko Haram has also reportedly attacked Christian worship centres to “trigger reprisal in all parts of the country”, distracting authorities so they can unleash attacks elsewhere.
The group is also known for using motorcycles as a vehicle to assassinating government officials and security officers. This has led to motorcycle bans in the city of Maiduguri.
It was gathered that the group uses the Internet to propagate its activities and enhance its radicalisation and circulation of extremist ideologies. Boko Haram is reportedly planning to greatly increase its following in many states. Talk of Naija reported that Boko Haram has been involved in a recruitment drive, and they are allegedly targeting Muslims between ages of 17 and 30, and have also been recruiting freed prisoners through prison breaks. The group is also known to assign non-Kanuris on suicide missions.
The same source disclosed that the sect has developed a sophisticated leadership structure that includes several departments headed by highly trained personnel and charged with specific assignments. The security source stated that the organization, which is waging a violent fight against the Nigerian state, has developed a layered organizational structure.
“The Shura Council serves as the highest decision making body,” said the source. In addition, the sect has recruited numerous members trained as specialists in suicide bombings. Other sub-groups include those specialized in stealing/disposing expensive cars at gun point for use in terrorist work; those who gather intelligence and carry out research for possible targets and modes of operation; those trained as ground troops to repel security agents and other counter actions against the sect in armed duels.
The source disclosed that Boko Haram maintains a department in charge of bomb making as well as the fixing of explosives for suicide bombers and bomb planters. A different cell specializes in planting bombs at targeted sights. In addition, there is a department that handles the welfare of members as well as suicide bombers’ surviving wives and children.
The sect’s public enlightenment department takes charge of outside communication, including all email, “youtube” and other video coverage. A team is charged with recruitment and training of new members.
Also, the medical committee oversees the healthcare needs of members and their families.

Members of the Boko Haram sect have now devised a new mode of operation as they now resort to destroying farmlands yet to be harvested by setting such farms on fire.
In its modes of operations, Boko Haram seems to function in two ways;

1. As a faceless group of coward terrorists

As a faceless group, they carry out co-ordinated surprise attacks against defenseless citizens striking at churches, markets, relaxation spots and government offices. They typically use suicide bomb attacks or hit and run gun attacks from motorcycles. The Christmas Day Bombings, gun attacks against Christians in Church in Yola and Bauchi and the UN building bombing are examples.

2. As a spineless group of militants

They would typically organize themselves into armed groups of scores of armed men with guns and bombs and attack targets often times shooting and killing people indiscriminately and burning houses, cars and attacking police stations etc. The last Kano attack, the Damaturu attacks on churches and co-ordinated attacks against soldiers on patrol in Maiduguri are examples.

Recommendations

Based on my analysis, these are my recommendations;

1. Government through the security agencies should round up their members and interrogate the lower rung members to obtain information about their operations
2. Identify and assassinate their sponsors and leaders. This works very well because terrorist groups operate on a one-to-many basis meaning that death of their leaders weakens their network and efficiency, their sponsors and leaders are cowards and don’t want to die, once they start dying, the tide begins to change.
3. Deploy soldiers to patrol areas where they have operated with so much impunity. Maiduguri is calmer today because of the efforts of JTF, instead they have shifted base to Chad and Cameroun from where they infiltrate our country and carry out their attacks.
4. Use airstrikes to attack their bases and hideouts. With our defence budget this year we should be able to buy a few drones and attack helicopters to deal with these animals. Israel deals with militants this way, Hamas is always scared of carrying out rocket attacks because of airstrikes that has killed many of their leaders in the past.
5. Citizens should go about their lawful business and shouldn’t fear Boko Haram. They need us to be scared for them to have any power over us. Just be vigilant and inform the police whenever you see something suspicious
6. Dialogue with them should not be an option, this will only embolden them and give them more reasons to carry out further attacks
TIMELINE OF BOKO HARAM ATTACKS AND ACTIVITIES
• February 2014: attack on some village settlement in Michika LGA of Adamawa state.
• February 2014: attack on the Convoy of Adamawa state Governor
• February 2014: 49 secondary school students killed in yobe state
• January 2012: Boko Haram launches bomb attacks and heavy gun battles in Kano targeting the police headquarters. Over 150 people reported killed.
• January 2012: President Goodluck Jonathan says Boko Haram has infiltrated government, including the executive, national assembly and the judiciary.
• January 2012: President Goodluck Jonathan declares a state of emergency in 15 local government areas in Borno, Yobe and Plateau states and also orders the closure of Nigeria’s land borders in the north.
• December 2011: Christmas Day bomb attack on Saint Theresa Catholic Church in Madalla, Niger state, near Abuja. One policeman is killed in a failed bomb attack on a church in Jos, Plateau state.
• November 2011: Boko Haram announces that it will not hold talks with the government until all members of the sect, who have been arrested, are released.
• November 2011: Series of bomb and gun attacks in Yobe and Borno states
• September 2011: Babakura Fugu, brother-in-law to late Boko Haram leader, Mohammed Yusuf, is shot dead two days after attending a peace meeting with ex-President Olusegun Obasanjo. Boko Haram denies any involvement in the incident.
• August 2011: UN headquarters in Abuja is bombed. Boko Haram claims responsibility for the suicide bomb. 23 people killed.
• July 2011: Federal government states that it will create a panel to initiate negotiations with Boko Haram.
• August 2011: Federal government rejects negotiations with Boko Haram.
• June 2011: Muslim cleric critical of Boko Haram, Ibrahim Birkuti, is shot dead by two gunmen on a motorcycle.
• June 2011: Police headquarters in Abuja is bombed
• May 2011: Bomb attacks in several states after President Goodluck Jonathan’s inauguration
• December 2010: Attack on Army barracks in Abuja.
• December 2010: Bombings in Jos, Plateau state and Maiduguri, Borno state kill about 80 people.
• December 2010: Governorship candidate of the All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) in Borno state and seven others shot dead by gunmen suspected to be Boko Haram members
• September 2010: Boko Haram members attack a prison in Bauchi and freed hundreds of prisoners, including about 100 members of the sect.
• July 2009: Boko Haram attacks Maiduguri police stations. Hundreds are killed
• July 2009: Mohammed Yusuf, leader of Boko Haram, is captured by the Nigerian army and handed over to police. He is found dead later and the police claims he was killed while trying to escape. Residents and human rights groups claim that he was assasinated.
• June 2009: Boko Haram members refuse to follow a motor-bike helmet law. Clashes with joint military and police occur, and 17 Boko Haram members are killed. Mohammed Yusuf releases a video recording to the president where he threatens revenge attacks.
• 2007: Buju Foi, an influential Boko Haram member,is appointed by Borno state governor, Ali Modu Sheriff, as commissioner of religious affairs.
• 2002: Boko Haram is founded

BOKO HARAM: PICTURE GALLERY

Leader of the Sect, Abubakar Shekau Houses bombarded by Boko Haram militant

Former Leader, Yusuf Mohammed, Islamist group attack a town hall in Adamawa state
Killed in Gun duel with the Army.

Bomb buildings in kano state Bomb media house in Kaduna

Bomb police complex in Abuja Part of UN building bomb

Bomb cars and building in kano and Abuja

Bomb U.N building

CONCLUSION
Many of the group’s senior radicals were reportedly partially inspired by the late Islamic preacher known as Maitatsine. Others believe the group is motivated by inter-ethnic disputes as much as religion, and that its founder Yusuf believed there was a campaign of “ethnic cleansing” by Plateau State governor Jonah Jang against the Hausa and Fulani people. Amnesty International has accused the Nigerian government of human rights abuses after 950 suspected Boko Haram militants died in detention facilities run by Nigeria’s military Joint Task Force in the first half of 2013. The conflicts have left around 90,000 people displaced. Human Rights Watch claims that Boko Haram uses child soldiers, including 12 year olds.

REFERENCES
1. “Profile of Nigeria’s Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau”. BBC News. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
2. “Nigeria policemen in court trial for Boko Haram killing”. BBC News. 13 July 2011.
3. “Innermost thoughts of The Islamist group Boko Haram”. Reporters Without Borders.
4. Ogbonnaya Obinna (29 September 2011). “Boko Haram is battle for 2015, says Chukwumerije”. The Nation.
5. David Cook (26 September 2011). “The Rise of Boko Haram in Nigeria”. Combating Terrorism Centre. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
6. Nnenna Ibeh (June 5, 2013). “Boko Haram members flee to Niger as Nigerian military arrest 55 terrorists in Yobe, Borno”. The Premium Times, Nigeria. Retrieved June 2013.
7. André Burstin (1 March 2013). “Boko Haram and The risk of terrorism in northern Cameroon”. ESISC Research Associate. Retrieved 2013-05-09.
8. Chris Agbambu, James Bwala, Hassan Ibrahim and Leon Usigbe (9 May 2013). “Bama attackers were Nigerians, Cameroonians”. Nigerian Tribune. Retrieved 2013-05-0

HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM


HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM

CREATING IDEAS FOR TOMORROW’S DREAM
http://www.hyattractions.net
hyattractions@yahoo.com

(WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW)

HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM
STATE OF THE FIRM, MARCH 2014
Many have ask about this profile and indeed since 2011, when Hyattractions system enter wordpress, its profile and ranks have sore high.
Hyattractions system is a business firm involve in online resources and internet services. It is an online and offline business firm located in Port Harcourt, Rivers state. It deals on online resources and internet services. Its business ventures include consultancy, Forex trading, online soccer betting, online resources and internet services.
It was established after the dissolution of VALLINKS INTEGRATED SERVICES in 2007. By March 2008, it started limited operation. However by March 2011 it was posted live on the internet. The following year, it enters into agreement with JOECRACK CONCEPT and become fully operational by JANUARY 8TH 2013.
The firm is an entrepreneur outfit (sole proprietorship) but it is run in accordance with organizational structure and channels. It is run by the Director of Operations-VALENTINE CHIDOZIE UWAKWE, a graduate of Geography & Environmental Management. It structural caddle includes, the General Manager, Director of communications, Director of Finance, Director of protocols.

The firm is divided into the following divisions which is control by a central working council.
BUSINESS MOTTO:
The official business motto for our organization is CREATING IDEAS FOR TOMORROW’S DREAMS.
BUSINESSCOLOURS
Yellow, Green and Red.
BUINESS ETHICS
We believe in fair and genuine transactions of our dealing with our numerous clients and customers.
BUSINESS FLAG AND SEAL
The seal of Hyattractions system is the PYRAMID with our motto: creating Ideas for tomorrow’s dreams in latin at the bottom of the pyramid base. The flag has a plain white background with a small pyramid in the middle (cut in strips by the yellow, red and green lines)
VISION STATEMENT
To become the leading online resources and internet service centre on campus by becoming known for the services we render our numerous clients and customers.
MISSION STATEMENT
To provide our numerous clients and customers online resources and internet services that are of rich and quality content in a customer friendily condition and competitive price.
CONTACTS:
The following are the available means to reach us;
OFFICE ADDRESS;
Shop 31, Choba shopping complex, Choba/uniport, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
EMAIL:
hyattractions@yahoo.com
valentine202@yahoo.com
valentineuwakwe@gmail.com
BLOG:
http://www.hyattractions.wordpress.com
WEBSITE:
http://www.hyattractions.net
CELLPHONE:
08033559733, 08098984202

BUSINESS POLICY
The firm has three basic cardinal point which entails;
* Customer first and their interest,
* Quality and satisfactory services and
* Revenue Generation
DIVISIONS
Hyattractions system is divided into various divisions which are spelt out briefly below;
ONLINE DIVISION:
This is the department responsible for all internet services ranging from online registration to students related issues on campus.
ACADEMIC /RESEARCH WING:
This is the department responsible for handling all academic and research work or programme involving the general public, especially students and scholars.
ONLINE SOCCER BETTING:
This is the online soccer betting department that includes Forex trading, Binary options, sales of Ebook and promotion of Referrel links. It is currently seen as the biggest revenue earner for the firm.
OFFLINE DIVISION (CONSULTATION):
This is the department that is offline (not internet base).it involves a wide range of consultations especially for students and the academician.
ISLAND RESOURCES Incorporated
This is the newest creation of the firm as it intends to use this division to venture into the major world in term of profit oriented business. It would handle the major areas of Management, Environment, Geography, Aviation, Oil and Gas, Transport, supermarket, butequtte collections and General Mercantile.
FIRM CURRENCY:
The approve official currency recognized is the US dollars $, but for transactional needs the Nigerian Naira is used. However in all our reports and end of the year formats, we calculate in US dollars.
STAFF STRENGHT:
The Total staff strength of the firm is put at seven (7) all in the payroll list.
STAFF WELFARE:
The average worker earn between $4-6 dollars, totaling $100-120 monthly.
There daily feeding is taken care of during Mondays and Fridays

WEEKEND SCHEDULE:
Some staffs are exempted from weekend duties but the Operations and General Manager are bound to come only for a short while of between 9am-4pm.
ASSET
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource. Our greatest asset is our intellectual properties and intelligence in the industry.
Anything tangible or intangible that is capable of being owned or controlled to produce value and that is held to have positive it is money and other valuables belonging to an individual or business. This includes two laptops, three desktops, one multipurpose printer and a small Generator. Plans are underway to expand on all this asset soonext in order to boast daily generated income.
Current assets
Current assets are cash and other assets expected to be converted to cash or consumed either in a year or in the operating cycle (whichever is longer), without disturbing the normal operations of a business. These assets are continually turned over in the course of a business during normal business activity. There are 5 major items included into current assets:
1. Cash and cash equivalents — the firm has a current account and a domiciliary account with SKY BANK. Other Banks account are in savings and are spread among top banks namely UBA, GT bank, Access Bank, FCMB (online banking).
2. Short-term investments — include our domiciliary account used for short term savings.
3. Receivables — usually reported as net of allowance for noncollectable accounts.
4. Inventory — trading these assets is a normal business of a company.
5. Prepaid expenses — these are expenses paid in cash and recorded as assets before they are used or consumed (common examples are insurance or office supplies).
Long-term investments
Often referred to simply as “investments”. Long-term investments are to be held for many years and are not intended to be disposed of in the near future. This group usually consists of three types of investments:
1. Investments in securities such as bonds, common stock, or long-term notes.
2. Investments in fixed assets not used in operations (e.g., land held for sale).
3. Investments in special funds (e.g. sinking funds or pension funds):A pension scheme will be opened in 2015.

N.B. the firm presently, does not have an insurance policy in place. As our investment is currently spread on all our departments which will last for a period of 2years. (2013-2015).
FIXED ASSETS
Also referred to as PPE (property, plant, and equipment), these are purchased for continued and long-term use in earning profit in a business. This group includes as an asset land, buildings, machinery, furniture, tools, IT equipment, e.g., laptops, and certain wasting resources e.g., timberland and minerals.
What is usually seen as fixed asset in our firm are;
Printing papers, refill inks, ink cartridges, flash drives, power packs, fuel, tissues, internet subscriptions, modems, laptops and desktops, printers, electrical gadgets, etc.
LIABILITIES:
A company’s legal debts or obligations that arise during the course of business operations. Liabilities are settled over time through the transfer of economic benefits including money, goods or services. Liabilities include loans, accounts payable, mortgages, deferred revenues and accrued expenses. Liabilities are a vital aspect of a company’s operations because they are used to finance operations and pay for large expansions. They can also make transactions between businesses more efficient. Outside of accounting and finance this term simply refers to any money or service that is currently owed to another party.
Current liabilities are debts payable within one year, which is stood at N…, ……..while long-term liabilities are debts payable over a longer period. We have none. The hanging liability ranges from annual rents, staff salaries, operational and maintenance cost.
OPERATIONAL COST
The firm operational cost at inception was on the high side reaching a record high of $40 in December 2013. It has however been reduce as revenue has continue to float around $50-70 per day. The inability to maintain a steady figure is due to a lot of issues which need to be address ranging from upgrading of most internet gadgets and office equipment. Thus we are soliciting for funds in the tune of $2000 to upgrade most facilities. If this is attained, we are sure to meet our presumed daily target of $130 per day (minus expenses).
END OF THE YEAR SUMMARY
The firm is bound to produce an end of the year summary report subject to approval by it working council. It is usually published annually for the general public to see.
FUTURE GOALS
It has been outline in our mission statement and our motto. We plan to attain a record breaking feat before 2016 base on our medium term plan. We believe we can do this but not only if we have your continued support, loyalty and patronage and the Almighty God on our side. success for Hyattractions systems is sure to be a reality!
AWARDS AND ATTAINMENTS
Despite our limited range of equipment and short time in campus internet activities, we have been able to beat our imaginations. We thank you our numerous clients, customers, students, scholars and the general public for having such faith in us. We promise to do more. Some of awards and achievements speak for it.
1. FASTEST GROWING ENTREPRENUER ON CHOBA CAMPUS:
With a month of our office roll out in choba, we were given this award as we beat so many people’s expectation to occupy the position we are today.
2. CUSTOMER FRIENDLY RELATIONS/ATMOSPHERE:
We have carved a name for selves as we position our organization as the friendliest firm on choba campus. No wonder, customers say at Hyattractions system, there is never a dull moment.
3. QUICKEST CUSTOMER BASE:
We were even surprise as within three week of our office roll outs we amass a huge customer base that flock to us for our quality work.this we have constantly maintained by opening a customer diary and getting in touch with all during festival periods.
4. SEARCH ENGINE AWARD:
We surpass all in the industry here in choba/uniport when our eye catching blog (www.hyattractions.wordpress.com) was ranked 1,005,342 in the world on search engine with Google. That same month, Google sent us a welcome message to join their adsense program while waiting the confirmation of our website at http://www.hyattractions.net.
5. HIGHEST NUMBER/BEST OF ARTICLE(S):
Till date, among bloggers in Port Harcourt axis of Nigeria, we were adjudge with the blog with the highest number of qualitative article….as of March 2014, we have published a total of 2,294 articles and three of such won best article awards for months consecutively. They are; ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS AND CONVENTION, ONLINE SOCCER BETTING FOR BEGINNERS OR STARTERS, ONLINE SOCCER BETTING, THE HIDDEN FACTS AND AMERICA/BRITAIN IN PROPHECY. Daily, their readership sours above 1,000.
6. BLOG OF THE MONTH:
Our organization blog was launch in March 11, 2011 and in 2013, for four straight consecutive months (March-June2013), our blog http://www.hyattractions.wordpress.com won the blog of the months with wordpress.com.
TECHNICAL COOPERATION AND PARTNERSHIP
In order to effectively manage and maintain our position as an online resource and internet service station, we have deem it necessary and of importance to enter into an alliance or co operational partnership with some other leading firm on campus. On these sister firm, our partnership is solid as we are free to do any online resource work or print out documents at no cost. We see them as partner, rather than competitors and by all standards a leading firm. These include;
* JOECRACK CONCEPTS
* SETTO RESOURCES
* RICHIE TECHNOLOGIES
* ST. MICHAELS
* RHEMAZICO CONCEPT INTERNATIONAL.

THE END

SOCCER BETTING AND THE HIDDEN FACTS


ONLINE BETTING SECRETS FOR BEGINNER OR STARTERS;
THE HIDDEN FACTS
INTRODUCTION
We have seen from all available facts that online soccer betting is real and one can win…in fact your fortunes can change if you know all the antics and follow what has been stated here carefully. I have received several calls for my manual to be given free but alas…..if you get anything free, you may not value it, but when you pay for something you value it and tend to be serious in it. Here is great chance to get it. Some of the hidden facts on my manual have been included here to make u see that I am saying the truth. I am not here to deceive anyone as I have and will continue to be a witness to life transformation through Nairabet.
You must have read my other articles and many more will be publish but meanwhile after you must have seen this, please print it out and make use of it. Online betting is real and it can help you. Don’t be so discourage about the heavy losses you must have gone through, you can recover such in one day or gradually. I too would not say it has been rosy for me but I can clearly say that weekly at least I put in a weekly request withdrawal of 5,000.when ever it’s the champions league round of sixteen upwards to the finals as well as the Europa cup, I make in a withdrawal request of 10,000 per week.
I have been with nairabet since September 2011 and this whole years have afforded me the opportunity to know, studied, and reveal the secrets and hidden facts about online betting.
The key word here is making it as a BUSINESS VENTURE AND SEE THAT REAL MONEY is involved here! A business investment where your profit and losses would always count. Most of us just see it as fun or “try-n-luck” stuff whereas it is a real time investment. Even the bookies, let say nairabet or 1960bet, etc make huge profits from losers’ week in, week out. For example, nairabet have 410,000 registered members if that numbers play a certain event or game with N50 and losses, that will translate to 410,000 x N50 given you =N20,500,000! Can u imagine that?
I know again most bet sites would hate me on this but I am always involve in the ones that gives instant returns on my investment…I mean, when I win a game, let my income be paid within 48hrs and also withdraw as I love daily.

THESE ARE SOME OF THE HIDDEN FACTS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT ONLINE BETTING BEFORE YOU START.
1. BOOKIES
These are the various bet sites who wants you to join then and place your bets. They will lure you with various antics and juicy odds, but the truth is that they all want you to fail…so bear these in mind…to loss and for them to make profit from you. This is the simple truth. They are also business people like you and I.
2. BETTING SITES
These are the numerous soccer betting sites that always want you to use their analyses and index to place your bets…the truth is that most of them work hand in hand for you to fail and for them to make profit from your bets. Imagine a bookie of bet365 given you analyses to place bets from their site and win…think of it.
3. HIGHER ODDS
Please, don’t mistake this to be bad.At times high odds on a match can mislead punters to think something else, i.e in the process of making huge winnings you fall for it. The underdogs may be given the higher odds and you fall into the trap. So don’t be lure into by high odds on a team or teams, just analyze your games and go for them.
4. IT’S NOT A GAME AFTER ALL
Online betting is not a game after all as you see it…or something of fun. Its business. You must have heard people saying football is real business, in fact BIG business…That slogan you should always stay in your mind. The money you are investing or have lost is hard earned money and it will be so painful if you lose such investment over a space of short time.
5. BET WAGES
This is where we all want to make big time money and in the process loss out for real. Except for sheer luck and in rear cases, you cannot use N50 naira and accumulate above 10 matches and expect to win. it’s now done so….the temptation of winning big from a bigger odds is always there and you will loss such game. That where people will say. Ahh…na one cut me…but the truth is that learn to develop your own strategy.
7. VIRTUAL SPORTING EVENTS
Virtual sporting events on all betting sites have been programme by them to suite them and help them make profit from your losses. So when you read through my virtual football league write up, you will understand better below.
8. LIVE GAME BETTING
This is one of the most difficult ways of making it. You just have to be careful here. In the event of playing live events, please make sure there are varieties of other live sporting events so that you can have options to choose from. as for the football live betting……..from the 76mins, you can place bets on the team you feel will win.

9. MULTI BET ACCOUNTS
Never be lure from opening more than one bet account with a single bet site, as this will make you lose focus and become confuse in your betting system. Instead open bet accounts with other different bet sites, e.g you can open with nairabet, 1960bet, nairastake, naijabet, surebet, betnaija, 9japredict.
10. CHOOSE YOUR STRATEGY
Learn to choose your own style of betting strategy by choosing which type of betting to adopt. There are a lot of option to take from; double chance, handicap, most scoring half, 1st half result,2nd half result, 1×2(straight wins or draws),draw no bet, etc.

THESE ARE HOW TO INVEST IN ONLINE BUSINESS AND MAKE PROFIT
From all I have said, football and online betting are big business and should be taken seriously…..i have taken time to let this stuff out and I sincerely hope you will make good use of it….if u open a nairabet account through my link https://www.nairabet.com/Odds/registration/affiliate77456 , please try to text me your username and email address so as to send you the E-book manual for FREE…yes I said for free….if this small article can reveal all these, imagine what the papa, being the eBook will do. So my dear, online betting is big time and has come to stay, however to be successful you must have these four marks of honour.
1. Discipline
Being discipline entails knowing what you are investing your funds on. Please know that online betting is real and also very risky but also an avenue to make many funds in shorter moments. You should know when to place bets on a match or event as well as when to stop or reduce your losses.
2. Dedication
You must be dedicated to it as if your life depends on it. You must see as your source of revenue and so must be guarded at all times. This shows that you will never be lure to place more than 5 or 6 bets.
3. Avoid being greedy
You must not hammer at once or in a game…just try to take profits gradually. Don’t expect to use N100 to win N934, 000….it will never happen and even if it will happen, my brother, na with sheer luck. Why not take a odds of 3.45 with N5000….this will amount to N16, 000.
4. Never be discouraged…
Don’t be discourage about your losses, it happens as before you can go to the next level there should be some form of losses (sacrifice.).Keep trying and don’t lose faith. If you believe in what you are doing, you will never fail.so keep trying but watch your expenses and be wise..
NOW LETS MAKE PROFITS FORM ONLINE BETTING
Over the last three years of my involvement in online betting, I have gain these vast experience and wish to let it out to online readers. To make profit from your investments and games in soccer betting please adopt all the strategies I will outline and see to it that you follow my instructions. These small piece you will never find anywhere on the internet but here at HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM, I am giving it out free.

1. VIRTUAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE
Most betting site have this new platform where in every 4minutes you can make money…in nairabet platform, the VFL is structure like;
VFL TEAMS REAL NIGERIAN CLUB NAME
ABA LIONS ENYIMBA
ENUGU TOWN ENUGU RANGERS
KANO POWERS KANO PILLARS
OSHOGBO TOWN SUNSHINE STARS
LAGOS STARS STATIONARY STORES
AWKA UTD UDOJI UTD
UYO STARS AKWA UTD
MAKURDI TOWN LOBI STARS
CALABAR CALABAR ROVERS
NNEWI
ABEOKUTA
ASABA TOWN
WARRI BABES WARRI WOLVES
ABUJA ABUJA UTD

Place bets on one team at a go and don’t accumulate here. If you are unfortunate to open the full match schedule that involves or shows the current scores as match is going on, as well as the league table. From there you can now how and where to place bets. if a team you see is strong, go ahead and give him one goal ahead.
The real thing here is that VFL is computer base and has been programmed by the site operators to suite them so on the nairabet VFL, from MATCH DAY 1-8, these teams which are at home will win most of their games
ABA LIONS
ENUGU TOWN
LAGOS STARS
KANO POWERS
N.B make sure you watch their league standings before you place your bets.
Also, on the VFL from MATCH DAY 9-14 you have to be weary but the table topping teams will still wins…from MATCH DAY 18-30, you will see a lot of draws so you need to be careful here, so playing handicap here is good. i remember using N500 to get N30,000 in this VFL playing all nites. The odds are always between 1.50 – 2.45 for most games and 3.50 and 4.25 for draws. You should also try over 0.5 or 1.5 goals in this bet from match day 1-16 but remember, the VFL is also risky.
However, you need a strong connection in order to open the VFL platform on nairabet. So try this offer and go for it.
2. HANDICAP AND DOUBLE CHANCE GAMES
For these games, handicap and double chance can be confusing for most punters placing games online. I have been using this handicap system presently by selecting just 3 games only with N5000.
A handicap game simply means you are giving one team or teams’ one goal ahead. That before a football has started; you have already giving one team a goal ahead.

3. MOST SCORING HALF
This is one of the newest bet systems I lay hand on and I hate self for discovering it late. In this type of bet, you have three options to decide when in which halves goals will be scored most. Is it 1st half, 2nd half or equal.it dosent matter who win as long as goals are score in the half you have predicted it will be scored the most.
4. BEST BETTING LEAGUES
I know am throwing out a lot in these article but I want all men to succeed even if we are not born the same. Business is all about profit and losses and it becomes bad when our losses out weights our profits. So it is intelligent and wise we adopt certain simple steps to follow. After making this league known, I expect my call rates to drop as I will explain here in details, so am asking have u sent this article for print?
Here we use what we all call comparative cost advantage in economics. People go say wetin bring economics enter betting again o…but the simple fact is you will never succeed in something you don’t know. So that’s what we call comparative advantage. Select and place bets from the league you are much sure of….not when you see Spain la liga have matches today, you now rush to place bet…you will lose..Even if you analyze properly. So choose out one or more leagues and develop a strategy there.
There are no best leagues to choose from and place your bets, remember that. However, it all depends on what is going on in the leagues so far and what kind of bets you want to place. On a normal circumstance, I normally place bets from these leagues.
ENGLAND CONFERENCE
FRANCE LIGUE 2
FRANCE NATIONAL
JAPANESE J LEAGUE
IRAN DIVISION 1
ITALY SERIE B
ITALY LEGA PRO DIVISIONS
GREECE FOOTBALL LEAGUE.
ALL the above leagues have been studied by me and you will be surprise I don’t play England premier league because the odds are small. Try the above leagues, their odds are high and with only N200 on 5games you can be sure of N50, 000 and above.
So to place bets follow my strategy here
ON LEAGUES WITH DRAWS
Iran division 1
Egypt league
Tunisian league
BOTH TEAMS TO SCORE
Japan j league
English championship, league I and league 2 (mostly in the months of September, October and early November).
UNDER GOALS LEAGUE
Greece football league
Egypt league
Iran division
Tunisia league
Ghana league
OVER GOALS
English championship, league I and league 2
Japan leagues
OVER 0.5 GOALS
English championship, league I and league 2
Japan leagues
HOME WINS and 1 GOAL HANDICAP BETS
Japanese league
Iran division league
ANY SIDE WINS HANDICAP BETS
English championship, league I and league 2
MOST SCORING HALVES
Choosing 2nd half will be ok but let it be from September-January. From mid February choose 1st half.
END OF THE LEAGUES
When leagues are about to end, say 5 or 4 matches to go, please use the various leagues standing tables to place bets. This will do you a lot of good as most games then are either fixed or sold out to teams trying to win, stay afloat or escape relegation. So know where each team is position and their anticipated position before deciding on your bet.
5. NUMBER OF GAMES TO PLACE
At times we may be tempted to accumulate more in order to take huge pay winning, but we often fail to see meaning that one or two games will either default or cut us. From my statistical research, the best number of games to accumulate is between 4 or 5 games at least. these you can use from N500 to place the bets in order to get a substantial returns on your investment.
In handicap or double chance bets where the odds may be low as either 1.8, 2.4 or 3.4, it is much advisable you accumulate only 3games and place a huge N3,000 or N5,000 on it. 2.4 Or 3.4odds x N5000 would bring a better return. It is better you earn little by little than trying to hit them big and at the end you lost all.
6. CORRECT SCORE
If you are going for correct score, please try not to be tempted to accumulate all. Here the odds are much higher with odds going as high as 7.25 to 12.25 and if you are not careful you will lose much. My advice here is accumulate only 2 or 3 games. To make a correct score is when the league is about 3 games to go.
7. AMOUNT TO PLACE BET ON
The odds here should determine the amount you want to place bets on. My advice here is if you accumulate a high odds use small amount to place the bet and if you accumulate little odds, use big amount to place the bet.
8. OFFLINE BETTING
This is one of the newest tricks most bet site have put up to dwindle our earnings. It like a modernize pool where one goes to select an event and place bet on it. Most of the strategy are not allow their and most importantly handicap bets are not allowed. It’s hard playing offline but if you like it, its best you place with big amounts from N1000 in order to make reasonable returns. And for those of you trying to open something like that or partner them, you will have to bear the cost of payment when someone wins alone, while the loses is shared in these format;
The bite site…………………50%
You……………………………40%
National lottery…………….20%
If someone wins N50, 000 na only you go pay the winner. So who is making money here?
It’s now gaining grounds among youths but like forex trade, it will cool off soon.
SUMMARY
The above information must have enlighten you the more but always have it in mind that you are into online betting for business. Don’t call it fun or game, it business. So learn to manage self so that you don’t fall into debts. All we progress I will release more article, infact the final one will be the boom so order for the manual. Its N3000 only and equip selves with all the inform you need in soccer betting. If I could explain this, imagine what the manual will contain. Do you know the latest best bet now is 1st half, 2nd half and most scoring half bets? Find out more from me. Enter our site daily and find us online.
We at HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM are always ready to help you…
Cheers…
Valentine Uwakwe
08033559733, 08098984202

ONLINE BETTING SECRETS, THE HIDDEN FACTS


ONLINE BETTING SECRETS FOR BEGINNER OR STARTERS;
THE HIDDEN FACTS
INTRODUCTION
We have seen from all available facts that online soccer betting is real and one can win…in fact your fortunes can change if you know all the antics and follow what has been stated here carefully. I have received several calls for my manual to be given free but alas…..if you get anything free, you may not value it, but when you pay for something you value it and tend to be serious in it. Here is great chance to get it. Some of the hidden facts on my manual have been included here to make u see that I am saying the truth. I am not here to deceive anyone as I have and will continue to be a witness to life transformation through Nairabet.
You must have read my other articles and many more will be publish but meanwhile after you must have seen this, please print it out and make use of it. Online betting is real and it can help you. Don’t be so discourage about the heavy losses you must have gone through, you can recover such in one day or gradually. I too would not say it has been rosy for me but I can clearly say that weekly at least I put in a weekly request withdrawal of 5,000.when ever it’s the champions league round of sixteen upwards to the finals as well as the Europa cup, I make in a withdrawal request of 10,000 per week.
I have been with nairabet since September 2011 and this whole years have afforded me the opportunity to know, studied, and reveal the secrets and hidden facts about online betting.
The key word here is making it as a BUSINESS VENTURE AND SEE THAT REAL MONEY is involved here! A business investment where your profit and losses would always count. Most of us just see it as fun or “try-n-luck” stuff whereas it is a real time investment. Even the bookies, let say nairabet or 1960bet, etc make huge profits from losers’ week in, week out. For example, nairabet have 410,000 registered members if that numbers play a certain event or game with N50 and losses, that will translate to 410,000 x N50 given you =N20,500,000! Can u imagine that?
I know again most bet sites would hate me on this but I am always involve in the ones that gives instant returns on my investment…I mean, when I win a game, let my income be paid within 48hrs and also withdraw as I love daily.

THESE ARE SOME OF THE HIDDEN FACTS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT ONLINE BETTING BEFORE YOU START.
1. BOOKIES
These are the various bet sites who wants you to join then and place your bets. They will lure you with various antics and juicy odds, but the truth is that they all want you to fail…so bear these in mind…to loss and for them to make profit from you. This is the simple truth. They are also business people like you and I.
2. BETTING SITES
These are the numerous soccer betting sites that always want you to use their analyses and index to place your bets…the truth is that most of them work hand in hand for you to fail and for them to make profit from your bets. Imagine a bookie of bet365 given you analyses to place bets from their site and win…think of it.
3. HIGHER ODDS
Please, don’t mistake this to be bad.At times high odds on a match can mislead punters to think something else, i.e in the process of making huge winnings you fall for it. The underdogs may be given the higher odds and you fall into the trap. So don’t be lure into by high odds on a team or teams, just analyze your games and go for them.
4. IT’S NOT A GAME AFTER ALL
Online betting is not a game after all as you see it…or something of fun. Its business. You must have heard people saying football is real business, in fact BIG business…That slogan you should always stay in your mind. The money you are investing or have lost is hard earned money and it will be so painful if you lose such investment over a space of short time.
5. BET WAGES
This is where we all want to make big time money and in the process loss out for real. Except for sheer luck and in rear cases, you cannot use N50 naira and accumulate above 10 matches and expect to win. it’s now done so….the temptation of winning big from a bigger odds is always there and you will loss such game. That where people will say. Ahh…na one cut me…but the truth is that learn to develop your own strategy.
7. VIRTUAL SPORTING EVENTS
Virtual sporting events on all betting sites have been programme by them to suite them and help them make profit from your losses. So when you read through my virtual football league write up, you will understand better below.
8. LIVE GAME BETTING
This is one of the most difficult ways of making it. You just have to be careful here. In the event of playing live events, please make sure there are varieties of other live sporting events so that you can have options to choose from. as for the football live betting……..from the 76mins, you can place bets on the team you feel will win.

9. MULTI BET ACCOUNTS
Never be lure from opening more than one bet account with a single bet site, as this will make you lose focus and become confuse in your betting system. Instead open bet accounts with other different bet sites, e.g you can open with nairabet, 1960bet, nairastake, naijabet, surebet, betnaija, 9japredict.
10. CHOOSE YOUR STRATEGY
Learn to choose your own style of betting strategy by choosing which type of betting to adopt. There are a lot of option to take from; double chance, handicap, most scoring half, 1st half result,2nd half result, 1×2(straight wins or draws),draw no bet, etc.

THESE ARE HOW TO INVEST IN ONLINE BUSINESS AND MAKE PROFIT
From all I have said, football and online betting are big business and should be taken seriously…..i have taken time to let this stuff out and I sincerely hope you will make good use of it….if u open a nairabet account through my link https://www.nairabet.com/Odds/registration/affiliate77456 , please try to text me your username and email address so as to send you the E-book manual for FREE…yes I said for free….if this small article can reveal all these, imagine what the papa, being the eBook will do. So my dear, online betting is big time and has come to stay, however to be successful you must have these four marks of honour.
1. Discipline
Being discipline entails knowing what you are investing your funds on. Please know that online betting is real and also very risky but also an avenue to make many funds in shorter moments. You should know when to place bets on a match or event as well as when to stop or reduce your losses.
2. Dedication
You must be dedicated to it as if your life depends on it. You must see as your source of revenue and so must be guarded at all times. This shows that you will never be lure to place more than 5 or 6 bets.
3. Avoid being greedy
You must not hammer at once or in a game…just try to take profits gradually. Don’t expect to use N100 to win N934, 000….it will never happen and even if it will happen, my brother, na with sheer luck. Why not take a odds of 3.45 with N5000….this will amount to N16, 000.
4. Never be discouraged…
Don’t be discourage about your losses, it happens as before you can go to the next level there should be some form of losses (sacrifice.).Keep trying and don’t lose faith. If you believe in what you are doing, you will never fail.so keep trying but watch your expenses and be wise..
NOW LETS MAKE PROFITS FORM ONLINE BETTING
Over the last three years of my involvement in online betting, I have gain these vast experience and wish to let it out to online readers. To make profit from your investments and games in soccer betting please adopt all the strategies I will outline and see to it that you follow my instructions. These small piece you will never find anywhere on the internet but here at HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM, I am giving it out free.

1. VIRTUAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE
Most betting site have this new platform where in every 4minutes you can make money…in nairabet platform, the VFL is structure like;
VFL TEAMS REAL NIGERIAN CLUB NAME
ABA LIONS ENYIMBA
ENUGU TOWN ENUGU RANGERS
KANO POWERS KANO PILLARS
OSHOGBO TOWN SUNSHINE STARS
LAGOS STARS STATIONARY STORES
AWKA UTD UDOJI UTD
UYO STARS AKWA UTD
MAKURDI TOWN LOBI STARS
CALABAR CALABAR ROVERS
NNEWI
ABEOKUTA
ASABA TOWN
WARRI BABES WARRI WOLVES
ABUJA ABUJA UTD

Place bets on one team at a go and don’t accumulate here. If you are unfortunate to open the full match schedule that involves or shows the current scores as match is going on, as well as the league table. From there you can now how and where to place bets. if a team you see is strong, go ahead and give him one goal ahead.
The real thing here is that VFL is computer base and has been programmed by the site operators to suite them so on the nairabet VFL, from MATCH DAY 1-8, these teams which are at home will win most of their games
ABA LIONS
ENUGU TOWN
LAGOS STARS
KANO POWERS
N.B make sure you watch their league standings before you place your bets.
Also, on the VFL from MATCH DAY 9-14 you have to be weary but the table topping teams will still wins…from MATCH DAY 18-30, you will see a lot of draws so you need to be careful here, so playing handicap here is good. i remember using N500 to get N30,000 in this VFL playing all nites. The odds are always between 1.50 – 2.45 for most games and 3.50 and 4.25 for draws. You should also try over 0.5 or 1.5 goals in this bet from match day 1-16 but remember, the VFL is also risky.
However, you need a strong connection in order to open the VFL platform on nairabet. So try this offer and go for it.
2. HANDICAP AND DOUBLE CHANCE GAMES
For these games, handicap and double chance can be confusing for most punters placing games online. I have been using this handicap system presently by selecting just 3 games only with N5000.
A handicap game simply means you are giving one team or teams’ one goal ahead. That before a football has started; you have already giving one team a goal ahead.

3. MOST SCORING HALF
This is one of the newest bet systems I lay hand on and I hate self for discovering it late. In this type of bet, you have three options to decide when in which halves goals will be scored most. Is it 1st half, 2nd half or equal.it dosent matter who win as long as goals are score in the half you have predicted it will be scored the most.
4. BEST BETTING LEAGUES
I know am throwing out a lot in these article but I want all men to succeed even if we are not born the same. Business is all about profit and losses and it becomes bad when our losses out weights our profits. So it is intelligent and wise we adopt certain simple steps to follow. After making this league known, I expect my call rates to drop as I will explain here in details, so am asking have u sent this article for print?
Here we use what we all call comparative cost advantage in economics. People go say wetin bring economics enter betting again o…but the simple fact is you will never succeed in something you don’t know. So that’s what we call comparative advantage. Select and place bets from the league you are much sure of….not when you see Spain la liga have matches today, you now rush to place bet…you will lose..Even if you analyze properly. So choose out one or more leagues and develop a strategy there.
There are no best leagues to choose from and place your bets, remember that. However, it all depends on what is going on in the leagues so far and what kind of bets you want to place. On a normal circumstance, I normally place bets from these leagues.
ENGLAND CONFERENCE
FRANCE LIGUE 2
FRANCE NATIONAL
JAPANESE J LEAGUE
IRAN DIVISION 1
ITALY SERIE B
ITALY LEGA PRO DIVISIONS
GREECE FOOTBALL LEAGUE.
ALL the above leagues have been studied by me and you will be surprise I don’t play England premier league because the odds are small. Try the above leagues, their odds are high and with only N200 on 5games you can be sure of N50, 000 and above.
So to place bets follow my strategy here
ON LEAGUES WITH DRAWS
Iran division 1
Egypt league
Tunisian league
BOTH TEAMS TO SCORE
Japan j league
English championship, league I and league 2 (mostly in the months of September, October and early November).
UNDER GOALS LEAGUE
Greece football league
Egypt league
Iran division
Tunisia league
Ghana league
OVER GOALS
English championship, league I and league 2
Japan leagues
OVER 0.5 GOALS
English championship, league I and league 2
Japan leagues
HOME WINS and 1 GOAL HANDICAP BETS
Japanese league
Iran division league
ANY SIDE WINS HANDICAP BETS
English championship, league I and league 2
MOST SCORING HALVES
Choosing 2nd half will be ok but let it be from September-January. From mid February choose 1st half.
END OF THE LEAGUES
When leagues are about to end, say 5 or 4 matches to go, please use the various leagues standing tables to place bets. This will do you a lot of good as most games then are either fixed or sold out to teams trying to win, stay afloat or escape relegation. So know where each team is position and their anticipated position before deciding on your bet.
5. NUMBER OF GAMES TO PLACE
At times we may be tempted to accumulate more in order to take huge pay winning, but we often fail to see meaning that one or two games will either default or cut us. From my statistical research, the best number of games to accumulate is between 4 or 5 games at least. these you can use from N500 to place the bets in order to get a substantial returns on your investment.
In handicap or double chance bets where the odds may be low as either 1.8, 2.4 or 3.4, it is much advisable you accumulate only 3games and place a huge N3,000 or N5,000 on it. 2.4 Or 3.4odds x N5000 would bring a better return. It is better you earn little by little than trying to hit them big and at the end you lost all.
6. CORRECT SCORE
If you are going for correct score, please try not to be tempted to accumulate all. Here the odds are much higher with odds going as high as 7.25 to 12.25 and if you are not careful you will lose much. My advice here is accumulate only 2 or 3 games. To make a correct score is when the league is about 3 games to go.
7. AMOUNT TO PLACE BET ON
The odds here should determine the amount you want to place bets on. My advice here is if you accumulate a high odds use small amount to place the bet and if you accumulate little odds, use big amount to place the bet.
8. OFFLINE BETTING
This is one of the newest tricks most bet site have put up to dwindle our earnings. It like a modernize pool where one goes to select an event and place bet on it. Most of the strategy are not allow their and most importantly handicap bets are not allowed. It’s hard playing offline but if you like it, its best you place with big amounts from N1000 in order to make reasonable returns. And for those of you trying to open something like that or partner them, you will have to bear the cost of payment when someone wins alone, while the loses is shared in these format;
The bite site…………………50%
You……………………………40%
National lottery…………….20%
If someone wins N50, 000 na only you go pay the winner. So who is making money here?
It’s now gaining grounds among youths but like forex trade, it will cool off soon.
SUMMARY
The above information must have enlighten you the more but always have it in mind that you are into online betting for business. Don’t call it fun or game, it business. So learn to manage self so that you don’t fall into debts. All we progress I will release more article, infact the final one will be the boom so order for the manual. Its N3000 only and equip selves with all the inform you need in soccer betting. If I could explain this, imagine what the manual will contain. Do you know the latest best bet now is 1st half, 2nd half and most scoring half bets? Find out more from me. Enter our site daily and find us online.
We at HYATTRACTIONS SYSTEM are always ready to help you…
Cheers…
Valentine Uwakwe
08033559733, 08098984202