THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SECRETARIES IN THE CIVIL SERVICE


TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – – Pages
Dedication – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Acknowledge – – – – – – – – iii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents – – – – – – – v
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – 8
1.3 Justification of Study – – – – – 9
1.4 Scope of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.5 Limitation of the Study – – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 The Secretaries Career and job Satisfaction – 11
2.2 The Role of a Secretary in the Civil Service – 14
2.3 The Challenges of the Nigerian Secretaries – 17
2.4 Productivity in the Civil Service – – – – 19
2.5 Productivity Problems in the Nigerian Civil service – 23
2.6 Attitude of a Civil Servant to Work – – – 26
2.7 Enhancing Productivity in the Civil Service – 30
CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Methodology of the Study – – – – – 35
3.2 Design of the Study – – – – – – 35
3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – 35
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – 36
3.5 Sample of the Study – – – – – – 36
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – 36
3.7 Administration of Instrument – – – – 37
3.8 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 37

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this study is to compare the reviews of the civil service commission professional in the countrPy toward their work in light of the radical changes in the administrative environment that have occur during the 1990s. In the course of the study, we develop and test a questionnaire to examine how the environment on downsizing and reorganization in the 1990s, has affected the productivity, morale administrative attitude and practice of senior professional in the civil service. Before presenting our survey results, however, we will present short overviews of the existing literature regarding both downsizing and restructuring and comparison of civil service job satisfaction.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Downsizing and restructuring are practices which have become increasingly prevalent in the post decade, affecting most occupational positions, encompassing all employment positions and impacting on various lines of administrative leaders. The effects of downsizing have been particularly significant in civil service. By forcing efficiency with fewer resources, fiscal constraints have increased the demand for the delivery of more effective and better quality public programs and service. In many cases, this demand has translated into a smaller, more flexible civil service. This emphasis on administrative accountability, transparency in public spending, and alternative service delivery has resulted in a leaner service. So it has the recent focus on policy frameworks, consolidated budgeting process and the trend towards more flexible pay and staffing requirement in the civil service administration.
For example, the federal civil service and state civil service commission has outline its plans for downsizing and restructuring in its “framework for action” (The Federal Government of Nigeria, Secretary of the Cabinet, 1997). The key aspects of downsizing and restructuring included in this document are focusing on core administrative aim: ensuring quality service to the public: achieving a smaller and more flexible service; becoming more integrative and cohesive; and finally, securing better standards of accountability in terms of how public resources are allocated.
To some, logic dictates that downsizing is in effective means of achieving these ends. In an era of consolidation intensive completion and advanced technologies, there is pressure to reduce expenses over the post five years. The downsizing and restructure initiatives undertaken in the country are topical of both state government and Federal Government around the country. Many explanation have been offered in are attempt to understand in increased exercise of Downsizing and restructure of course, many of these revolve mound economic realities such as increasing competition pressures, the forces of globalization, the effects of new technologies on productivity and so on. However, (Mikinley, Sanchez and Scheck 1995), drawing on institutional theory, suggest that three (3) types of social forces help to explain the prevalence of downsize in recent years. These forces are constraining forces, and leaning forces. Constraining forces are those which pressure decision-makers to do what appears to be the “right thing” and to keep abreast with contemporary administrative trends, in today’s terms would involve becomes more efficiency and effectives. Closing forces are the result of imitating the steps taken by other administration. This imitation is labeled “Benchmarking” finally, learning forces are generated when an administration interacts with the network of professional, academic institutions and consultants in it’s environment and “learns” what are currently view as best practices whether the reasons for the spread of downsizing are economic or social, theoretical or practical, however, the fact remains that the practical appears to be becoming permanent. At the beginning of decade, it was unusual for a white collar worker to experience job displacement as a result of downsizing and restructuring. Today, especially in civil service where positions where once revered for their apparent security, job cuts and lay-offs one matter of course. This drastic change in job security begs an examination of the impact of downsizing and restructuring and it implications for productivity, job satisfaction and the well-being of employees. The question then became, how has the practice of downsizing and restructuring impacted on the morale of those affected?
Example: According to Ayagbonwy (1988), stated that a happy employee is a productive one, for civil service to succeed, there must be job satisfaction. Job satisfaction leads to high productivity, many scholars have tried and attempted to give a working definition of what job satisfaction is all about. Gruneberg (1978), despite the tremendous amount of information available, a positive result to the working definition of job satisfaction, there are still controversies as does the question of the nature of job satisfaction. According to Hopock and Kjagbonwy (1988), Job satisfaction is the combination of psychological, physiological and environment circumstance that make a person being contented with a job.
Job satisfaction was the employee, emotional, moral and mind setting and well captured by the work as to give the best to the work.
The opposite of job satisfaction is job dissatisfaction; it has a negative impact on the service growth. Many workers in the civil service of the lower class always resign from working as soon as they are able to obtain another high paid employment. The common indicator of unsatisfactory job conditions in our ministries is the result of absenteeism and truancy which is the syndrome, (Not on the seat) some workers openly state their dissatisfaction on the job which even demoralized their colleagues at work place. The satisfaction worker derive job from the job that depends solely on the extend to which the job and everything that is associated with the job like needs, expectations and value.
In the aspect of productivity, various definitions of productivity exist in literature. Traditionally; however, the concept of labor productivity is associated with visible, tangible act.
Economist for insurance, defines productivity as output per labor cost productivity is thus seen as the ratio of the service or organization total output to a total input productivity, mathematically is input equals to labor, capital, materials, time and energy.
Technically, according to Nwagboa, Koonts et al (1980), they saw productivity as something that has a significant relationship to efficiency, effectiveness and performance. As with performance, productivity comprises efficiency and effectiveness.
Productivity is seen as a quantitative weighted measure of how efficiently as given set of resources is used to achieve a given set of objectives of targets.
However, the secretaries are the back bone of the office in every organization or ministries; No management or administration can succeed without the secretaries, No doubt in the position of secretaries, the effective development of the ministries or organizations is vital, their roles towards the achievement of the goals and objectives are very important.
The research therefore is to investigate the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in the civil service.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of every study and investigation is usually to discover new facts and more ideas that will help in adding up to the additional knowledge from individual contribution or group. (Dr. Ukegbu 1998).
The main purpose of the study is to investigate and ascertain the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in the civil service.
In a precise term, the study will carry out a systematic inquiry on the following:
 To prove the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of the secretaries in the civil service.
 To prove the role of secretaries in the administrative goals and objective.
Having actual existence outside the mind, it is hoped that the research of this study will prove and suggest as suitable for a purpose where necessary the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in the civil service

1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The research will justify the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries, Hopefully, it will have a distinctive feature of having a structure that provides a connection on the gap created in the area of the secretaries in the civil service structurally, it will create an awareness to the productivity of secretaries in the civil service and other business operators on the need of job satisfaction.
The findings on this topic will give the study of materials and source to discover facts to guide on what and where to put in a specified place in a satisfactory condition for improving the quality of service afford.
It will also create on avenue for further research in educational
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The range of this subject covers the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of the secretaries in the civil service.
The study will centre the interest and the activity of secretary in civil service, most suitable aim on the federal civil service commission and the state civil service commission.
1.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study of materials work on the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in the civil service, it will carryout the source to discover facts to process the limiting of the study, and this covers very ground as the secretaries are the main centre of all activities ministries which move in a circle around the central point.
However, there is no good research work has forbid officially to carryout without some problems due to limited time and material available to the source to discover facts, the general attitude of the society towards research work is the information about job satisfaction which may be the limiting factors in this study.
The study has been limited to two areas of civil service in Nigeria, these two areas’ are as follows:
1. Federal civil service commission
2. State civil service commission

CHAPTER TWO
2.1 THE SECRETARIES CAREER AND JOB SATISFACTION
Looking from the analogy, it is clearly observed that the definition of the word secretary always rest on the profession, a dignified status in the administration. The word encyclopedia defined secretaries as stenographers who have been promoted to more responsible jobs. A stenographer usually performs only the duties that have been directly assigned to her. But a secretary often does work that requires more initiative, responsibility and executive ability.
This occupation is expected to be among those with largest number of new jobs. Opportunities should be best for applicant with extensive knowledge of software applications.
The secretaries today perform fewer clerical tasks and are increasingly taking on the roles of information and communication. As the reliance on technology continues to expand in offices, the role of the office professional has greatly evolved.
Office automation and administrational restructuring have led secretaries and administrative assume responsibilities once reserved for professional staff. In spite of these changes, however, the core responsibilities for secretaries have remained much the same, they are performing and coordinating an offices, administration activities, storing, retrieving and integration information for dissemination to staff and clients. (Dr. Halison 1997).
Secretaries perform variety of administrative and clerical duties necessary to run an organization efficiently. The serve as information and communication head for an office; plan and schedule meetings and appointments; they organist and maintain paper and electronic files, they manage projects, conduct research and disseminate information by using the telephone, mail services, websites and e-mail. they also handle travel and guest arrangements.
Secretaries use a variety of office equipment, such as fat machines, photocopies, scanners, videoconferencing and telephone system. In addition, secretaries often use computers to do tasks previously handled by the coordinators and professionals, such as; create spreadsheets; compose correspondence, manage databases, and create presentations, reports and documents using desktop publishing software and digital graphics.
According to (Dickson Mark 1999) that may secretaries now provide training and orientation for new staff, conduct research on the internet, and operate in troubleshoot new office technologies. They also may negotiate with vendors, maintain and examine lease equipment, purchase supplies, manage areas such as stockrooms or corporate libraries and retrieve data from various sources. At the same time, the office head or coordinator have assumed many tasks traditionally assigned to secretaries such as keyboarding and answering the telephone. Because secretaries do less dictation and word processing, they now have time to support more members of the executive staff. Secretaries and administrative assistants work in teams to work flexibly and share their expertise.
Specific job duties vary with experience and titles secretaries provide high-level administrative support for an office and for top administrative heads in government and other organization. (Mr. Ajayi E. C. 1994) generally, they perform fewer clerical tasks than do secretaries and more information management. In addition to arrange conference calls and supervising other clerical staff, they may handle more complex responsibilities such as reviewing incoming memos, submissions, and reports in order to determine their significance and to plan for the distribution. They also prepare agendas and make arrangements for meetings of committees and executive boards. They also may conduct research and prepare statistical reports.

2.2 THE ROLE OF A SECRETARY IN THE CIVIL SERVICE
The secretary has been described by some authorities as a catalyst because of her interesting role with multi-level employees using the permanent secretaries as my example.
The most senior civil servant in a department is the permanent secretary. Each supports the government minister who heads their department and who is accountable to parliament for the department’s actions and performance (Sir Bob Karslake 2012)
The permanent secretary is the accounting officer for their department, reporting to parliament. They must make sure that their department spends the money allocated to them appropriately.
The permanent secretary leading a department is also responsible to the cabinet secretary and head of the home civil service for the effective day-to-day management of their department and its civil servant.
The head of the civil service is supported in this by all his permanent secretaries through the civil service governance boards. The Boards consider the issues that are important to all departments and decide on the best way forward for the whole civil service. The civil service steering Board (CSSB) chaired by the Head of the home civil service is responsible for the strategic leadership of the civil service.
Beneath this are also sub-groups which develop policies and proposals on long-terms issues such as leadership, employee relation and capability. In the way all of the permanent secretaries are involved in the long-term development of the civil service. The governing bodies of our leaders need to set a clear overall direction for the civil service so that all our different organizations work as a coherent and effective whole.
The permanent secretaries (known by other name in some departments) are the non-political civil service heads and accountable officer or chief executives of government departments, who generally told their position for a number of years at a ministry as distinct from the changing political secretaries of state to whom they report and provide advice.
Normally, a secretary is a member of the clerical staff whose fundamental functions are concerned with the preparation, preservation and presentation of correspondence or communication in all forms within and outside the service. Reading, writing, calculations, research, filing, following up, telephoning, typing, transcribing and many other responsibilities are all parts of secretary’s tools of the trade.
The mastery of office, skills, ability to assume responsibility initiative and judgment are paramount in the secretarial function.

2.3 THE CHALLENGES OF THE NIGERIA SECRETARIES
The fast growing economy requires people who can make quick decision and take prompt actions. High standards of performance are the order of the day.
Educational requirements for jobs have changed and increased tremendously, post previously held by high school graduates one at present being held by university graduates and professionals. Skill requirement of jobs constantly increase because of technological changes (Eni, 1986). The traditional practice whereby secretaries depend on the advancement of their bosses for promotion is declining.
Secretarial personal have been recognized as members of the management team (Shaw 1977), pay rise and promotions are earned on the basis of individual efforts and accomplishments.
Business now demand advanced secretarial skills in areas of business communication, operation of office related machines and organizing ability. Employable personality is constantly emphasized by employers. The base of secretarial subject has been broadened to include a wider range of skills and abilities hitherto unknown to secretaries.
Appraisal system for secretaries have been devised and perfected. Because business is able to set high standards, it can get people who can meet the requirements.
The functions of the business office have become increasingly complex. In addition to technical skills and ability successful office workers must exercise sound judgment and creative insight. Therefore, technical skills alone are no longer enough for employment.
A secretary needs to have a sound knowledge of his employer’s duties. Particular knowledge of the person’s products and procedures of the service in which he has works. In the absence of the employer, it can frequently be called upon to make decisions. He is often consulted for information and advice on multitude of questions which he must provide right answers.
The new breed of secretaries must be prepared to face the challenges of the changing technology and complexities of services. They must also be prepared to chart other professional course if the secretarial professional status is to stand the test of time. The individuals must persist through thick and thin. A survey to determine what areas of knowledge and skills secretary need most in order to function effectively revealed that policies and procedures were more important than skills in shorthand and typewriting (Shaw 1997). Knowledge or business product and services by the secretary helps in the handing most of the interpersonal interdepartmental problem which arise in the daily course of duties.
The background knowledge against which the civil service functions also assists the secretary in the efficient discharge of duties and relationship with other organizations in the country. The secretary is obviously a very important person in both ministries and other private sectors.

2.4 PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CIVIL SERVICE
The civil service is the major institutional structure used by government to implement its policies and programmes. It is composed of the various ministries and department and the bureaucrats and professionals who work within. (Ayiola 1987). Identify the main functions of the civil service as comprising of execution of government policy, the initiation of public policy and advising government of the full implication of policy options open to government decisions and procedures.
In view of the fact that the civil service are public service which payment are so small in terms of her input does not mean that they are not effective in their services. The performance in the civil service especially the secretaries cannot be viewed as being low. As with performance, productivity comprises efficiency and effectiveness. Productivity is seen as a quantitative weighted measure of low efficiently a given set of resource is used to achieve a given set of objectives or job targets.
Efficiency is the ratio of input invested to output obtained. An efficient worker is one who achieved high output with minimum input. Put differently, efficiency means lower cost in terms of means activities, resources and maximum output in term of the accomplishments and result.
Efficiency is important because resources are generally limited. Organizations and individuals make the most out of the tattle resources available to achieve optimum result: hence output accomplishments and results are maximized.
Taking from the perspective, the civil service commission in 1974 clearly expressed high hopes of the Nigeria civil service in the changing world and states as stated below:
The new style public servant is conversant with the objectives and broad outline of the development plan and knows his role in the achievement of targets that come within the area of his responsibility, whether large or small. He is result-oriented and as such is not so much interested in minute a file or writing a “memo” as is worth actually to tackle those political, scientific, economic and technical problems of the modern society. As an instrument of development, it has to be aware of development within the country and outside the country, and the new techniques to apply. According to (Rober to 1972). The passage of time constantly opens to the central government new field of action happen on the ground; he wants to see results. He does not merely administer the established order by processing matters that come before him, he manages and that is, he makes things happen by organizing men and materials in order to achieve the particular objectives of his ministry or organization within time target. Such management is a vital factor in Nigeria’s drive for development.
The above perception of the function and significance of the civil service as articulated by Jerome Udoji’s commission has stated in a nutshell the task ahead of the developing civil service of Nigeria. The civil services as an organization has gone through various structural reforms alone certain prescribed norms, ostensibly to enable it meet the new challenges of development administration in the future. It is against the foregoing developmental roles and significance in the civil service industry that its productivity concerns can be better appreciated and studies against the background of work altitude. Taken from chief Udoji’s view, he expressed high hope of optimism on the skill, role and determination of the Nigeria civil service, to succeed; it becomes surprising that today the general perception of the civil service is that of ineptitude, inactivity, low productivity, negative work attitude, corruption and so on. It is hypothesized that high productivity is predicate on a traffic change of negative work altitude of the Nigeria public officer.
Despite the above difficulties in measuring and quantifying productivity in the civil service, coupled with factors militating against increased productivity as highlighted above, it is imperative that certain parameters must be established to enable management evaluate the productivity of individual (MBO) to set target for individual worker and organization will be help full.
With these techniques, it is possible to say how many files and administrative officer can attend to how many pages of documents a typist should be able to types within specific number of days etc.

2.5 PRODUCTION PROBLEMS IN THE NIGERIA CIVIL SERVICE
The problem of productivity in Nigeria ranks high in government’s contending issues. For this reason, there is a full fledge ministry of labor and productivity and national productivity centers scattered in the zones all over the country. These centers are to promote productivity awareness and consciousness among Nigerian in the various sectors of the economy. There is also the national productivity day. In the civil service, seven reforms including the 1988, 1997/98 and the 2000 reform have been affected to ensure enhanced productivity, among others. These efforts are indicative of government concern for higher productivity as the bedrock of growth and development. The efforts are also a reflection of the dept of the problem of productivity in Nigeria in general and civil service in particular.
The problem of productivity has also been the concern of scholars in Nigeria; many have agreed that there is low productivity (output) in civil service. That the productivity is low as an incontrovertible fact, many empirical studies have conformed the fact. The most recent works of (Adebayo 1981), (Olugbemi 1987), (Dike 1985) (Philip and Olusanya 1997) are testifable works to this facts. (Adebayo 1981) listed thirteen factors that are responsible for efficiency in public service in Nigeria a follows:
1. Faculty recruitment,
2. Faculty posting and frequent posting,
3. Inadequate training,
4. Deteriorating health
5. Incompetent supervisors
6. Lack of clear objectives
7. Conflict between administration and professional
8. Undue advancement,
9. Lack of helpful political direction
10. Massive purges of the public publics (1975 and 1997
11. False declaration of age
Olugbemi (1987) observed failure in development, low and fallen moral discontinuity in policy, replacement of the merit principle, societal impact on the service, amalgamation of the generalists and professionals, duplication of jurisdiction overlap of burgeon size of the service and operational factors. Olusanya (1997) added that the 1975 purge, corruption, poor reward system, the abolition of the poor permanent secretary as well as that of head of service and the politicization of the service under the 1988 reform. These factors one said to be the problems of productivity in Nigeria civil service.

2.6 ATTITUDE OF CIVIL SERVANT TO WORK
Attitude is defined as a way of thinking, an individual characteristic way of responding to an objective or solution. It is based on his experience and that lead to certain behavior or expressions of certain opinion, also known as self-confident or hostile behavior.
Attitude determines the employees approach to work. In the absence of attitudinal measurement data of work attitude of Nigeria civil servants by psychologists, a cursory observation of daily experience behavior reveal some basic negative attitude which are not helpful to increase productivity. (Omolayeye 1988) puts it that one of the biggest factors regarding progress in productivity in the country is attitude to work and general indiscipline in relation to work. He added that Nigerians have money but do no want to work hard, those who work hard are said to be doing “Afamaco work” (No man’s Job).

In Nigeria, there is the belief that there is general apathy towards government work, which according to (Uchi 1998) said, it is hardly identifiable, badly suffers any. There is also this belief that government has a social responsibility to provide and keep citizens in employment whether it is economically reasonable to do so or not. This is the reason why government establishments are usually over bloated and those without specific schedule of duties come to office, sign the attendance register and disappear into the thin air. And there was a belief that once you get into government work it will almost be impossible to get out until retirement. But the military regimes broke the myth in 1975, 1995, and 1997 respectively when they carried put service of retrenchment exercises at the federal civil service.
Attitude to work is a critical determinant of productivity in any business public, or organization. It has to do with the feedings, habits and belief that pre-dispose a positive or negative attitude to work. Some beliefs, habits feelings ad motives are supportive of positive work ethics and behavior and therefore necessary for the performance of specific jobs. On the other hand, there may also be experience and behaviors that are supportive of negative attitude to work. The attitude affects the way a worker relates to, conceives and views his job. It shows how committed, dedicated, hard working and performing a work is in relation to the objectives of the organization. As a result of these belief and many other factors, the work altitude of the Nigeria civil servant has lately been characterized by inefficiency, poor achievement of results, shoddy handling of services, abuse of office, lack of initiative, lack of maintenance, culture conflicts, delays corruption, high cost of projects and quality of work output, poor low commitment.
Moral and low productivity- include callousness, insensitivity, non-responsiveness, lateness to duty, idleness, laxity, indiscipline, sleeping in duty, rudeness to superiors, insubordination, drunkenness, use of foul language, gross negligence, disobedience, dishonesty, lying, false claims and many other bad unethical behaviors and misconduct now pervade the work force in the public sector and some public servant and some public servant and some private organization.
We must however, add that some public servants are working hard. Well dedicated and conscientious in their services to their country e.g. Dr. Richard Ofuru, the permanent secretary ministry for education Rivers State. These are the people that keep the machinery of the state going on. Closely related to work attitudes are work ethics. Ethics are code of conducts by which human beings have their lives regulated for the general good of all. Ethics enables us to judge the correctness and wrongness of an action. These are the basic of work ethics and are set rules that govern the behavior of workers in their place of work.
There are different code of conduct governing the different professions nevertheless, code such as punctuality, honesty, dedication; confidentiality and loyalty are common and highly cherished in all organizations, the civil service inclusive the degree of adherence to these codes of conduct in Nigeria public service leave much to be desired.

2.7 ENHANCING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CIVIL SERVICE
Any meaningful attempt at increasing productivity in the Nigeria civil service must focus alteration on the workers and his attitude to work, the job which must be evaluated through work study, the management whose supervisory role must be reassessed and strengthened; the internal work environment must meet its obligations to the workers as an employer.
Every Nigerian intellectual who has an opportunity to talk and write on productivity has made a umber of recommendations to enhance productivity in Nigeria. For example, Engr. P. U. Ajayi, in one of the productivity lectures organized by NPC, talks about improvement of productivity through motivation. He emphasized financial and non-financial incentives. Under non-financial coordinating, controlling and motivating workers so that they can provide goods and services, he added that labor union must seen themselves as partners with government in enhancing productivity.

Osunde, in his opinion, listed the following; provision of necessary gadgets, such as fans and air conditions in officer, adequate office accommodation, and employer has a significance part to play. The question them is, how do we improve the attitude of the Nigerian public service workers? The government in the past made several attempts through the activities of the directorate of social mobilization (Mamsef) and now the National Orientation Agency (NOA), the War against Indiscipline and Corruption (WAIC). In November 1999, the president launched a programmes of “A National Rebirth” all aimed at re-orientating Nigerian towards a new outlook in the new democratic dispensation.
As mentioned earlier, an altitude determines the employer’s approach to his work which either may be positive or negative. For example, a person who come to work punctually and performs his duties conscientiously has a positive attitude before taking up employment in an organization but many other may not. In many cases, employees do not have special vocation towards their work and unless their attitude can be changed and redirected towards positive ends in their Jobs. They may never be successful employees. Attitude varies according to the nature of job. To train and re-direct people attitudes, may prove difficult because of the time people seek employment, they may have developed certain basic attitudes.
Furthermore, attitude that are deep-rooted in people and cannot easily be changed and re-directed through a carefully designed programmes of training and ministering. The following methods have been found useful and rewarding.
a. The trainee (worker) could be made to benefit from on the job experiences of other employees who posses the appropriate attitude to work. Every worker in the service is not bad, for example, a perpetual late comer could be requested to work with a person who is very punctual and who will monitor him closely.
b. The trainee could also be attached to a senior employee who has the appropriate attitude and good personal qualities that can influence the trainee. The senior employee could then coach the trainee on the virtue of good attitude at work.
c. The use of case studies: This is to involve a group of employees in the discussion of case studies that emphasize relevant attitudes to particular different jobs at specific times. This can be done at an implant seminar/workshop.
d. Another method is to involve trainees in the discussion of each others attitude. In this way, they indulge in self-criticism and appraisals which may prove positive at the end. Such discussion will show what other people think about their attitudes and this can lead to a change of bad attitudes and habits.
All or many of these methods can be used profitably without disruption of normal work in the ministries and will cost government very little than full blown conferences and seminars. This brings to focus the role f management in enhancing productivity in the public service management team in the ministries refers to the ministers/commissioners at chief executives, permanent secretaries as administrative head and directors and assistant directors. They should lead/manage by examples. These people should be able to co-ordinate the human resources of government, retrain every employee to develop the right attitude to work required in the civil service.
As Dr. Michael Omolayde, a one time managing director of leventis puts it, when a human being is well trained, well remunerated and well motivated; he is capable of achieving higher productivity through experience acquired higher on the job. In a similar view, A.P Leventis (Director, Leventis Group of Companies) quoting F. Latin Chairman of W. R. & co. puts it like this “productivity management depends on the recognition that people are the key to productivity”. It is up to top management to create the productive organization than to recruit and develop good people and to make compensation adequate.

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
This chapter is primarily concerned with the design and procedures adopted in data collection and analysis. The design work are presented under the following headings: design of the study, Area of the study, population of the study, simple of the study, entrustment for data collection, validation of the instrument, administration of the instrument and method of data analyses.

3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY
This research is simply a research survey study which seeks to determine and investigate the effects of job satisfaction in the productivity of secretaries in the civil service.

3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY
The research is a case study of secretaries at the federal civil service commission and the state civil service commission. It would investigate the effect of job satisfaction on the productivity of secretaries in civil service.

3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The secretaries in the federal civil service and state civil service commission would constitute the population of study. A total number of fifty (50) secretaries, each were drawn from the two ministries sharing twenty five within, to form the population.

3.4 SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
A total number of fifty (50) secretaries, each would be drawn from federal civil service and state civil service, sharing twenty five within the ministries and simple to determine the real population of research.

3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
The instrument used for data collection would be questionnaire, containing structured questions. The questionnaire was designed to elicit responses on the research questions.

3.6 ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT
The researcher would personally administer the questionnaire. This will be done in order to reduce non-response rate. A total number of one hundred (100) copies of the questionnaire would be administered.

3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
This collected data would be displayed in a tabular form and analyzed, using simple percentage. The research questions would be answered.

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