INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE


INTRODUCTION
The interrelationships between the church and the state can be linked to a double edge sword were each one pact each other on the back. They can be simplify below.
The word state and its cognates in other European languages (stato in Italian, Estado in Spanish état in French, Staat in German) ultimately derive from the Latin status, meaning “condition” or “status.”
With the revival of the Roman law in the 14th century in Europe, this Latin term was used to refer to the legal standing of persons (such as the various “estates of the realm” – noble, common, and clerical), and in particular the special status of the king. The word was also associated with Roman ideas (dating back to Cicero) about the “status rei publicae”, the “condition of public matters”. In time, the word lost its reference to particular social groups and became associated with the legal order of the entire society and the apparatus of its enforcement.
In English, “state” is a contraction of the word “estate”, which is similar to the old French estat and the modern French état, both of which signify that a person has status and therefore estate. The highest estates, generally those with the most wealth and social rank, were those that held power.
The early 16th century works of Machiavelli (especially The Prince) played a central role in popularizing the use of the word “state” in something similar to its modern sense.
A state is an organized community living under a unified political system, the government. States may be sovereign. The denomination state is also employed to federated states that are members of a federal union, which is the sovereign state.[1] Some states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state.[2] The state can also be used to refer to the secular branches of government within a state, often as a manner of contrasting them with churches and civilian institutions (civil society). Also a State could commonly be refers to either the present condition of a system or entity, or to a governed entity (such as a country) or sub-entity (such as an autonomous territory of a country). It could stand for different meanings to a subject matter as can be describe below.
A state could mean,
• Sovereign state, a sovereign political entity in public international law
• “State”, in some contexts virtually synonymous with “government”, e.g., to distinguish state (government) from private schools
• Nation state, a state which coincides with a nation
• Federated state, a political entity forming part of a federal sovereign state such as the USA, Australia, India, and Brazil
• Member state, a member of an international organization
Whereas the Church is an English word for a Christian religious institution or building but it may refer to:
• Church (building)
• Church service, a formalized period of communal worship
• Church music written for performance in church
• Christian Church, refers to the whole Christian religious tradition through history.
• Any of several more specific Christian denominations
o Particular church, ecclesial communities within Catholic Christianity
o Simple church, an Evangelical Christian movement
• Ecclesiology, the study of the church in Christian theology
• A religious denomination

INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STATE AND CHURCH
Relationship between religious and secular authority in society. In most ancient civilizations the separation of religious and political orders was not clearly defined. With the advent of Christianity, the idea of two separate orders emerged, based on Jesus’ command to Render unto Caesar what are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s (Mark 12:17). The close association of religion and politics, however, continued even after the triumph of Christianity as emperors such as Constantine exercised authority over both church and state. In the early middle Ages secular rulers claimed to rule by the grace of God, and later in the Middle Ages popes and emperors competed for universal dominion. During the Investiture Controversy the church clearly defined separate and distinct religious and secular orders, even though it laid the foundation for the so-called papal monarchy. The Reformation greatly undermined papal authority, and the pendulum swung toward the state, with many monarchs claiming to rule church and state by divine right. The concept of secular government, as evinced in the U.S. and postrevolutionary France, was influenced by Enlightenment thinkers. In western Europe today all states protect freedom of worship and maintain a distinction between civil and religious authority. The legal systems of some modern Islamic countries are based on Sharah. In the U.S. the separation of church and state has been tested in the arena of public education by controversies over issues such as school prayer, public funding of parochial schools, and the teaching of creationism.

The relationship between Church and State can be described as the institutional form of the relation between religion and politics. As a problem, ‘Church and State’ has been a particularly Western and Christian concern. This is not only because Western secularization has required a limit to the powers of religious authorities, but it has its origins in a much earlier period, in the development of separate Church and State institutions in Christendom which were natural rivals (with rival claims of authority and law enforcement) to a degree incomprehensible in the realms of other prominent religions. Thus the rivalry between Emperor and Pope was a key feature of the politics of Europe in the Middle Ages and in the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth century the rivalry between Guelphs (or Guelfs) and Ghibellines was the greatest contest in Italian politics. It had started as a feud between South German tribes but became a partisan quarrel between the papal faction (Guelfs) and the imperial Ghibellines.

Western society thus has a long history of rivalry between Church and State (see e.g. Augustine; Aquinas; Bodin; and Calvin) which has helped foster secular and anticlerical movements. Many modern states and parties welcome the separation of Church and State, but a suspicion has often attached to Catholic politicians in predominantly Protestant countries, such as John F. Kennedy, that they are, whatever they may say, religiously committed to extending the influence of their Church over the State.

CONCLUSION
The interrelationship between the church and the state can be likened to a two way process. It has been on e of true benefits and none beneficial to both as each claim supremacy to either the church or country. The catholic church is foremost in interrelationship with church activities and the state. In ancient and modern history, we can see that there is a huge gap in intergovernment affairs.

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