Human male reproductive system
The human male reproductive system (or male genital system) consists of a number of sex organs that are a part of the human reproductive process. In this type of reproductive system, these sex organs are located outside the body, around the pelvic region.
The main male sex organs are the penis and the testes which produce semen and sperm, which as part of sexual intercourse fertilize an ovum in female’s body and the fertilized ovum (zygote) gradually develops into a fetus, which is later born as a child.
External genital organs
The penis is the male copulatory organ. It has a long shaft and enlarged bulbous-shaped tip called the glans penis, which supports the foreskin. When the male becomes sexually aroused, the penis becomes erect and ready for sexual activity. Erection occurs because sinuses within the erectile tissue of the penis become filled with blood. The arteries of the penis are dilated while the veins are passively compressed so that blood flows into the erectile cartilage under pressure.
The scrotum is a pouch-like structure that hangs behind the penis. It holds and protects the testes. It also contains numerous nerves and blood vessels. During times of lower temperatures, the Cremaster muscle contracts and pulls the scrotum closer to the body, while the Dartos muscle gives it a wrinkled appearance; when the temperature increases, the Cremaster and Dartos muscles relaxes to bring down the scrotum away from the body and remove the wrinkles respectively. The scrotum remains connected with the abdomen or pelvic cavity by the inguinal canal. (The spermatic cord, formed from spermatic artery, vein and nerve bound together with connective tissue passes into the testis through inguinal canal.)
Internal genital organs
The epididymis is a whitish mass of tightly coiled tubes cupped against the testicles. It acts as a maturation and storage place for sperm before they pass into the vas deferens, tubes that carry sperm to the ampullary gland and prostatic ducts.
The vas deferens, also known as the sperm duct, is a thin tube approximately 43.2 centimetres long that starts from the epididymis to the pelvic cavity.
Three accessory glands provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm cells. They are the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands (Cowper glands).
Seminal vesicles are sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens at one side of the bladder. They produce a sticky, yellowish fluid that contains fructose. This fluid provides sperm cells energy and aids in their motility. 70% of the semen is its secretion.
The prostate gland surrounds the ejaculatory ducts at the base of the urethra, just below the bladder. The prostate gland is responsible for the production of semen, a liquid mixture of sperm cells, prostate fluid and seminal fluid.This gland is also responsible for making the semen milky by mixing calcium to the semen coming from seminal vesicle(semen coming from seminal vesicle is transparent in colour),this process is called profibrinolysin .28 to 29% semen comprises its secretion.
The bulbourethral glands, also called Cowper glands, are two small glands located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. It produces substances related to nourishment of spermatozoa.
Human female reproductive system
The human female reproductive system (or female genital system) contains two main parts: the uterus, which hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and passes the male’s sperm through to the fallopian tubes; and the ovaries, which produce the female’s egg cells. These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the Fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube into the uterus.
If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrate and merge with the egg, fertilizing it. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis and morphogenesis. When developed enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the fetus through the birth canal, which is the vagina.
The ova are larger than sperm and have formed by the time a female is born. Approximately every month, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum to be sent down the Fallopian tube attached to its ovary in anticipation of fertilization. If not fertilized, this egg is flushed out of the system through menstruation.
The female internal reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix and ovary.
The vagina is a fibro muscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female mammals, or to the cloaca in female birds and some reptiles. Female insects and other invertebrates also have a vagina, which is the terminal part of the oviduct.
The vagina is the place where semen from the male penis is deposited into the female’s body at the climax of sexual intercourse, a phenomenon commonly known as ejaculation.
The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal.
The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. Approximately half its length is visible, the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. The vagina has a thick layer outside and it is the opening where the fetus emerges during delivery. The cervix is also called the neck of the uterus.
The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of humans. The uterus provides mechanical protection, nutritional support, and waste removal for the developing embryo (weeks 1 to 8) and fetus (from week 9 until the delivery). In addition, contractions in the muscular wall of the uterus are important in pushing out the fetus at the time of birth.
The uterus contains three suspensory ligaments that help stabilize the position of the uterus and limits its range of movement. The uterosacral ligaments, keep the body from moving inferiorly and anteriorly. The round ligaments, restrict posterior movement of the uterus. The cardinal ligaments, also prevent the inferior movement of the uterus.
The uterus is a pear-shaped muscular organ. Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, develops into a fetus and gestates until childbirth. If the egg does not embed in the wall of the uterus, a female begins menstruation
The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus.
On maturity of an ovum, the follicle and the ovary’s wall rupture, allowing the ovum to escape and enter the Fallopian tube. There it travels toward the uterus, pushed along by movements of cilia on the inner lining of the tubes. This trip takes hours or days. If the ovum is fertilized while in the Fallopian tube, then it normally implants in the endometrium when it reaches the uterus, which signals the beginning of pregnancy.
The ovaries are small, paired organs that are located near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity. These organs are responsible for the production of the ova and the secretion of hormones. Ovaries are the place inside the female body where ova or eggs are produced. The process by which the ovum is released is called ovulation. The speed of ovulation is periodic and impacts directly to the length of a menstrual cycle.
After ovulation, the ovum is captured by the oviduct, after traveling down the oviduct to the uterus, occasionally being fertilized on its way by an incoming sperm, leading to pregnancy and the eventual birth of a new human being.
The Fallopian tubes are often called the oviducts and they have small hairs (cilia) to help the egg cell travel.
The reproductive tract (or genital tract) is the lumen that starts as a single pathway through the vagina, splitting up into two lumens in the uterus, both of which continue through the Fallopian tubes, and ending at the distal ostia that open into the abdominal cavity.
In the absence of fertilization, the ovum will eventually traverse the entire reproductive tract from the fallopian tube until exiting the vagina through menstruation.
The reproductive tract can be used for various transluminal procedures such as fertiloscopy, intrauterine insemination and transluminal sterilization.
The external components include the mons pubis, pudendal cleft, labia majora, labia minora, Bartholin’s glands, and clitoris.