THE SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS IN THE SOUTH-SOUTH REGION OF NIGERIA


INTRODUCTION
The South-South is strategically located at the mid point of Nigeria’s southern hemisphere where the Y tail of the river Niger joins the Atlantic Ocean through theGulf of Guinea. Though, the south-south geo-political zone represents about 7.5 percent of Nigeria’s land mass with a land mass area of 84,587km2; this relatively small stretch of land provides the economic mainstay of the Nigerian economy; Oil. The South-South region comprises of 6 unique states.
An entrepreneur is an enterprising individual who builds capital through risk and/or initiative. The term was originally a loanword from French and was first defined by the Irish-French economist Richard Cantillon. This term first appeared in the French Dictionary “Dictionnaire Universal de Commerce” of Jacques des Bruslons published in 1723. Entrepreneur in English is a term applied to a person who is willing to help launch a new venture or enterprise and accept full responsibility for the outcome.
The entrepreneur leads the firm or organization and also demonstrates leadership qualities by selecting managerial staff. Entrepreneurs emerge from the population naturally because they perceive opportunities and see themselves as well-positioned to take advantage of them, or because they observe a problem and see themselves as able to solve it. Joseph Schumpeter saw the entrepreneur as an innovator and popularized the use of the phrase creative destruction to describe the role of entrepreneurs in changing business norms.
The most significant influences on an individual’s decision to become an entrepreneur are workplace peers and the social composition of the workplace.
The ability of entrepreneurs to innovate relates to innate traits such as extroversion and a proclivity for risk-taking. According to Schumpeter (1934), the capabilities of innovating, introducing new technologies, increasing efficiency and productivity, or generating new products or services, are characteristics of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are catalysts for economic change. Research has found entrepreneurs to be highly creative with a tendency to imagine new solutions by finding opportunities for profit or reward.
Psychological studies show that the psychological propensities for male and female entrepreneurs are more similar than different. A growing body of work shows that entrepreneurial behavior is dependent on social and economic factors. For example, countries with healthy and diversified labor markets or stronger safety nets show a more favorable ratio of opportunity-driven rather than necessity-driven women entrepreneurs. Empirical studies suggest that men entrepreneurs possess strong negotiating skills and consensus-forming abilities.
Recent advances in entrepreneurship research indicate that the differences in entrepreneurs and heterogeneity in their behaviors and actions can be traced back to their the founder’s identity. For instance, Fauchart and Gruber (2011, Academy of Management Journal) have recently shown that -based on social identity theory – three main types of entrepreneurs can be distinguished: Darwinians, Communitarians and Missionaries. These types of founders not only diverge in fundamental ways in terms of their self-views and their social motivations in entrepreneurship, but also engage fairly differently in new firm creation
LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature has distinguished among a number of different types of entrepreneurs, for instance:
• Social: Motivated by a desire to help, improve and transform social, environmental, educational and economic conditions. Key traits and characteristics of highly effective social entrepreneurs include ambition and a lack of acceptance of the status quo or accepting the world “as it is”. The social entrepreneur is driven by an emotional desire to address some of the big social and economic conditions in the world, for example, poverty and educational deprivation, rather than by the desire for profit. Social entrepreneurs seek to develop innovative solutions to global problems that can be copied by others to enact change.[4] Social entrepreneurs act within a market aiming to create social value through the improvement of goods and services offered to the community. Their main aim is to help offer a better service improving the community as a whole and are predominately run as non profit schemes. Zahra et al. (2009: 519) said that “social entrepreneurs make significant and diverse contributions to their communities and societies, adopting business models to offer creative solutions to complex and persistent social problems”.
• Serial: Continuously comes up with new ideas and starts new businesses.[5] In the media, the serial entrepreneur is represented as possessing a higher propensity for risk, innovation and achievement.[6]
• Lifestyle: Places passion before profit when launching a business in order to combine personal interests and talent with the ability to earn a living. Many entrepreneurs may be primarily motivated by the intention to make their business profitable in order to sell to shareholders.[examples needed] In contrast, a lifestyle entrepreneur intentionally chooses a business model intended to develop and grow their business in order to make a long-term, sustainable and viable living working in a field where they have a particular interest, passion, talent, knowledge or high degree of expertise.[7] A lifestyle entrepreneur may decide to become self-employed in order to achieve greater personal freedom, more family time and more time working on projects or business goals that inspire them. A lifestyle entrepreneur may combine a hobby with a profession or they may specifically decide not to expand their business in order to remain in control of their venture. Common goals held by the lifestyle entrepreneur include earning a living doing something that they love, earning a living in a way that facilitates self-employment, achieving a good work/life balance and owning a business without shareholders.[further explanation needed] Many lifestyle entrepreneurs are very dedicated to their business and may work within the creative industries or tourism industry,[8] where a passion before profit approach to entrepreneurship often prevails. While many entrepreneurs may launch their business with a clear exit strategy, a lifestyle entrepreneur may deliberately and consciously choose to keep their venture fully within their own control. Lifestyle entrepreneurship is becoming increasing popular as technology provides small business owners with the digital platforms needed to reach a large global market.[9] Younger lifestyle entrepreneurs, typically those between 25 and 40 years old, are sometimes referred to as Treps.[10]
• Cooperative: Collaborates with other cooperative entrepreneurs to develop projects, particularly cooperative projects. Each cooperative entrepreneur might bring different skill sets to the table, but collectively they share in the risk and success of the venture.

SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS THAT INFLUENCES ENTREPRENEUR SUCCESS IN THE SOUTH-SOUTH REGION OF NIGERIA ARE;
INCOME:
The level of one’s income in the region goes a long way to influence an entrepreneur ability and success to achieve more in his business ventures. As a determinant, the level of one’s income goes a long way to boast or commences a business venture.
GOVERNMENT POLICY:
Government policies also play a key role and this will either shape the entrepreneur business drive or decline his interest. An entrepreneur will certainly look at the various laws and policies put in place for government in order to dive into a business venture here in the south-south region.
TYPE OF PRODUCTS:
The type of products an entrepreneur intends to sell or bring to the audience plays crucial role in its success in the south-south region. Numerous product abound in the region and it will take a good quality product to break the existing market.
MARKET/NETWORK:
The network and market rate and level an entrepreneur keep or have earmark for self will crave for success in his business ventures in the region. An entrepreneur will need a wide array of network and market reach to be succesfull.
CUSTOMER RELATIONS:
An entrepreneur will need to break into the -would -b -customers inorder to be successful in pursuit for entrepreneurial success. A strong background of customer relation and customer analysis would help build confidence and increase market access.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1. It is recommended that certain sociological determinants are always put in place not only by the entrepreneur but also by the relevant authorities’ inoder to drive entrepreneur drive in the region.
2. It is also recommended that an entrepreneur should avail self of all necessary facilities and tools to make the best out of the business ventures.
3. Government and relevant authorizes should put in place the necessary tools to make entrepreneurial drive in the region to grow to certain considerable heights and also boast investment and commerce in the region.

CONCLUSIONS
The entrepreneur leads the firm or organization and also demonstrates leadership qualities by selecting managerial staff. Entrepreneurs emerge from the population naturally because they perceive opportunities and see themselves as well-positioned to take advantage of them, or because they observe a problem and see themselves as able to solve it. Joseph Schumpeter saw the entrepreneur as an innovator and popularized the use of the phrase creative destruction to describe the role of entrepreneurs in changing business norms.
The most significant influences on an individual’s decision to become an entrepreneur are workplace peers and the social composition of the workplace.
Lastly, It is also important to note that an entrepreneur will have to be skillful and enterprise in his quest and drive for business success in the region.

REFERENCES
1. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entrepreneur
2. ^ See William J. Baumol, Robert E. Litan & Carl J. Schramm. Good capitalism, bad capitalism, and the economics of growth and prosperity 3 (2007), citing generally Peter F. Drucker. Innovation and entrepreneurship (1985) (attributing coining and defining of “entrepreneur” to Jean-Baptiste Say, a treatise on political economy (1834)); but see Robert H. Brockhaus, Sr., The Psychology of the Entrepreneur, in Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship 40 (Calvin A. Kent, et al. eds. 1982), citing J. S. Mill, Principles of political economy with some of their applications to social philosophy (1848). Note that, despite Baumol et al.’s citation, the Drucker book was published in 1986.
3. ^ Olakitan, O. (5 November 2011).
4. ^ “Harvard Business Publishing Presents: An interview with John Elkington – Key Traits of Social Entrepreneurs.”. http://sciencestage.com/v/13869/key-traits-of-social-entrepreneurs.html.
5. ^ Business dictionary definition
6. ^ Serial Entrepreneur Quotes
7. ^ Wadhwa, Vivek. “Is entrepreneurship just about the exit?”. http://techcrunch.com/2010/06/12/is-entrepreneurship-just-about-the-exit/. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
8. ^ Peters, M, Frehse, J, Buhalis, D, The importance of lifestyle entrepreneurship: A conceptual study of the tourism industry, PASOS Vol. 7, No. 2 p393-405, 2009
9. ^ Rural Entrepreneurs, Case Studies. “Ecommerce as a business strategy: lessons learned from rural and small town businesses”. http://www.ruraleship.org/site/images/research/cp/cs/cs7.pdf. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
10. ^ Goodman, Vivian. “TREPS: The Young Titans of the New Economy”. http://www.wksu.org/news/features/familyseries/treps_transcript.html. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
11. http://www.southsouth.com.ng/?q=node/68

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