REVIEW INTERNAL MARKETING AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS OF SOFT DRINKS PRODUCERS IN PORTHARCOURT.


INTRODUCTION
The city of portharcourt is abound with numerous soft drinks producers who produce many varieties and brands of soft drinks within and outside the metropolis. Thus A soft drink (also called soda, pop, coke, soda pop, fizzy drink, tonic, seltzer, mineral, sparkling water or carbonated beverage) is a beverage that typically contains water (often, but not always carbonated water), usually a sweetener, and usually a flavoring agent. The sweetener may be sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, or a sugar substitute (in the case of diet drinks).
A soft drink may also contain caffeine, fruit juice, or both.
Examples of beverages not considered to be soft drinks are: pure juice, hot chocolate, tea, coffee, milk, and milkshakes. Beverages like Gatorade and Powerade may meet the definition of a soft drink but are usually called sports drinks. Red Bull (and variations) also may meet the definition, but are usually called energy drinks.
Soft drinks are called “soft” in contrast to “hard drinks” (alcoholic beverages). Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic.
Widely sold soft drink flavors are cola, cherry, lemon-lime, root beer, orange, grape, vanilla, ginger ale, fruit punch, and sparkling lemonade.
Soft drinks may be served chilled or at room temperature. They are rarely heated.
However, in the process of reviewing the various producers internal marketing and organizational successes we would first extra the meaning of the subject matters, internal marketing and organizational success.
Internal marketing (IM) is a process that occurs within a company or organization whereby the functional process aligns, motivates and empowers employees at all management levels to deliver a satisfying customer experience. Over recent years internal marketing has increasingly been integrated with employer branding, and employer brand management, which strives to build stronger links between the employee brand experience and customer brand experience. According to Burkitt and Zealley, “the challenge for internal marketing is not only to get the right messages across, but to embed them in such a way that they both change and reinforce employee behaviour”. Nevertheless, some of the Key concepts of internal marketing include:
• IM functioning as a continual internal ‘upskilling’ process.
• Alignment of the organization’s purpose with employee behavior.
• Employees internalizing the core values of the organization.
• Motivation, reframing and empowerment of employee attitude.
• Inside-out management approach.
• Retaining a positive customer experience throughout the business objectives
Benefits of Internal Marketing:
• encourages the internal market (employees) to perform better;
• empowers employees and gives them accountability and responsibility;
• creates common understanding of the business organization;
• encourages employees to offer superb service to clients by appreciating their valuable contribution to the success of the business;
• helps non-marketing staff to learn and be able to perform their tasks in a marketing-like manner;
• improves customer retention and individual employee development;
• integrates business culture, structure, human resources management, vision and strategy with the employees’ professional and social needs;
• Creates good coordination and cooperation among departments of the business.
• Proper information flow within the organization.
• Proper guidelines to employee..(Retraining if needs).
• Periodic evaluation of employee performance.
Meanwhile organizational success entails the following concepts or drivers below;
When a serious attempt is made at improving organizational performance, it must be realized that change will take place. This change will not only affect the individuals in leadership roles. It will in addition touch those that the individual is charged to lead.
The leaders will begin to lead in a new way and with a new level of energy. This new style and energy will raise the overall expectations of both the leader and those they lead.
As a result of new insight gained, it can be expected as a minimum that the following drivers of organizational change will be affected to some or even to a great degree. A more highly energized leadership team will most often seek to build off of known organizational strengths mitigate weaknesses and to more precisely define and articulate:
1. A clear mission statement – Why do we exist? What is our organizational purpose?
2. A compelling vision – What clearly describes our future desired state? What fulfills the mission?
3. A solid strategy – What is the logic and tactics that will ensure the mission and vision will be achieved?
4. A reevaluation or restatement of organizational values – What are the values the organization will both espouse and live by, that will satisfy all stakeholders’ needs? What culture do we want to create?
5. A greater focus on sustainability, growth and talent – What do we need to be doing today for our survival? What do we need to be doing to ensure future growth? What talent do we need to do both?
6. A strong emphasis on creativity, innovation and implementation – What products, services or other deliverables will support personal and organizational growth? How do you take these from a dream to reality?
7. A possible structure change – How do we best organize to bring about the changes needed to facilitate new organizational demands, desires strategies and needs?
In recent times the soft drinks producers in the portharcourt metropolis have witness an increase in production cost which is associated with inefficient marketing mix. From irregular power supply to poor distributional channel their cost now lies with branding, advertisement and proper marketing. This now calls for the type of internal marketing structure each soft drink producers now adopt in order to drive their business to the desired consumer level. One thing to note here is that the type of marketing concepts to be adopted be it internal, advertising or external marketing solely depends on consumer acceptations and satisfaction. Here we are talking of value for money.
Due to competition in the fast growing soft drinks market, producers substantially increased their spending on advertising and promotional activities to attract consumers. In addition, there is a growing trend among producers to package their products in smaller packs (mostly Tetra Paks) to meet the demands of children and young adults as well as price-sensitive consumers. The PET bottle, which is a relatively new format in Nigerian soft drinks (other than in bottled water), is slowly becoming the packaging format of choice in carbonates, in which glass bottles were previously the only format present. The success of La Casera, which is exclusively sold in such bottles, is driving the trend among other producers, with Lucozade Boost in sports and energy drinks also offered in this format, having previously been dominated by can and Tetra Pak packaging.
In the portharcourt metropolis, Coca-Cola dominates but local companies putting up a strong challenge. Innovation in the soft drinks market has been led by local companies which are appearing to teach established names, such as Coca-Cola, how to adapt to local conditions. Chi Nigeria Ltd, which surprisingly leads Coca-Cola Nigeria Ltd in fruit/vegetable juice, is one such leader in terms of innovation, but other companies such as Classic Beverages Nigeria Ltd and Cway Food & Beverages Co Nig Ltd are also posing a challenge. Classic Beverages Nigeria Ltd’s La Casera brand has rapidly established a name for itself in carbonates via solely using PET bottle packaging as well as introducing a brand new apple flavour which has proved quite popular. Nevertheless, Coca-Cola Nigeria Ltd maintained its leading share in two categories – carbonates and bottled water – in 2011 thanks to its well-established name in Nigeria, strong distribution network and massive marketing expenditure.
Off-trade outlets dominate volume sales
Independent small grocers and other grocery retailers (in particular traditional open markets and the traffic channel) continued to dominate volume sales in Nigeria in 2011. Many consumers buy these drinks for consumption either at home or while on the go. They are also commonly purchased to serve to guests at parties and other events. The supermarket/hypermarket channel is increasing its presence, with strong competition between Shoprite and Spar, which have both been opening new outlets. Such outlets are aiding the growth of soft drinks as they are able to establish bulk buying arrangements with manufacturers and thus sell drinks at discounted prices. In addition, the recent boom in the fast food industry has resulted in dynamic growth of on-trade volume sales, although these remain just a fraction of off-trade sales.
Soft drinks to continue to enjoy positive growth over the forecast period
It is expected that over the forecast period total volume sales will grow but at a slower rate compared to the review period. As the economy gets stronger, population growth increases and disposable income improves, all soft drinks categories are expected to register positive growth over the forecast period. However, because of saturation and growing consumer consciousness of the dangers of excessive sugar intake, growth rates will be slower. Again, because of growing demand, major competition between brands will continue to be seen in bottled water where there is already a vast range of brands present, making further differentiation difficult to achieve. As health becomes a growing concern among consumers, the best opportunities in soft drinks will be for innovative products that are able to combine new types of fruit flavours with a perception that they are healthier.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Marketing focuses organizational attention on meeting consumer demand. To accomplish this goal a company must first anticipate consumer needs and then direct a flow of acceptable goods and services from producers to consumers (Perreault, Cannon, & McCarthy, 2009). This definition represents a practical application of marketing, which penetrates all functional disciplines within the organization. Everyone in the company has a vested interest in its success, so encouraging employees in all functional departments to think about meeting customer needs helps a company maintain and expand market share. The emphasis on consumer demand takes precedence over the older production era approach of make it first and sell it later.
When organizations incorporate marketing systemically it increases awareness in the minds of all employees. The benefits of this intentional practice translate to all stakeholders through multiple communication channels. For example, accounting department personnel, although not actively involved in selling a company’s goods or services, still interact with customers. An awareness of marketing strategies helps this department place greater emphasis on resolving issues to satisfy customer objectives and supports the organization’s mission.

Marketing Campaign Clarity
o No matter what product or service an organization is marketing, to be effective the campaign message must be clear. Without marketing clarity, perspective customers may be left wondering what the organization was trying to market. Worse, they may be left with the feeling that the organization really doesn’t understand their needs at all, souring them on the organization as a whole. Driving customer demand is the end goal of any marketing campaign. A confusing, misleading or vague marketing campaign defeats that purpose.
Know the Demographic
o Without knowing the demographic for the organization’s product or service, a marketing strategy cannot be effectively developed. The organization’s brand must be built to attract and retain a specific customer demographic. Therefore, understanding who is this demographic is Step One in the process. From there, the target demographic is the anchor point for all marketing strategies, from design to implementation. Knowing their customer base also allows organizations to more effectively and efficiently to develop new products and services.
o
Demonstrate Differentiation
o Effective marketing will show customers how your product or service is different from the others on the market. Differentiation builds perceived value. It’s the reason why people will pay a lot more money for a BMW than a Kia, although both serve the same function and have many of the same features. A successful marketing strategy demonstrates to the customer why they should purchase specifically that organization’s product or service above all others. When done correctly, and that differentiation effectively builds value, the result is increased revenue and increased market share.

To describe the importance of marketing, one need not look further than this quote from Regis McKenna,
“Marketing is everything, and everything is marketing.”
Everyone is exposed to marketing everyday, even when they don’t know it. Billboards surround the nation’s roads. Logos appear everywhere from t-shirts to the center field of the “Tostitos” Fiesta Bowl. When a teenager is begging his dad to use the family car, he is in fact, marketing himself to his father for the exchange of the keys. And that is what marketing is about. Trying to create exchanges that satisfy and benefit both parties.
No consumer can escape from marketing campaigns, and no business should be operating without a marketing plan to identify potential customers, meet their needs and wants, and keep them coming back for more. This section gives you an introduction into the world of marketing and the different aspects of it. You will hear about the 4 “P’s” of the marketing mix. The important elements of a marketing plan. How your future customers are identified and place between the cross-wires with marketing research and target marketing. To get a specific message to a specific customer, one must be familiar with direct marketing. Internet marketing is one of more recent trends that many organizations are looking at. Overall this section should help you learn about the importance for small businesses to implement marketing plans
There are many text book definitions of marketing. It is very difficult to find two that are the same. The one constant in most of them are that marketing is a process that’s ultimate goal is to create exchanges that will satisfy and benefit both the customer and the organization. Marketing is the function of an organization that identifies their current and potential customers, creates products or services that meet the needs and wants of customers, informs and persuades the customers to purchases these products or services, and reinforces the customers confidence in the purchase that they made.
It is important for marketing efforts to be customer-oriented. When marketing a product or service, the organization must be certain that the product or service that they are providing is one that the customer wants. Quite often marketing efforts fail when the organization developed the product/service first, then tried to convince it’s customer to buy it. One of the greatest marketing flops of all time was when the Coca-Cola Company decided to change it’s formula in 1985 and introduced it as “New Coke.” It was a disaster. Sales of the New Coke were very low and the Coca-Cola Company was receiving many phone calls and letters from angry customers who demanded the old formula back. The Coca-Cola Company brought back the old formula two months later. Reintroduced as “Coca-Cola Classic,” it was sold along with New Coke and outsold it by two to one in supermarkets. The Coke case is a classic example of what happens when an organization fails to conduct proper marketing research.
The key for a successful marketing effort is maintaining a level of customer satisfaction while at the same time, creating a profit for the organization. Profits must be made in order for the organization to continue to do business.
Marketing is a concept that is always evolving. New definitions of marketing are being written everyday. You’ll find trends in marketing at the end of this page.
PROBLEMS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNAL MARKETING IN THE PORTHARCOURT METROPOLIS BY SOFT DRINKS PRODUCERS.
The following are the problems affecting effective implementation of internal marketing.
1. Managerial incompetence in interpersonal, technical and conceptual skills is some of the stumbling blocks against successful internal marketing.
2. Poor understanding of internal marketing concept.
3. Individual conflict and conflict between departments makes the implementation of internal marketing difficult.
4. Rigid organisational structure coupled by bureaucratic leadership hinders success of internal Marketing.
5. Ignoring and not listening to subordinate staff.
6. The tendency of ignoring employees’ importance and treating them like any other tools of the business.
7. Unnecessary protection of information against employees.
8. Resistance to change.
9. Poor road network
10. Lack of accessibility
11. Ineffective government policy
12. High tax incentives
13. High cost of production materials.
14. Epileptic power supply to most industrial centers in portharcourt.
THE TRENDS
Most of the soft drinks producer in the city adopts the following process and methods in order to attain organizational success for their brand or products. Some of this trend includes;
• Innovative employer branding
• Effective employer brand management
• Motivation, reframing and empowerment of employee attitude.
• Alignment of the organization’s purpose with employee behavior.
• Advertising
• Street and marketing campaigns
• Branding and rebranding of their products.
• Consumer or product promo
• Establishment of sales outlet and centers..

CONCLUSION
Internal marketing is inward facing marketing. Internal marketing is used by marketers to motivate all functions to satisfy customers. With internal marketing the marketer is really extending and developing the foundations of marketing such as the marketing concept, the exchange process and customer satisfaction to internal customers.
Internal customers would be anybody involved in delivering value to the final customer. This will include internal functions within business with which marketing people interact including research and development, production/operations/Logistics, human resources, IT and customer services.
Producers of soft drinks in portharcourt rely so much on effective advertisement and persuasive customer branding in order to sell their various soft drinks and reach organizational targets. This has propelled a lot of activities in the soft drink industries which so much success has been attain especially in consumer acceptance and satisfaction. However the key leader here is still the soft drink giant of coca-cola which owns about 1/3 of the producers marking mix in the region.

REFERENCES
1. ^ Hugh Burkitt and John Zealley (2006). Marketing Excellence: Winning companies reveal the secrets of their success. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-470-06027-8.
• Jeff Pervaiz (2005). Internal Marketing. Butterworth-Heineman, an imprint of Elsevier. ISBN 0-7506-4838-4. http://books.elsevier.com/marketing/?isbn=0750648384. Being an employee-oriented business is one of the features of internal marketing oriented business. A business that is an employee oriented sees employee as the number one asset of the Business.
• Pervaiz K. Ahmed, Mohammed Rafiq (2004). Internal marketing: tools and concepts for customer-focused management.. Elsevier.
• • ^ Vaux, Bert. “105. What is your generic term for a sweetened carbonated beverage?”. Harvard Dialect Survey. http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_105.html. Retrieved 6/3/2011.
• • ^ Funny Irish Words and Phrases
• • ^ “Electronic Code of Federal Regulations”. United States Government. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr;sid=33fc0c0194b58b6fe95208945b5c637a;rgn=div5;view=text;node=27%3A1.0.1.1.5;idno=27;cc=ecfr#27:1.0.1.1.5.8.41.1. Retrieved 25 February 2011. See §7.71, paragraphs (e) and (f).
• • ^ What Is Meant By Alcohol-Free? : The Alcohol-Free Shop
• • ^ Bangor Daily News, April 8, 2010. http://www.bangordailynews.com/detail/126224.html
• • ^ Mary Bellis (2009-03-06). “Joseph Priestley – Soda Water – Joseph Priestly”. Inventors.about.com. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blJosephPriestley.htm. Retrieved 2009-06

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