MANOMETER


INTRODUCTION.
A manometer could also refer to a pressure measuring instrument, usually limited to measuring pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is often used to refer specifically to liquid column hydrostatic instruments. Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure pressure are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges.

A Manometer is a device which can be used to measure pressure of fluids(i.e liquids and Gases).
PRINCIPLE: Manometers are those pressure measuring devices which are based on the principle of balancing the column of liquid(whose pressure is to be found) by the same or another column of liquid. They are of two types
1. simple manometers
2.Differential manometers
simple manometers are those which measure pressure at a point in a fluid containing in the pipe or a vessel. On the other hand Differential manometers measure the difference of pressure between any two points in a fluid contained in a pipe or vessel.

DESIGN

A manometer is design to measure the pressure in a vacuum—which is further divided into two subcategories, high and low vacuum (and sometimes ultra-high vacuum). The applicable pressure range of many of the techniques used to design vacuums have an overlap. Hence, by combining several different types of gauge, it is possible to measure system pressure continuously from 10 mbar down to 10−11 mbar.

CONSTRUCTION
In practice, a flattened thin-wall, closed-end tube is connected at the hollow end to a fixed pipe containing the fluid pressure to be measured. As the pressure increases, the closed end moves in an arc, and this motion is converted into the rotation of a (segment of a) gear by a connecting link that is usually adjustable. A small-diameter pinion gear is on the pointer shaft, so the motion is magnified further by the gear ratio. The positioning of the indicator card behind the pointer, the initial pointer shaft position, the linkage length and initial position, all provide means to calibrate the pointer to indicate the desired range of pressure for variations in the behaviour of the Bourdon tube itself. Differential pressure can be measured by gauges containing two different Bourdon tubes, with connecting linkages.

USES

Industrial applications:
Pressure guages are used for a variety of industrial and application specific pressure monitering applications. visual monitering of air and gas pressure for compressors,Vaccum equipment and speciality tank applications such as medical gas cylinders, fire extinguishers,

REFERENCES

• ^ “Glass Online: The History of Glass”. http://www.glassonline.com/infoserv/history.html. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
• ^ Douglas, R. W. (1972). A history of glassmaking. Henley-on-Thames: G T Foulis & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-85429-117-2.
• ^ M. I. Ojovan (2004). “Glass Formation in Amorphous SiO2 as a Percolation Phase Transition in a System of Network Defects”. JETP Letters 79 (12): 632–634. Bibcode 2004JETPL..79..632O. doi:10.1134/1.1790021. http://www.shef.ac.uk/content/1/c6/02/92/47/glassform.pdf.
: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_manometer#ixzz251V5gHKN
: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_manometer#ixzz251VJpmQu
• ^ NIST
• ^ Methods for the Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes, Part 1. Orifice Plates, Nozzles and Venturi Tubes. British Standards Institute. 1964. p. 36.
• ^ [Was: “fluidengineering.co.nr/Manometer.htm”. At 1/2010 that took me to bad link. Types of fluid Manometers]
• ^ Techniques of high vacuum
• ^ Beckwith, Thomas G.; Roy D. Marangoni and John H. Lienhard V (1993). “Measurement of Low Pressures”. Mechanical Measurements (Fifth ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 591–595. ISBN 0-201-56947-7.
• ^ The Engine Indicator Canadian Museum of Making

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