WHAT IS THEORIES,MODELS AND POLICIS


Theories are analytical tools for understanding, explaining, and making predictions about a given subject matter. There are theories in many and varied fields of study, including the arts and sciences. A formal theory is syntactic in nature and is only meaningful when given a semantic component by applying it to some content (i.e. facts and relationships of the actual historical world as it is unfolding). Theories in various fields of study are expressed in natural language, but are always constructed in such a way that their general form is identical to a theory as it is expressed in the formal language of mathematical logic. Theories may be expressed mathematically, symbolically, or in common language, but are generally expected to follow principles of rational thought or logic.

Theory is constructed of a set of sentences which consist entirely of true statements about the subject matter under consideration. However, the truth of any one of these statements is always relative to the whole theory. Therefore the same statement may be true with respect to one theory, and not true with respect to another. This is, in ordinary language, where statements such as “He is a terrible person” cannot be judged to be true or false without reference to some interpretation of who “He” is and for that matter what a “terrible person” is under the theory.[10]

Sometimes two theories have exactly the same explanatory power because they make the same predictions. A pair of such theories is called indistinguishable, and the choice between them reduces to convenience or philosophical preference.

The form of theories is studied formally in mathematical logic, especially in model theory. When theories are studied in mathematics, they are usually expressed in some formal language and their statements are closed under application of certain procedures called rules of inference. A special case of this, an axiomatic theory, consists of axioms (or axiom schemata) and rules of inference. A theorem is a statement that can be derived from those axioms by application of these rules of inference. Theories used in applications are abstractions of observed phenomena and the resulting theorems provide solutions to real-world problems. Obvious examples include arithmetic (abstracting concepts of number), geometry (concepts of space), and probability (concepts of randomness and likelihood).

  1. 1.      WHAT ARE MODELS

Model may refer to:

Physical

Human models

  • Model (art), a person who poses to be depicted in art, for example in art school
  • Model (person), a person employed to display his or her looks or something such as a commercial product
  • Fetish model, a model who wears the clothing and/or devices of sexual fetishes
  • Promotional model, a person who interacts with consumers to draw attention to and often inform them about a product
  • Pseudo-model, (lang mo(u)) a term coined in Hong Kong for young would-be models
  • Role model, a person who serves as a behavioural or moral example to others

 

  1. DIFFERENT BETWEEN ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

ADMINISTRATION

Administration may refer to:

Business

Government

Other

 

MANAGEMENT.

Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources.

Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to ‘manage’ oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.

  1. WHAT IS POLICIES?

A policy is typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. The term is not normally used to denote what is actually done, this is normally referred to as either procedure[1] or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the Board of or senior governance body within an organization whereas procedures or protocols would be developed and adopted by senior executive officers. Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making. Policies to assist in subjective decision making would usually assist senior management with decisions that must consider the relative merits of a number of factors before making decisions and as a result are often hard to objectively test e.g. work-life balance policy. In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested e.g. password policy.[citation needed]

A Policy can be considered as a “Statement of Intent” or a “Commitment”. For that reason at least, the decision-makers can be held accountable for their “Policy”.[citation needed]

The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, and individuals. Presidential executive orders, corporate privacy policies, and parliamentary rules of order are all examples of policy. Policy differs from rules or law. While law can compel or prohibit behaviors (e.g. a law requiring the payment of taxes on income), policy merely guides actions toward those that are most likely to achieve a desired outcome.[citation needed]

Policy or policy study may also refer to the process of making important organizational decisions, including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals. In public corporate finance, a critical accounting policy is a policy for a firm/company or an industry which is considered to have a notably high subjective element, and that has a material impact on the financial statements.

 

     5. WHAT IS THE INPUT OF MINISTRY OF HEALTH TO SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMME AND INPUT OF MINISTRY OF EDUCATION TO SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMME..

The input of the ministry of health to school health programmes includes the following,

Provision of health facilities to schools

Provision of a health equipment

Sending of health officers to schools

Provision of drugs to schools.

Regular visitation of health officials to schools and the provision of vaccinations to students.

Also the inputs of the ministry of education to school health programme includes,

Participation in health programmes of the schools

Training of officials in health care matters

Provision of health textbooks to act as instructional materials.

Provision of allowances to school officials on health roll duties.

 

 

 

 

 

6. DISCUSS THE PROBLEMS ADOLESCENT AS IT AFFECT YOUR COMMUNITY.

The problems of adolescent as it affect my community mbo can be outline below…..

Witch craft syndrome. The issue has gotten a new dimension as each adolescent is now seen as a witch. It has also strain the good neighbor relationship in my community.

Crazy for wealth. The adolescent in my community are now too engrave in wealth creation even if it means getting it in the evil way.

Unwanted pregnancies. Most female adolescent are involve with the issue of unwanted pregnancy.it is on record that females get pregnant from 13 years old in mbo.

Education. Most adolescent in mbo shy away from school. They see it as a waste of time and prefer to go the lone way to make it in life.

 

 

 

 

                                  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                      REFERENCES

  • Matson, Ronald, “Comparing scientific laws and theories”, Biology, Kennesaw State University.
  • Davidson Reynolds, Paul (1971). A primer in theory construction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Hawking, Stephen (1996). “The Illustrated A Brief History of Time” (Updated and expanded ed.). New York: Bantam Books, p. 15.
  • Popper, Karl (1963), Conjectures and Refutations, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, UK, pp. 33–39. Reprinted in Theodore
  • Blakemore, Ken (1998). Social Policy: an Introduction.
  • Althaus, Catherine; Bridgman, Peter & Davis, Glyn (2007). The Australian Policy Handbook (4th ed.). Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
  • Müller, Pierre; Surel, Yves (1998) (in French). L’analyse des politiques publiques. Paris: Montchrestien.
  • Paquette, Laure (2002). Analyzing National and International Policy. Rowman Littlefield.
  • Howard, Cosmo. “The Policy Cycle: a Model of Post-Machiavellian Policy Making?” The Australian Journal of Public Administration, September 2005.
  • Jenkins, William (1978). Policy Analysis: A Political and Organizational Perspective. London: Martin Robertson.
  • Lowi, Theodore J.; Bauer, Raymond A.; De Sola Pool, Ithiel; Dexter, Lewis A. (1964). “American Business, Public Policy, Case-Studies, and Political Theory”. World Politics (Cambridge University Press) 16 (4): 687–713. doi:10.2307/2009452. JSTOR 2009452.
  • Lowi, Theodore J. (1968). “Four Systems of Policy, Politics, and Choice”. Public Administration Review (American Society for Public Administration) 33 (3): 298–310. doi:10.2307/974810. JSTOR 974810.
  • Feltus, Christophe (2008). Preliminary Literature Review of Policy Engineering Methods – Toward Responsibility Concept. Proceeding of 3rd international conference on information and communication technologies : from theory to applications (ICTTA 08), Damascus, Syria; Preliminary Literature Review of Policy Engineering Methods – Toward Responsibility Concept.

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